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Results 151 - 200 of 1021
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Bett B - - 2008
In an on-farm trial conducted amongst the Maasai pastoralists in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya between April 2004 and August 2005 designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse repellent technology, we assessed the relationship between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in cattle. Six villages were used in ...
Maillot François - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the kinetic of plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and gut emptying after sequential ingestion of breakfast and lunch, and the contribution of dietary fat ingested at breakfast to subsequent TAG after lunch. METHODS: Nine subjects ingested a breakfast (0730 h) and a lunch (1200 h) containing 25 ...
Sørensen Lone B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Salatrim is modified triacylglycerol that is rich in short-chain fatty acids and stearic acid. It is used as a lower-calorie fat replacer. In addition, it has been hypothesized that salatrim's reduced absorption in the small intestine may lead to greater amounts of fat in the gastrointestinal tract, which may ...
Velasco-Reynold Carlos - - 2008
Intake of chromium was estimated using a duplicate diet sampling method of 108 meals (36 breakfasts, 36 lunches and 36 dinners) from the restaurant of the Hospital of Motril (S.E. Spain), corresponding to 36 consecutive days. Total and dialyzable Cr levels were measured by a validated electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry ...
Dei H K - - 2008
1. Shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) meal was fermented for 8 d with either Aspergillus niger, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora or a mixture of the two organisms. The fermentation was completed using two methods, an opened container or a closed container. 2. Each of the 6 samples was dried and incorporated into ...
Lachat Carl K - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional profile of a lunch offered and consumed in a university canteen in Belgium. DESIGN: The qualitative and quantitative content of 4,365 meals theoretically available and 330 meals consumed was recorded during five weekdays spread over three weeks. Meal combinations were evaluated using a scoring system ...
Solomon Thomas P J - - 2008
Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five ...
Knuth Nicolas D - - 2008
The lipemic response to a meal is an important independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding carbohydrate (CHO) to a fat meal on the bioavailability of ingested fat in different blood lipid fractions in men and ...
Dei H K - - 2008
Shea nut meal is obtained after fat extraction from shea nuts produced in West Africa. Two experiments compared the ME of different shea nut meal samples. The objective of the first experiment was to estimate the TME(n) of 2 expeller shea nut meal samples and a single nonindustrial shea nut ...
Rankin J W - - 2008
AIM: Oxidative stress can initiate increased inflammation that elevates risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of daily consumption of raisins on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial activation in response to an acute high-fat meal in overweight individuals. METHODS: Seventeen overweight ...
Bach A - - 2008
Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1.03 +/- 0.05 L) were used to assess differences in microbial degradation of the soluble CP fraction of canola meal (CMSCP), soybean meal (SBMSCP), and fish meal (FMSCP) using a completely randomized design with two 9-d experimental periods and a solution of tryptone as a ...
Katcher Heather I HI The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Hershey, Pennsylvania, - - 2009
To determine the effect of meal composition on postprandial T levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized, crossover design. Academic research center. Fifteen women with PCOS. We evaluated changes in T, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS, cortisol, glucose, and insulin for 6 hours after a high-fat, Western ...
Rodríguez-Rodríguez Elena - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To analyse changes in the sensation of hunger and the sensation of well-being of young overweight/obese women following two hypoenergetic diets. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Fifty-seven women (BMI = 24-35 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two hypoenergetic diets: diet V, in which the consumption of vegetables was ...
Tentolouris Nicholas - - 2008
Reduction in diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) may promote weight gain and maintenance. Data on differences in DIT and macronutrient oxidation between lean and obese subjects are conflicting. In this study, we sought for differences in DIT and macronutrient oxidation between lean and obese women after consumption of 2 different isocaloric meals, ...
Appenzeller Laura M - - 2008
Optimum GAT1 soybean is a genetically modified (GM) soybean containing event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043) that was produced by integration of the coding sequences of the GAT4601 and GM-HRA proteins. In planta expression of these proteins confers tolerance to glyphosate and sulfonylurea/imidazolinone herbicides, respectively. This paper reports the results from a subchronic ...
Simpson Elizabeth J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Reports of postprandial symptoms attributed to hypoglycemia by otherwise healthy individuals appear to be relatively common in UK women. Whether these symptoms are related to blood glucose is a contentious issue, which periodic ambulatory blood glucose measurement has failed to resolve. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated, using continuous glucose monitoring ...
Kim Jung Yun - - 2008
The physiologic consequences of using white rice or mixed rice were evaluated in overweight Korean women (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2)) over a period of 6 weeks. Forty women between 20 and 35 years of age were randomly divided into 2 groups who consumed 1 of 2 ...
Bley T A G - - 2008
The temporal pattern of feed intake for individual ducks kept in groups was studied using a radio frequency identification system, to enable the continuous recording of feeding characteristics for a large numbers of animals over long periods. A total of 50 male ducks were used in experiment 1 and 480 ...
Hall Wendy L - - 2008
Diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] are associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but postprandial effects on vascular function are unknown. We investigated whether an EPA-enriched high-fat meal could improve postprandial vascular function. Seventeen healthy men ingested 2 test meals (51 g fat), 1 wk apart, in random order: 5 ...
Lin Li-Yun - - 2008
Nutrient levels in buckwheats that were maximized in day 8 sprouts (D8SP) included total phenolics, quercetin, and l-ascorbic acid, whereas those of oxalic, malic, tartaric, and citric acids, rutin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were found to reach maximum levels on day 10. Ethanolic extract of D8SP (2.5 mg/mL) revealed potent ...
Knudsen David - - 2008
Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of ...
Rezvani M - - 2008
1. This study investigated the net disappearance of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) from soybean meal and rapeseed meal in different sub-sections of the ileum of hens. A basal diet was used and in another 4 diets, maize starch contained in the basal diet was replaced with soybean ...
Lithander F E - - 2008
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a phospholipid which is biosynthesized into long chain N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) including oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a known inhibitor of food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PE-containing lipids can also inhibit intake. This was a 4 treatment intervention where 18 male participants were given a ...
Noakes Manny - - 2008
Several studies have shown that high protein meals and foods are more satiating than high carbohydrate or high fat meals when assessed by subjective ratings of satiety. Few of these studies were able to control for potentially confounding variables. Test meals differ widely in physical and sensory properties so it ...
Petzke Klaus J - - 2008
Macronutrient composition of diets can influence energy balance in humans. We tested the hypothesis whether low protein content in single meals may induce lower values of energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation (FO) as compared to adequate protein content. Indirect calorimetry was combined with a breath test using naturally 13C-enriched ...
Helou Nancy - - 2008
AIM: This study investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of meals on postprandial peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) response in obese hyperinsulinemic females. METHODS: Eight obese females consumed three iso-energetic meals of different macronutrient composition, high carbohydrate (HC; 60% CHO, 20% protein, 20% fat), high fat (HF; 30% CHO, 20% protein, 50% ...
KoceĊ‚ak Piotr - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of a prolonged lipase inhibition upon gastric emptying (GE) and orocecal transit time (OCTT) of a 355-kcal low-fat solid meal. METHODS: In double-blind manner, 40 obese women BMI > 30 kg/m2, randomly allocated into two equal groups, took orally t.i.d. 120 mg orlistat or placebo ...
Shahraki M - - 2007
To investigate the effects of nibbling and gorging dietary regimens on weight and lipid profiles in rat, thirty female Wistar rats, after 10 day acclimatization period, were weighed and randomly assigned into two equal groups. They were fed the same food for 60 days as eight meals at 2 h ...
de Castro John M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The relation of cigarette smoking to food and fluid intakes was studied. METHODS: Ninety-nine smoking and 551 non-smoking free-living adult humans provided a detailed record of their eating and drinking in 7-d diaries. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was associated with significant changes in overall intakes and meal pattern. Smokers had ...
Smeets Astrid J - - 2008
A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim ...
Donovan Michael J MJ Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, California 95616, United - - 2007
Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a ...
McNaughton J - - 2007
Event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043; Optimum GAT) is a genetically modified soybean (Glycine max) that was produced by insertion of the gat4601 and gm-hra genes. The expression products of these genes are the glyphosate acetyltransferase 4601 and acetolactate synthase proteins, respectively. Expression of the glyphosate acetyltransferase 4601 protein confers tolerance in planta ...
Taylor M - - 2007
A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. ...
Greenway Frank - - 2007
Fermentable dietary fiber has been shown to cause fat loss and to increase peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in rodents. In single meal tests, humans have an increase in PYY and GLP-1 to dietary fiber, but the response of these hormones to longer-term treatment is not known. ...
Santé-Lhoutellier Véronique - - 2008
Effect of pasture- or concentrate-diet on myofibrillar protein oxidation and in vitro digestibility was measured in lamb meat (M. longissimus dorsi) during a refrigerated storage of 7days under gas permeable film. Protein oxidation was measured by the carbonyl content determined chemically using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and specific targets of oxidation were ...
Risérus Ulf - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), ...
Ogunji J O - - 2008
A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to access the effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Seven feeds formulated to contain 36% protein and 20 kJ g(-1) gross energy (dry matter basis), were prepared by ...
Moharram S G - - 2007
Four-week-old Red tilapia fry with an average weight of 1.9 g were reared in saline water (36%) for 190 days on 6 formulated iscaloric diet of protein level (28%). The experiment was conducted in glass aquaria. Six diets were formulated including a control diet based on fish meal (diet 1) ...
Pilichiewicz Amelia N - - 2007
Both load and duration of small intestinal lipid infusion affect antropyloroduodenal motility and CCK and peptide YY (PYY) release at loads comparable to and higher than the normal gastric emptying rate. We determined 1) the effects of intraduodenal lipid loads well below the mean rate of gastric emptying on, and ...
Allameh Sayed Kamaleddin - - 2007
The present research carried out to measure digestible (DE) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) for fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (120 and 220 g mean body weights). DE and ME are evaluation systems for feedstuffs and also, necessary for diet formulation. The fishes were maintained ...
McInnes Fiona - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the behaviour of an oral matrix modified release formulation in the canine gastrointestinal tract, and establish if a mechanical weakness previously observed in clinical studies would have been identified in the dog model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro release profiles were obtained for two modified release matrix ...
Christel C M - - 2007
The gastrointestinal tract possesses the capacity to change in form and function in response to fasting and feeding. Such plasticity can be dramatic for species that naturally experience long episodes of fasting between large meals (e.g. sit-and-wait foraging snakes, estivating anurans). By contrast, for active foraging species that feed more ...
Yoo Sang Bae - - 2007
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to four different conditions; free fed control (FC), 48 h of food deprivation (FD), 1 h of refeeding with chow (RF/CW) or with a non-caloric liquid diet following FD (RF/NC) and then sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the nucleus ...
Shimabukuro Michio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities during the postprandial state contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Reportedly, postprandial hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlipacidemia independently cause postprandial cytokine activation. However, it is not clear which dietary composition preferentially affects postprandial endothelial function in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of dietary composition and ...
Cox Christian L - - 2007
We explored meal size and clutch (i.e., genetic) effects on the relative proportion of ingested energy that is absorbed by the gut (apparent digestive efficiency), becomes available for metabolism and growth (apparent assimilation efficiency), and is used for growth (production efficiency) for juvenile Burmese pythons (Python molurus). Sibling pythons were ...
Lopez-Miranda José - - 2007
Most of diurnal time is spent in a postprandial state due to successive meal intakes during the day. As long as the meals contain enough fat, a transient increase in triacylglycerolaemia and a change in lipoprotein pattern occurs. The extent and kinetics of such postprandial changes are highly variable and ...
Danjo Kazuma - - 2008
We investigated the effects of cellulose supplementation on fecal consistency and fecal weight. About 26 women were classified into two groups-normal defecation and constipation groups. All subjects ate the following meals during the experiment: ordinary meals (first week), experimental meals (second week), and experimental meals mixed with 4 g (third ...
Rivellese Angela A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The effects of different dietary fatty acids on postprandial lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients are still debated. AIM: To evaluate the effects of monounsaturated (MUFA) vs. saturated fat (SAFA)-rich diets on postprandial lipemia and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in type 2 diabetes. ...
Essah Paulina A - - 2007
Peptide YY (PYY) is released from the distal small intestine and colon after meals and reduces appetite by increasing satiety. The amount of PYY released is proportional to calories ingested. Fat ingestion has also been reported to stimulate PYY release. The objective of the study was to determine whether macronutrient ...
Sutherland Wayne H F - - 2007
Postprandial chylomicrons are potent ultimate acceptors of cell membrane cholesterol and are believed to accelerate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We compared the effects of meals rich in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and either high (605 mg) or low (151 mg) in cholesterol and a meal rich in dairy fat (DF) in ...
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