Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1021
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González M - - 2000
The dietary effects of two high protein diets from two species of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Echinus esculentus) as compared to a reference protein such as casein on serum lipid levels and on intestinal disaccharidases and alkaline phosphatase were studied. After 23 days, the containing the two sea urchins ...
Murphy M H MH Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, - - 2000
To compare the effects of different patterns of brisk walking on day-long plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in sedentary adults. A three-trial, repeated measures design in which subjects were studied in the fasted state and throughout a day during which they consumed three standardized, mixed meals. On different occasions, subjects undertook no ...
Pham J - - 2000
When allowed to select between macronutrients in a 1-h-a-day meal paradigm, Zucker rats consume 20-80% of their total caloric intake as fat. If they receive an intraperitoneal injection of DHEA 2 h before such a test meal, they consume fewer total calories. The magnitude of this effect on each macronutrient ...
Litherland AJ - - 2000
Fifty-one yearling Angora doelings (20+/-0.6kg initial body weight (BW)) were used to determine effects of different dietary protein sources on BW change and mohair growth. Diets consisted of approximately 40% roughage and 18-19% CP (DM basis), of which two-thirds was supplied by corn gluten meal (CG), cottonseed meal (CT), hydrolyzed ...
Tolkamp B J - - 2000
To determine whether visits or meals are the most biologically relevant unit of short-term feeding behavior, we analyzed 209,025 records of visits to feeders by 37 cows. Two feeds were used that differed in protein content. Cows were divided into control groups for the low and high protein feeds and ...
Sone Y - - 2000
A breath hydrogen test has been used widely as a noninvasive and simple method of detecting carbohydrate malabsorption as well as estimation of the small intestinal and orocecal transit time. By means of this method, we have examined the change in breath hydrogen concentration of young female students in their ...
Reece W O - - 2000
The objectives of this research were to observe the effects of increased K in the diets of growing tom turkeys from 6 to 18 wk of age on body weight, feed-to-gain ratio, and leg weakness; to study the effects of time and temperature of blood storage after sampling and before ...
Tanigawa T - - 2000
In a search for dietary factors influencing Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis, the effects of fish meal in the diet were examined in Mongolian gerbils. When a conventional diet containing 10% fish meal was given to Mongolian gerbils for 4 weeks after inoculation of H. pylori, edematous thickening with severe neutrophil and ...
Robertson M D - - 2000
Feedback inhibition from the colon acts as a potent inhibitor of gastrointestinal motility via an array of gut peptides and neural pathways. The effect of total colonectomy on gastric emptying was assessed in five healthy ileostomy patients (<5 cm ileal resection) and five matched controls. Each subject consumed two isoenergetic ...
Even P C - - 2000
Lack of an indispensable amino acid in the diet induces a rapid reduction in food intake. In this study, we assessed whether the anorectic signal after ingestion of a meal lacking threonine originated from either direct perception of the decrease in plasma threonine or from an indirect effect related to ...
Maki K C - - 2000
Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is a food gum that shares certain characteristics, such as high viscosity, with soluble fibers. In this trial, the safety and cholesterol-lowering efficacy of HPMC consumed with and between meals was evaluated in free-living male volunteers with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia. After a 14-d baseline period, men (n = 51) ...
Gai M N - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Food-induced changes on the bioavailability of a sustained release lithium carbonate matrix tablet, which uses an acrylic matrix of Eudragit RSPM as sustaining agent, have been studied in healthy male volunteers. The tablet was developed in our laboratory using conventional technology. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was ...
Stubenitsky K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influences of nutritional information and consumer characteristics on meal quality expectations, food selection and subsequent macronutrient intakes of consumers offered a reduced-fat option in a restaurant. DESIGN: A target, full-fat (FF) main restaurant meal option was developed in a version substantially reduced in fat and energy ...
Tougas G - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of gastroparesis implies delayed gastric emptying. The diagnostic gold standard is scintigraphy, but techniques and measured endpoints vary widely among institutions. In this study, a simplified scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying was compared to conventional gastric scintigraphic techniques and normal gastric emptying values defined in healthy subjects. ...
Burel C - - 2000
Two rapeseed (Brassica napus) meals, RM1 and RM2, with two levels of glucosinolates (GLS; 5 and 41 mumol/g DM respectively) were incorporated at the levels of 300 and 500 g/kg of the diets of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in replacement of fish meal, and compared with a fish-meal-based diet. ...
Borovicka J - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the importance of lipase on gastric functions, we studied the effects of orlistat, a potent and specific inhibitor of lipase, on postprandial gastric acidity and gastric emptying of fat. METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study. In a two ...
Brand T S - - 2000
1. The true metabolisable energy (TME) of canola oilcake and full-fat canola seed was determined for ostriches to broaden our knowledge of canola as a potential protein and energy source for ostriches. 2. Both test materials were diluted with a basal diet, fed to ostriches and TME-values estimated by multiple ...
Franson K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To study the composition of fat intake and fat-rich meals consumed during a trial in which obese subjects were treated with a lipase-inhibitor or placebo, with emphasis on food choices and eating hours. DESIGN: Patients were instructed to record all food and drink taken for four days prior to ...
Arvaniti K - - 2000
The aim of this present study was to determine the reliability of a buffet-type meal as a measure of spontaneous energy and macronutrient intake. In addition, we evaluated the short-term effects of diet on the composition of the substrate mix oxidized postprandially. Fourteen male subjects had ad libitum access to ...
Vu M K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Alterations in gastrointestinal motility and hormone secretion, especially activation of the ileal brake, have been documented in malabsorption. AIM: To investigate whether artificially-induced accelerated small intestinal transit activates the ileal brake mechanism. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers (four female, four male; age 21 +/- 3 years) participated in four experiments: ...
Sanders T A - - 2000
Exaggerated postprandial lipemia is believed to be atherogenic and to influence risk of thrombosis. The postprandial effects on plasma triacylglycerol concentration, factor VII coagulant activity (FVII(c)) and activated FVII concentration (FVII(a)) of five high fat meals (5.2 MJ, 90 g fat) enriched with medium triacylglycerols (MCT, 8:0+10:0), palmitate(16:0), stearate (18:0), ...
Bowden V L - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between the way in which aerobically trained and untrained women metabolize fats and carbohydrates at rest in response to either a high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal. Subjects, 6 per group, were fed a high CHO meal (2068 kJ, ...
Silberbauer C J - - 2000
To investigate the acute effects of lactate on spontaneous feeding, we infused lactate in the hepatic portal vein (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mmol lactate/meal) or in the vena cava (1.0 and 1.5 mmol lactate/meal) of ad libitum-fed rats during their first spontaneous nocturnal meal. Infusions (5 min, 0.1 ml/min) were ...
Araya H - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a high protein meal has a different effect on short-term satiety in preschool children than a high carbohydrate meal by measuring their intake of a subsequent meal. Subjects were 35 normal preschool children of both genders aged 5 to 6 years. ...
Gudmundsson G S - - 2000
A single high-fat meal transiently impairs conduit vessel endothelial function. We tested the hypothesis that transient moderate hypertriglyceridemia by consumption of a high-fat meal impairs forearm resistance vessel endothelial function. Fifteen healthy persons consumed isocaloric high- and low-fat meals (900 calories, 50 and 4 g of fat, respectively) on 2 ...
Larsen L F - - 2000
Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples were collected. The high-fat test ...
Dabrowski K - - 2000
We evaluated five practical diets in which 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (dietary treatments 1-5) of fish meal protein was replaced by solvent-extracted cottonseed meal protein. Adult rainbow trout (initial average weight 247 +/- 8 g) were fed the diets over a period of 131 days during which a ...
Flint A A Research Department of Human Nutrition, Center for Food Research, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. - - 2000
To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days. On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under ...
Rodriguez-Stanley S - - 2000
AIMS: To evaluate capsaicin's effects on heartburn, dyspepsia, gastric acidity and emptying, and gastro-oesophageal reflux, and to test the hypothesis that capsaicin induces heartburn and exacerbates symptoms by sensitizing the oesophagus. METHODS: Eleven heartburn sufferers underwent two separate pH monitoring sessions and assessments of gastric emptying (13C-octanoic acid breath test), ...
Burrells C - - 1999
High concentrations of dietary soya were shown to suppress salmonid growth rates and non-specific immune capacity. The immunosuppression became evident at dietary inclusion rates of 60-70% and was coincident with a reduction in weight gains and the appearance of demonstrable pathological changes in the distal intestine. Further increases in soya ...
Moynihan P J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Eating cheese by itself increases plaque calcium concentration - which is probably one mechanism of the well-established action of cheese in reducing experimental caries. The objective of the present study was to determine whether consumption of cheese as part of a cooked, mixed meal (ie as it is habitually ...
Zdunczyk Z - - 1999
The chemical composition and nutritional value of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed cake (PSC) were studied and compared with those of casein and soybean meal. Crude protein and ether extract content in dry matter of PSC was 598.0 g/kg and 124.6 g/kg, respectively, and was higher than the percentage of these ...
Zimmerman J J - - 1999
The bioavailability of an oral nonaqueous solution of sirolimus was compared under fasting conditions and after a high-fat meal in a randomized, two-way crossover pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers were administered a 15 mg single dose of sirolimus on two occasions, once while fasting and once after consumption of a high-fat ...
Raguso C A - - 1999
In a recent study, we observed that the 24-hour leucine oxidation measured when three equal meals providing a generous intake of leucine (approximately 90 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) are eaten during the day is 16% lower (P < .01) than that for the same diet given as 10 hourly, ...
Romon M - - 1999
To assess the impact of the macronutrient content of a meal on the postprandial leptin response and its relationship with postprandial satiety, 22 young healthy subjects (11 men and 11 women) were given, in a randomized order, an isoenergetic meal [carbohydrate (81%) or fat (79%)] or remained fasting. Blood sampling ...
Medhus A W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The phase of the migrating motor complex (MMC) in the proximal small intestine at meal intake modulates gastric emptying, which is accelerated after intake during phase II. In the present study the relationship between phase of the MMC at meal intake and the postprandial endocrine response was studied. METHODS: ...
Briggs J L - - 1999
Rations containing varying ratios of corn, high-oil corn, soybean meal, and mechanically expelled soybean meal were pelleted. The effects of ingredients, conditioning steam pressure, and mixing paddle configuration inside the conditioner on pellet quality were investigated. Ration ingredients strongly affected pellet quality. Increasing the protein content increased the pellet durability, ...
Kochhar K P - - 1999
Spices are a part of diet all over the world but the variety and quantity consumed in tropical countries is particularly significant. The intestinal transit time of Indians is shorter, and their stool weight larger than that of Europeans on a comparable fibre intake. Ingestion of chilli is associated with ...
Djoussé L - - 1999
It has been suggested that a high-fat meal may acutely impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation and that this impairment may be prevented by concomitant intake of antioxidants. Because red wine contains antioxidant polyphenols and may reduce cardiovascular disease, we examined the effect of red wine on postprandial endothelial function. Using a crossover ...
Cecil J E - - 1999
To investigate the effects of fat and carbohydrate on appetite, food intake and gastric emptying with and without the influence of orosensory factors, a group of nine healthy, fasted male subjects took part in two separate paired experiments involving high-fat and high-carbohydrate radiolabelled soup preloads. In the first experiment subjects ...
Tanaka T - - 1999
Although it is known that a caloric liquid meal given after food intake delays solid gastric emptying, the effect of a noncaloric liquid is not known. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of normal saline given at 3 hr after feeding on gastric antral motor activity ...
Carver P L - - 1999
PURPOSE: To study the influence of large-volume high-calorie protein, fat, and carbohydrate meals and a non-caloric hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) viscous meal on the oral bioavailability of indinavir in HIV-infected subjects. METHODS: Seven male HIV-infected subjects received caloric meal treatments and control meals in a randomized crossover fashion and the viscosity ...
Sutherland W H - - 1999
Paraoxonase is an enzyme associated with HDL in human serum that hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids and inhibits LDL oxidation, which is an important step in atherogenesis. In animals, addition of oxidized lipids to the circulation reduces paraoxonase activity, and diets rich in oxidized fat accelerate the development of atherosclerosis. The current ...
Pehl C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The reported effects of fatty meals on lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) are controversial. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to reevaluate the effect of isocaloric and isovolumetric low and high fat meals on LESP and GER. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, ...
Williams M J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intake of used cooking fat is associated with impaired endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Diets containing high levels of lipid oxidation products may accelerate atherogenesis, but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. METHODS: Flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and glyceryl trinitrate-induced ...
Teff K L - - 1999
We compared the vagal contribution to gastric emptying in lean and obese subjects by monitoring gastric emptying of a meal during muscarinic blockade. Lean (n = 6) and obese subjects (n = 6) underwent two treatments: 1) saline infusion and 2) atropine infusion [0.4 mg/m2 bolus, 0.4 mg. (m2)-1. h-1] ...
Lin H C - - 1999
Patients with fat intolerance complain of early satiety, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. Since these symptoms are similar to those of patients with postgastrectomy dumping syndrome, we hypothesized that fat intolerance may be associated with early, rapid gastric emptying. Using a three-meal gastric emptying study, we compared gastric emptying in nine ...
Gai M N - - 1999
Two sustained-release (SR) lithium carbonate (Li) matrix tablets, which use a hydrophilic (HP) matrix of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel 4K MP) and a lipid (L) matrix of hydrogenated castor oil (Cutina HR) as sustaining agents, have been studied. In vitro performance through dissolution tests in different media was established. The L and ...
Pfau C - - 1999
The methodology of a study on meal patterns is discussed. For data collection, menu records on the current diet over two periods of 6 weeks each and an additional self-administered questionnaire on various food related aspects were selected as instruments. Information is required concerning e.g. time, kind and frequency of ...
Pi-Sunyer F X - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects of a comprehensive prepackaged meal plan, incorporating the overall dietary guidelines of the American Diabetes Association and other national health organizations, relative to those of a self-selected diet based on exchange lists in free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A ...
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