Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1021
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Borel P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Assessing the effect of the dose of dietary triglycerides on preformed vitamin A (retinyl esters) bioavailability in humans. DESIGN: Four test meals containing 15,000 RE retinyl-palmitate and either 0, 15, 30 or 40 g added triglycerides were ingested by eight healthy volunteers, at different days and in a randomized ...
Meyer J H - - 1997
Gastric emptying of dietary fat is affected by both chemical and physical factors; but when ingested as a free oil or an aqueous emulsion, fat may empty most rapidly immediately after the meal. In contrast, gastric transit of 1- to 3-mm spheres (like those of enterically coated pancreatins) is known ...
Melanson K J - - 1997
We examined whether older individuals have an impairment in their ability to oxidize dietary fat, a factor that could help to explain age-associated weight gain. The subjects were 16 healthy younger and older women. Fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry before and after consumption of four different test meals ...
Kagaya M - - 1997
Small bowel transit time (SBTT) in 15 young and 13 elderly women was assessed by measuring breath hydrogen concentrations after they had consumed a solid test meal. The meal consisted of 200 g cooked rice, 50 ml miso (made from fermented soy bean curd) soup, a boiled egg, and 95.5 ...
Roos E - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between meal pattern and diet. Nutrient contents of meals, snacks and other eating occasions were compared and differences in dietary intake analysed between respondents following a conventional meal pattern and others. A random sample of 1861 adults aged 25-64 from ...
Hinrichsen J P - - 1997
The relation between gizzard erosion-black vomit (GE-BV) and gastric secretion is not completely understood. A pharmacological approach to reduce the presence of GE-BV in chicks due to fish meal in diets is also unknown. In this study the use of omeprazole, a H+/K+ ATPase inhibitor, and fish meals of different ...
Geoghegan J G - - 1997
The influence of caloric load and nutrient composition on small intestinal satiety was investigated in six dogs with chronic esophageal fistulas. Dogs received small bowel infusion of a mixed nutrient liquid meal, a fat, carbohydrate, and a protein solution over two hours. Each infusion was given over a range of ...
Whitley H A - - 1997
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interrelationship between carbohydrate and fat metabolism at rest after isoenergetic meals of varying proportions of carbohydrate and fat. Eight physically-active subjects (BMI 18.1-23.4 kg/m2) were studied at rest on three occasions after an overnight fast. In a balanced design they ...
Reddy V R - - 1997
1. The nutritive value of squilla meal, which contained 339 g crude protein, 18.6 g ether extract, 72.8 g calcium, 17.2 g phosphorus and 7.13 MJ of apparent metabolisable energy/kg, was examined in 5 experiments with broilers. 2. Squilla meal contained less lysine (3.45 vs 6.74 g/16g nitrogen) and methionine ...
Lilburn M S - - 1997
The protein quality of an extruded mixture of hatchery by-product meal and soybean meal (EHSM) and the calcium availability of autoclaved hatchery by-product meal (AHBM) were determined. In Experiments 1 and 2, EHSM or soybean meal (SBM) were the only protein sources in diets formulated to contain 16, 20, or ...
Kaplan J M - - 1997
In the present study, we ask whether the suppressive effect of d-fenfluramine (d-FEN) on short-term intake can be better explained in terms of a primary action on particular behavioral parameters (e.g., ingestion rate or meal duration), as proposed by several investigators, or in terms of a primary effect on an ...
Tomlinson D L - - 1997
Thirty-two Holstein heifers with body weights (BW) between 213 and 231 kg were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for the 50-d trial. Treatments consisted of four percentages of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) (31, 43, 50, and 55% of total N) at 100% of National Research Council recommendations for total ...
Himaya A - - 1997
Accumulating evidence suggest that a good way to compare the satiety power of meals with different compositions or energy contents is to measure the onset latency of the next meal when freely requested by subjects deprived of any time cues. This study was performed in normal-weight young men (aged 19-24 ...
Wells A S - - 1997
Paired studies were conducted in 18 healthy volunteers (9 men, 9 women) to investigate whether differences in mood and daytime sleepiness induced by high-fat-low-carbohydrate (CHO) and low-fat-high-CHO morning meals were associated with specific hormonal responses. Plasma insulin concentrations were significantly higher after low-fat-high-CHO meals, and cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations were significantly ...
Chavez M - - 1997
Because it is commonly assumed that the major role of visceral afferents in food intake control is to terminate meals by carrying negative-feedback signals to the brain, we hypothesized that overconsumption should occur in rats with chemically lesioned visceral afferents if they were presented with an unfamiliar diet. Adult male ...
Cohen M - - 1997
The effect of a high-fat meal on the pharmacokinetics of mirtazapine was studied in 19 healthy normal young male volunteers. In a randomized two-period crossover study, each volunteer received an oral dose of 15 mg of mirtazapine in the form of tablets, in the fasting state and after a high-fat ...
Rawlings J M - - 1997
The effect of two commercially available dietary regimens on the development of gingivitis and the accumulation of dental plaque, calculus and stain in the dog were studied. One regimen consisted of feeding an oral hygiene chew and a standard dry diet. The other was based on a specifically designed oral ...
Bellisle F - - 1997
Several epidemiological studies have observed an inverse relationship between people's habitual frequency of eating and body weight, leading to the suggestion that a 'nibbling' meal pattern may help in the avoidance of obesity. A review of all pertinent studies shows that, although many fail to find any significant relationship, the ...
Ge K - - 1997
In 1992 a national nutrition survey was conducted in China in approximately 100,000 people of all ages selected with use of a multistage, stratified, random, clustered procedure. Dietary data were collected with three consecutive 24-h recalls. A total of 9304 members of 20 minority nationality groups were included in the ...
Secor S M - - 1997
Pythons were reported previously to exhibit large changes in intestinal mass and transporter activities on consuming meals equal to 25% of the snake's body mass. This paper examines how those and other adaptive responses to feeding vary with meal size (5, 25, or 65% of body mass). Larger meals took ...
Iossa S - - 1997
We have carried out measurements of energy balance in hypothyroid rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet for eighteen days. We have also measured cephalic and processing thermic effect of food (TEF) after a low-fat or a high-fat meal. Body lipid gain, carcass lipid content and gross efficiency were ...
Boirie Y - - 1997
Whole-body and splanchnic protein metabolism were determined in six young (mean age: 22.7 y) and six old (68.2 y) men before and during a standardized meal (41.8 kJ/kg) containing 15.6% protein, by using a combination of intravenous ([13C]leucine) and oral ([2H3]leucine) tracers. In the postabsorptive state, leucine flux and oxidation ...
Vogel R A - - 1997
Although there is a well-established relation between serum cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk, individual and national variations in this association suggest that other factors are involved in atherogenesis. High-fat diet associated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have also been suggested to be atherogenic. To assess the direct effect of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ...
Van Heusden M C - - 1997
High density lipophorin (HDLp) is the major lipid transport vehicle in insect hemolymph. Using an indirect ELISA, levels of HDLp were measured in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The level of lipophorin, when normalized to the total weight of the insect, was similar in the different developmental stages. Starvation ...
al-Othman A A - - 1997
The present study was conducted to provide the anthropometric measurements and energy intake of male university students. Edible plate waste was assessed. A total of 90 male students participated in the anthropometric study. Meal and edible plate waste were analyzed for their contents of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, ash ...
Keim N L - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to determine whether meal ingestion pattern [large morning meals (AM) vs. large evening meals (PM)] affects changes in body weight, body composition or energy utilization during weight loss. Ten women completed a metabolic ward study of 3-wk weight stabilization followed by 12 wk of ...
van den Boom S - - 1997
The nutritional value of 50 home-prepared meat-based baby meals for infants of 7 and 8 months old in Madrid was evaluated. Chemical analysis showed the meals to have a low energy density (mean 50 kcal 100 g-1), mainly due to the low fat content of the meals (mean 2.5 g ...
Redondo M R - - 1997
The aim of this investigation was to analyse the influence of the number of meals per day on a range of cardiovascular risk factors and on the energy and nutrient intakes of a group of elderly people. The participants in this study were 150 elderly people (64 men and 86 ...
Froehlich F - - 1996
Orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin) is a potent inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipase activity causing a diminution of free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen. The release of cholecystokinin (CCK) critically depends on the presence of free fatty acids in the small intestine. Postprandial CCK release and gallbladder contraction might be decreased ...
Hatton D C - - 1996
Current dietary recommendation for cardiovascular disease risk reduction and recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were used to develop a nutritionally complete prepackaged prepared meal plan specifically designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the current study we tested patient acceptance of the diet as defined by measures of quality ...
Larsson M - - 1996
The absorption of Zn or Fe from breakfast meals containing oat porridge prepared from malted and soaked oats and a control porridge made from untreated oats was measured in human subjects. The effect on Zn and Fe absorption of reducing the phytate content of oat-porridge meals was examined in each ...
Ortmeyer H K - - 1996
In a previous study, D-chiroinositol added to a meal (0.5 g/kg) resulted in significantly lower postprandial plasma glucose concentrations without an increase in insulin concentrations in obese insulin-resistant monkeys. The present report describes the effects of another isomer of inositol, myoinositol, on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and on ...
Mabjeesh S J - - 1996
Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows, fitted with cannulas in the rumen, duodenum, and ileum, were used in a trial with a 4 x 4 Latin square design to examine the effect of source and degradability of dietary CP supplements on AA flow and absorption in the small intestine. The CP ...
Lloyd H M - - 1996
Sixteen subjects consumed low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC), medium-fat/ medium-carbohydrate (MFMC), high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) iso-energetic breakfasts and no breakfast in a counterbalanced order on four separate days. The LFHC breakfast was similar in macronutrient composition, though not in meal size (more kcal) and types of foods offered, to the habitual breakfast of the subjects. ...
Taylor D M - - 1996
The incidence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom is now declining at a significant rate, indicating that the 1988 ban on feeding ruminant-derived meat and bone meal to cattle is having the anticipated effect. The question now is whether or not BSE can be completely eradicated. At ...
Uematsu T - - 1996
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of fat content and frequency of meals on the oral bioavailability of menatetrenone (2-methyl-3-all-trans-tetraprenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a vitamin K2 with four isoprene units. In the first series of studies, menatetrenone (15 mg) was administered at breakfast time to 18 healthy male volunteers ...
Murphy M C - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of altering meal frequency on postprandial lipaemia and associated parameters. DESIGN: A randomized open cross over study to examine the programming effects of altering meal frequency. A standard test meal was given on three occasions following: (i) the normal diet; (ii) a period of two ...
Rao N - - 1996
The effect of high- and low-fat meals on the relative bioavailability of deflazacort tablets was investigated in 12 healthy, adult males who were administered 36 mg deflazacort under fasted and fed conditions in a crossover fashion. Serial plasma samples were drawn up to 24 h post-dose and quantified for the ...
Armand M - - 1996
Seven fasting subjects were fitted with nasogastric and nasoduodenal tubes and received intragastrically a coarsely emulsified test meal. Gastric and duodenal aspirates were collected after 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. In the duodenum, most lipids (> 90%) were present as emulsified droplets 1-100 microns in size. Large droplets and ...
Klicka M V - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted at the US Military Academy, West Point, NY, to assess the nutritional adequacy of menus and dietary intakes of the cadets and to determine the effect of the optional weekday evening meal policy on nutrient intakes. METHODS: Dietary intakes were obtained over a 7-day period ...
Middleton S - - 1996
The objective was to determine whether apolipoprotein B and A-IV mRNA abundance or plasma lipid concentrations would be altered by chronic or acute consumption of diets that differed in fat content. Forty Wistar male rats were fed either a low fat (5 g/ 100 g) or high fat (20 g/100 ...
Wells A S - - 1996
Paired studies testing the effects of lower energy high-fat, low-CHO meals (3181 kJ, fat:CHO energy ratio 54:41) and higher energy low-fat, high-CHO meals (3599 kJ, fat:CHO energy ratio 7:88) were conducted in 18 healthy males. The meals were eaten at 1030 h by group A (nine subjects) and 1230 h ...
Iwakiri K - - 1996
The effect of meal volume and fat content on gastroesophageal reflux was investigated in 20 asymptomatic healthy subjects. In each subject, intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed during a 3-hr postprandial period (PP) in the same position (supine or upright) on two successive days. On day 1, 500-ml low- and high-fat ...
Akrabawi S S - - 1996
High fat enteral formulas have been advocated for the nutritional support of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients because dietary fat utilization under ideal conditions produces less CO2 per O2 consumed than carbohydrate. No data exist for these patients comparing the effects of a moderate fat vs. a high fat ...
Surina-Baumgartner D M - - 1996
To investigate meal-induced changes in hepatic fat and carbohydrate metabolism in rats, hepatic venous, portal venous, and aortal plasma levels of several metabolites as well as changes in hepatic glycogen and lactate content were measured during and after the first nocturnal meal following a 12-h fast. The rats were fed ...
Cotton J R - - 1996
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of replacement of fat by sucrose polyester (SPE) within a lunch or evening meal on subsequent energy intake and appetite control. The 2 x 2 design was intended to examine the effect on appetite of reducing the total energy ...
Friedman M I - - 1996
Evidence that ingested fat acts in the intestine to produce satiety stems from studies showing that intraintestinal infusion of fat emulsion inhibits eating behavior of rats. In this study, we determined the appropriateness of infusion parameters used in these behavioral studies by measuring gastric emptying rates of both the aqueous ...
Hirschberg A L - - 1996
This investigation was undertaken to explore a possible role of the "satiety peptide" cholecystokinin and some other gastrointestinal hormones for changes in appetite and weight during oral contraception. Ten young healthy women attending a youth health care center for contraceptive counseling volunteered for the study. A standardized meal test was ...
Tidehag P - - 1996
The purpose of the present study was to compare two measures of Fe absorption, one from single meals and the other from daily diets. Ten ileostomy subjects were given the same low-fibre composite diet for all three meals each day for five consecutive days. After 3 weeks the experiment was ...
Reed G W - - 1996
The thermic effect of food (TEF), defined as the increase in metabolic rate after ingestion of a meal, has been studied extensively, but its role in body weight regulation is controversial. We analyzed 131 TEF tests from a wide range of subjects ingesting meals of varying sizes and compositions. Each ...
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