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Shen Yongchun - - 2014
Many studies have investigated whether pleural cholesterol levels can aid in diagnosis of pleural exudates, and the results have varied considerably. To gain a more reliable answer to this question, we meta-analyzed the literature on using pleural cholesterol or the ratio of cholesterol in pleural fluid to cholesterol in serum ...
Karliner Joel S JS VA Medical Center & University of California, San Francisco, - - 2014
A major pharmaceutical success story of the late 20(th) century was the introduction of statins into clinical medicine. This class of drugs (the firefighters) has contributed to reduced morbidity and mortality from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by lowering total cholesterol levels, particularly LDL cholesterol (the arsonists), and also by raising HDL ...
Dickinson Annette A a Dickinson Consulting, LLC , St. Paul , - - 2014
Objective: Consumer usage of dietary supplements is prevalent in the United States, and total usage is higher than reported in recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), because these surveys capture usage only in the 30 days prior to the respondent's interview and do not capture occasional and seasonal use ...
Maughan Ron R School of Sport & Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United - - 2014
Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be ...
Mariani Laura H LH University of Michigan Medical School and Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study examined rates and determinants of vitamin D supplementation among Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) participants and determined the association between dose and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. The 2010 Institute of Medicine Report noted a significant increase in vitamin D supplementation in the general population, but use in chronic ...
Wu Alan H B AH Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Increased total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis and risk for myocardial infarction and stroke. Those who have high cholesterol with other factors that predispose them to cardiovascular disease should be treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. The pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia is important in the proper selection ...
Anwar Muhammad M Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), - - 2014
Objective: To compare the Friedewald and modified Friedewald formulae with direct homogeneous assay for serum lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels estimation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from June to December 2011. Methodology: Healthy subjects of either gender, from Rawalpindi, aged ...
Gubbels Jessica S JS Department of Health Promotion, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands. - - 2014
The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N = 1016) of Dutch toddlers (1-3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and ...
Lanzi Stefano S Institute of Sport Sciences University of Lausanne (ISSUL), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland ; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, - - 2014
This study aimed to compare fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during exercise in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Sixteen L and 16 O men [Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.9±0.3 and 39.0±1.4 kg(.)m(-2)] performed a submaximal incremental test (Incr) on a cycle-ergometer. Fat oxidation rates (FORs) were determined ...
Eftekhari Mohammad Hassan MH Nutrition Department, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, - - 2014
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 ...
Ruiz Ruiz Jorge Carlos JC Departamento de Ingeniería Química-Bioquímica. Instituto Tecnológico de Mérida. Mérida. Yucatán. México.. - - 2014
As the last century saw a decline in the burden of nutritional deficiency and infectious disease, the global burden of chronic disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) in particular, is increasing. CVD is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Significant research efforts on the prevention and treatment of this ...
Sun Jing J Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Parkland Q4222, Australia. - - 2014
Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan ...
Trapani Laura L Laura Trapani, Marco Segatto, Valentina Pallottini, Department of Science, Section Biomedical Science and Technologies, University Roma Tre, 00146 Rome, - - 2013
Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis that leads to changes in the biochemical composition of tissues, reduced ability to respond adaptively to environmental stimuli, and increased susceptibility and vulnerability to diseases including coronary artery diseases, carotid artery disease and brain vessel disease. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the primary ...
Gelissen Ingrid C IC Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
The statin class of cholesterol-lowering drugs have been used for decades to successfully lower plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular risk. Adverse effects of statins are generally considered mild, but increase with age of patients and polypharmacy. One aspect of statin therapy that is still difficult for prescribers to predict is ...
Mast Natalia N Case Western Reserve University, United - - 2013
Cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1) is a brain-specific cholesterol 24-hydroxylase responsible for the majority of cholesterol elimination from the brain. Genetically increased CYP46A1 expression in mice leads to improved cognition and decreases manifestations of Alzheimers disease. We found that four pharmaceuticals (efavirenz, acetaminophen, mirtazapine, and galantamine) prescribed for indications unrelated to ...
Dirienzo Douglas B DB Quadrant Nutrition, LLC, Hendersonville, North Carolina, - - 2013
The objectives of this article are to review clinical trials that have examined the effects of probiotics on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and to assess the potential of probiotic intake as a therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) dietary option. Twenty-six clinical studies and two meta-analyses are reviewed. Significant LDL-C reductions were ...
Alsabbagh Wasem M WM College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, - - 2014
Saskatchewan is the only Canadian province that lists ezetimibe for open formulary access even though it is a second-line agent for lowering cholesterol. A retrospective analysis of ezetimibe use in Saskatchewan between 2002 and 2011 was carried out using provincial health administrative databases. Overall use and costs of ezetimibe were ...
Kaplon Rachelle Elizabeth - - 2013
We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to dietary niacin intake among healthy middle-aged and older adults. In 127 men and women aged 48-77 years, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was positively related to dietary niacin intake (%Δ: r=0.20, P<0.05; mmΔ: r=0.25, P<0.01). In ...
Raynor Hollie A - - 2013
The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors ...
Martin Seth S SS Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, - - 2013
In clinical and research settings worldwide, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is typically estimated using the Friedewald equation. This equation assumes a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C); however, the actual TG:VLDL-C ratio varies significantly across the range of triglyceride and cholesterol ...
Piper Matthew D W MD Institute of Healthy Ageing, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, - - 2014
A critical requirement for research using model organisms is a well-defined and consistent diet. There is currently no complete chemically defined (holidic) diet available for Drosophila melanogaster. We describe a holidic medium that is equal in performance to an oligidic diet optimized for adult fecundity and lifespan. This holidic diet ...
Stein Evan A - - 2013
To review the phase 1 and 2 trials with fully human monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 published in the last 18 months and provide comprehensive data that targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 very effectively reduces LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). The trials studied a number of different populations including ...
Johansson Kari - - 2013
Weight loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, ...
Harika Rajwinder K - - 2013
Aim: To systematically review data from different countries on population intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and to compare these to recommendations from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Methods: Data from national dietary surveys or ...
Ho Mandy - - 2013
Overweight adolescents are more likely to have dysfunctional eating behaviours compared to normal weight adolescents. Little is known about the effects of obesity treatment on the psychological dimensions of eating behavior in this population. To examine the effects of a prescriptive dietary intervention on external eating (eating in response to ...
Adam S - - 2013
Within Europe, the management of pyridoxine (B6) non-responsive homocystinuria (HCU) may vary but there is limited knowledge about treatment practice. A comparison of dietetic management practices of patients with B6 non-responsive HCU in European centres. A cross-sectional audit by questionnaire was completed by 29 inherited metabolic disorder (IMD) centres: (14 ...
Martin Seth S - - 2013
Blood lipids have major cardiovascular and public health implications. Lipid-lowering drugs are prescribed based in part on categorization of patients into normal or abnormal lipid metabolism, yet relatively little emphasis has been placed on: (1) the accuracy of current lipid measures used in clinical practice, (2) the reliability of current ...
Tan J - - 2013
Current practice guidelines recommend administration of oral isotretinoin with high-fat meals, which may pose issues with patient compliance. Isotretinoin-Lidose (Epuris™), approved by Health Canada in November 2012 and scheduled for commercial release June 2013, is based on novel lipid encapsulation technology (Lidose®) to enclose isotretinoin, thereby increasing drug absorption during ...
Melnyk Lisa Jo - - 2013
The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from which intake assessments of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides were made. ...
Hall Gillian C - - 2013
Abstract Objective We investigated the circumstances of ezetimibe discontinuation as its prescribing had been discouraged in some publications. Research design and methods Adults on stable lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) including ezetimibe, who then had >8 weeks cessation in their prescribed ezetimibe regimen (2010-2011) were identified from THIN UK primary care database. ...
P Whelton Seamus - - 2013
The relationship between cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD) is attenuated at older age. We analyzed cholesterol level as a predictor of CHD in 8,947 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, a large multicenter cohort study that enrolled participants in 1987-1989 at 4 field centers in Washington ...
Sanders Thomas A B - - 2013
This review reappraises dietary advice to reduce and replace SFA for the prevention of CVD. In the 1970s, SFA accounted for about 18% UK food energy, by 2001 it had fallen to 13% and continues to be above the <11% target. Compared with carbohydrates, C12-C16 SFA raise serum total cholesterol ...
Kim Yeonsoo - - 2013
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the interaction between lipoprotein lipase (LPL) PvuII and HindIII haplotypes and carbohydrate intakes on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in Koreans. LPL PvuII and HindIII genotype, LPL mass, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC), ...
Damasceno Nagila R T - - 2013
The PREDIMED trial showed that Mediterranean diets supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced incident cardiovascular events compared to a control diet. Consumption of both supplemental foods has been associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol, but it is unknown whether they can shift lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern. ...
Williams C M - - 2013
Despite strong prospective epidemiology and mechanistic evidence for the benefits of certain micronutrients in preventing CVD, neutral and negative outcomes from secondary intervention trials have undermined the efficacy of supplemental nutrition in preventing CVD. In contrast, evidence for the positive impact of specific diets in CVD prevention, such as the ...
Jiao L - - 2013
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are found in high quantity in high-fat foods and meat cooked at high temperature. AGEs have been shown to contribute to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. To investigate the associations between consumption of meat, fat and AGEs, and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). ...
Toth Peter P - - 2013
For >4 decades it has been recognized that elevated serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its sequelae. Many prospective observational studies performed around the world have confirmed an inverse relationship between HDL-C and cardiovascular risk in people irrespective of ...
Claire Wang Y - - 2013
The childhood obesity epidemic reflects the daily accumulation of an "energy gap"-excess calories consumed over calories expended. Population-level interventions to reverse the epidemic can be assessed by the degree to which they increase energy expenditure and/or reduce caloric intake. However, no common metric exists for such comparative assessment. To develop ...
Martin-Montalvo Alejandro - - 2013
Metformin is a drug commonly prescribed to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we show that long-term treatment with metformin (0.1% w/w in diet) starting at middle age extends healthspan and lifespan in male mice, while a higher dose (1% w/w) was toxic. Treatment with metformin mimics some of ...
Nobre Luciana N - - 2013
To investigate the determinants of dyslipidemia in preschoolers. A total of 227 preschoolers residing in an urban area of the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil were evaluated at age 5 years, using a cross-sectional design. Dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric/biochemical parameters, and socioeconomic/behavioral information from a ...
Moura Filipe A - - 2013
Assessment of lipid profile parameters has been considered a cornerstone in classifying individuals and populations at risk for cardiovascular disease. Recently, however, preliminary data have raised the possibility of seasonal variations in these parameters, which may cause under- or overestimation. Biological rhythms and seasonal variation of lipid profile was investigated ...
Sarriá Beatriz - - 2013
Cocoa products present great health potential due to their high content of polyphenols, mainly of flavanols. However, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other health effects of regularly consuming cocoa products seem to depend on the intake and health status of the consumer, etc. and need to be further clarified. A randomised, ...
Guardamagna Ornella - - 2013
Primary dyslipidemias are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and should be addressed early in life. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in children affected by primary hypercholesterolemia, the efficacy and tolerability of a short-term treatment with a dietary supplement containing glucomannan. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial ...
Tayebi Khosroshahi Hamid H Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR - - 2013
Omega-3 fatty acids carry major roles in mediating inflammation, immune response, lipid peroxidation and lipoprotein metabolism. Diversity of health benefits have been attributed to dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in transplant and nontransplant settings. Several studies in renal transplantation have suggested that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may lead ...
Gray Paul E A - - 2013
A review of case notes from our Sydney-based paediatric allergy services, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011, identified 74 children who had been prescribed diets that eliminated foods containing natural salicylates before attending our clinics. The most common indications for starting the diets were eczema (34/74) and behavioural ...
Pinna Antonio - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl) is a significant risk factor for ischemic heart, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease. Increased cholesterol in the glandular secretion has been postulated to be necessary for the development of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), a common form of chronic blepharitis. The purpose of this study ...
Hosking Diane - - 2013
Dietary patterns derived from factor analytic procedures have been demonstrated to predict demographic and health outcomes across a wide range of populations. To examine the potential utility of long-term dietary recall, in the present study, we examined associations between dietary patterns from across the lifespan and demographic and later-life cardiovascular-related ...
Wong Helen - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Nonpharmacological management of hypercholesterolemia in children is challenging with few available options. OBJECTIVES To determine the safety and efficacy of dietary flaxseed supplementation in the management of hypercholesterolemia in children. DESIGN Four-week placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING Specialized dyslipidemia clinic at a tertiary pediatric care center. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-two ...
De Marchi S - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk have been described in immune-mediated disorders, but few data are available in coeliac disease. AIM: To evaluate instrumental and biochemical signs of atherosclerosis risk in 20 adults at first diagnosis of coeliac disease and after 6-8 months of gluten-free diet with mucosal ...
Cassler Nicole M - - 2013
Dietary supplements are implicated in an increasing number of minor and serious adverse events, including death. A series of adverse events in deployed Marines using multiple supplements prompted medical officers to investigate the prevalence of supplement use among Marines stationed on Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan. The investigators developed a survey to ...
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