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Zheng Haotian H Riddet Institute, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand; Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; Dairy Products Technology Center, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo 93407. Electronic address: - - 2014
Evidence for the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) was obtained by applying 3 washing processes using aqueous solutions with different degrees of stringency (mild, intermediate, and intensive) to milk fat globule (MFG) surfaces in simulated milk ultrafiltrate buffer. We detected no change in the ...
Hennessy Alan A AA Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland, - - 2014
The intestinal production of lipoproteins is one of the key processes by which the body prepares dietary lipid for dissemination to locations throughout the body where they are required. Paramount to this is the relationship between dietary lipid and the enterocytes that line the gut, along with the processes which ...
Gahete Manuel D MD Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, University of Cordoba, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), and CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Córdoba, 14014, Spain; Lipid and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, IMIBIC and CIBERObn, Córdoba, 14004, - - 2014
Dietary fat influences systemic inflammatory status, which determines the progression of age-associated diseases. Since somatostatin (SST), cortistatin (CORT) and ghrelin systems modulate inflammatory response, we aim to comprehensively characterize the presence and regulation of the components of these systems in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs), a subset of white ...
Ignacio-Souza Leticia M LM Laboratory of Cell - - 2014
In both human and experimental obesity, inflammatory damage to the hypothalamus plays an important role in the loss of the coordinated control of food intake and energy expenditure. Upon prolonged maintenance of increased body mass, the brain changes the defended set-point of adiposity, and returning to normal weight becomes extremely ...
Zarkasi Kamarul Zaman KZ Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, - - 2014
The relationship of Atlantic salmon gastrointestinal tract bacteria to environmental factors, in particular water temperature within a commercial mariculture system, was investigated. Salmon gastrointestinal tract bacterial communities of commercially farmed in south-eastern Tasmania was analysed, over a 13 month period across a standard commercial production farm cycle, using 454 16S ...
Reed Laura K LK University of - - 2014
Systems biology is an approach to dissection of complex traits that explicitly recognizes the impact of genetic, physiological and environmental interactions in the generation of phenotypic variation. We describe comprehensive transcriptional and metabolic profiling in Drosophila melanogaster across four diets, finding little overlap in modular architecture. Genotype and genotype-by-diet interactions ...
Thanner S S Agroscope, Institute for Livestock Sciences, Tioleyre 4, 1725 Posieux, Switzerland; Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109a, CH-3001 Bern, - - 2014
Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the ...
Ansorge Heather H Dr Ansorge is a Senior Product Development Engineer, Dr Leamy is a Staff Scientist, Ms Roesch is a Senior Clinical Scientist, Mr Barere is a Director of Product Development, and Dr Connor is a Senior Director from the Department of Research and Development, LifeCell Corporation, Bridgewater, New - - 2014
Background: Currently, fat graft viability and retention cannot be reliably predicted. The reasons for this variability are not fully understood, although fat processing has been implicated. Objectives: The authors compare the in vitro quantity and in vivo fat retention from lipoaspirate processed by the Revolve system (LifeCell, Bridgewater, New Jersey) ...
Engeli Stefan S Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, - - 2014
Objective: Endocannabinoid system activation promotes obesity-associated metabolic disease. We hypothesized that increased dietary fat intake increases blood endocannabinoids and alters adipose and skeletal muscle endocannabinoid system gene expression in man. Design and Methods: We compared two weeks isocaloric low and high-fat diets in obese (n=12) and normal-weight (n=17) subjects in ...
Thanner S S Agroscope, Institute for Livestock Sciences ILS, Posieux, Switzerland; Veterinary Physiology, University of Bern, Bern, - - 2014
The challenge for sustainable organic dairy farming is identification of cows that are well adapted to forage-based production systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the grazing behaviour, physical activity and metabolic profile of two different Holstein strains kept in an organic grazing system without concentrate supplementation. ...
Wang Chong C Institute of Dairy Science, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of - - 2014
A study was conducted in China to evaluate the feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and the amount of human-edible grains fed under different dairy systems. Three dairy systems were defined and studied: (i) smallholder subsistence farms (SH), (ii) peri-urban farms (PR), and iii) cooperative farms (CO). The PR system ...
Leong Thomas T Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The separation of milk fat from natural whole milk has been achieved by applying ultrasonic standing waves (1MHz and/or 2MHz) in a litre-scale (5L capacity) batch system. Various design parameters were tested such as power input level, process time, specific energy, transducer-reflector distance and the use of single and dual ...
Ramakrishnan Sadeesh K SK Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2014
Cholesterol synthesis is a highly oxygen-dependent process. Paradoxically, hypoxia is correlated with an increase in cellular and systemic cholesterol levels and risk of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism for the increase in cholesterol during hypoxia is unclear. Hypoxia signaling is mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α. The present study ...
Lauer Klaus K Eulerweg 4, D-64347 Griesheim, Germany. - - 2014
A hypothesis, based primarily on the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Faroe Islands and supported by numerous analytical epidemiological studies, is described. It proposes that MS is caused by the interaction of a virus disease with intestinal pathology, e.g., infectious mononucleosis, and application of smoked and nitrate/nitrite-cured meat ...
Vieira Sm S 1Department of - - 2014
There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the ...
Pelosi Gualtiero G Institute of Clinical Physiology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Pisa, - - 2014
The multifactorial pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerotic lesion formation has been investigated in a swine model of high cholesterol diet induced atherogenesis and data processed by a systems approach. Farm pigs were fed on standard or high cholesterol diet of 8 and 16 weeks duration. Plasma assessment of total cholesterol, HDL, ...
Guerrero A - - 2013
Twenty Gascon young bulls that had been reared either in intensive conditions (INT) (n=10) with early weaning at 3 to 4 months, or in a traditional extensive (EXT) system (n=10) with weaning at 7 months, were subjected to the same conditions during the 145-day finishing period. Production system before the ...
Lambertz C - - 2013
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on milk production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) of dairy cows raised in 4 different housing systems: (1) warm loose housing with access to grazing (WG), (2) warm loose housing without access to grazing ...
Ricci P - - 2013
The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement ...
Kelley Christy M - - 2013
Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. While DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using ...
Chen Xi - - 2013
We describe the development of a fluorescent biosensor platform for soluble cholesterol based on bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanocluster probes co-dissolved with cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) in a surfactant emulsion system. Selective enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one by ChOx produces stoichiometric amounts of H2O2 by-product, generating a quenching response signaling ...
Koskinas Konstantinos C - - 2013
Systemic risk factors and local hemodynamic factors both contribute to coronary atherosclerosis, but their possibly synergistic inter-relationship remains unknown. The purpose of this natural history study was to investigate the combined in-vivo effect of varying levels of systemic hypercholesterolemia and local endothelial shear stress (ESS) on subsequent plaque progression and ...
Timmermans Silke - - 2013
Epidemiological studies suggest a positive correlation between the incidence and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the intake of fatty acids. It remains to be clarified whether high fat diet (HFD) indeed can exacerbate the disease pathology associated with MS and what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we ...
Schulz Tim J TJ Research Group Adipocyte Development, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Nuthetal, - - 2013
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is of great scientific interest as a potential target to treat obesity. The development of novel strategies to quantify brown fat thermogenesis in adult humans now enables minimally invasive assessment of novel pharmacotherapeutics. Input from the central nervous system via sympathetic efferents is widely regarded as ...
Wang Zeng-Xia - - 2013
We developed a dietary exposure assay for screening insecticidal compounds for their toxicity and for assessing the side effects of insecticidal proteins produced by genetically engineered plants on the planthopper Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. The fitness bioassay confirmed that the diet adopted fits the requirements to be used in the dietary ...
Mehal Wajahat Z - - 2013
The development of obesity and NAFLD is known to be determined by host genetics, diet and lack of exercise. In addition, the gut microbiota has been identified to influence the development of both obesity and NAFLD. Evidence for the role of the gut microbiota has been shown by preclinical studies ...
Ozcan Mustafa - - 2013
The aim was to compare the carcass and meat quality characteristics of male and female Gokceada Goat kids produced in extensive (n=20) and semi-intensive (n=20) systems. In extensive and semi-intensive produced kids pre-slaughter weights were 17.44 and 12.51kg; cold carcass weights were 8.66 and 5.35kg and cold dressing percentages were ...
Ortiz Thaís Tobaruela - - 2013
Objective: To evaluate the presence of dyslipidemia and plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteine (Cys) in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and relate these findings to disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, SLEDAI) and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional controlled study including 26 female ...
Niijima-Yaoita Fukie - - 2013
It is well known that the characteristics of mastication are important for the maintenance of our physical well-being. In this study, to assess the importance of the effects of food hardness during mastication, we investigated whether a long-term powdered diet might cause changes in emotional behavior tests, including spontaneous locomotor ...
Mislankar Mona - - 2013
Consumption of nickel in the diet leads to spongiotic dermatitis in a dose-related fashion in individuals who are allergic to nickel. Dietary modification to reduce nickel intake leads to resolution of this dermatitis. This study aims to create an evidence-based, user-friendly diet to assist patients in reducing dietary nickel intake. ...
Wanders Desiree - - 2013
Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition increases lifespan and produces significant improvements in biomarkers of metabolic health. The improvements are attributable in part to effects of CR on energy balance, which limit fat accumulation by restricting energy intake. Normal age-associated increases in adiposity and insulin resistance are associated with development of ...
Mugnai Cecilia - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of husbandry system and season on the grass intake and egg quality in laying hens considering that characteristics of organic eggs obtained in a system with no grass in the external area are rather similar conventional ones. RESULTS: Three ...
Piccand V - - 2013
The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population ...
Tolstykh E I - - 2013
Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949-1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were Sr and Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external ...
Terunuma Shoichiro - - 2013
Dietary cholesterol oxidation products (COP) induce various adverse effects, including development of atherosclerosis, modulation of lipid metabolism, and unfavorable changes in the antioxidant system. Therefore, we examined the effects of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor on hepatic cholesterol metabolism and down-regulation of the antioxidant system in rats fed COP. Rats ...
Surai P F - - 2013
Animal feed provides a range of antioxidants that help the body building an integrated antioxidant system responsible for a prevention of damaging effects of free radicals and products of their metabolism. Vitamin E is considered to be the main chain-breaking antioxidant located in the membranes and effectively protecting them against ...
Nguyen T T H - - 2013
Six dairy farms with the same on-farm area and milk production were compared. One farm (G-No) used grass as the sole forage for a herd of Normande cows, a dual-purpose breed. Three farms, with Holstein cows, varied forage for the herd from grass only (G-Ho) to low (G/LM-Ho) or high ...
Goldhawk C - - 2013
Two studies were conducted to evaluate a wireless rumination monitoring system (Hi-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd.; Netanya, Israel) for recording rumination in beef cattle. The system operates based on acoustics of rumination and has been used previously for monitoring rumination in both young and adult dairy cattle. Study 1 consisted of ...
Lewis Marie C - - 2013
Weaning is associated with a major shift in the microbial community of the intestine, and this instability may make it more acquiescent than the adult microbiota to long-term changes. Modulation achieved through dietary interventions may have potentially beneficial effects on the developing immune system, which is driven primarily by the ...
Koutsari Christina C Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, - - 2013
We measured the incorporation of systemic free fatty acids (FFA) into circulating very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TGs) under postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions in humans. Fifty-five men and 85 premenopausal women with BMI 18-24 (lean) and 27-36 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese) received an intravenous bolus injection of [1,1,2,3,3-(2)H5]glycerol (to measure VLDL-TG kinetics) ...
Salvia-Trujillo L - - 2013
Diets rich in carotenoids have been correlated with a reduced risk of developing certain types of chronic diseases, but these bioactive components have low intestinal absorption due to their hydrophobic nature. The aim of this work was to study the effect of carrier oil composition (medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) to long-chain ...
Yang Yu-Qiang - - 2013
The high salinity and fat contents of kitchen waste (KW) inhibits the effect of two-phase anaerobic digestion system. This research introduces fruit-vegetable waste (FVW) to alleviate the inhibition effect caused by salinity and fat concentrations, and tries to achieve an optimal addition ratio of FVW, an optimal hydraulic remain time ...
Werner Louise B - - 2013
There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, ...
Heiden Sisse - - 2013
Hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, and fluid overload are frequently observed and pose major physiological concerns in chronic kidney patients. The problems are closely related to inadequate diet and phosphate binder intake, which are considerable challenges for many patients. The objective of this study was to develop and test an educational decision support ...
Martínez-Martínez Ernesto - - 2013
The function of the Interleukin-33 (IL-33)/ST2 system has been mainly investigated on immunological aspects, but recent data suggest that this pathway plays also an important role in cardiovascular system and adipose tissue. Whereas IL-33 has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and protective effects, circulating soluble ST2 (sST2) has emerged as ...
Busnelli Marco - - 2013
The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate systemic and local inflammation as well as progression of vascular inflammation in normal and mechanically injured vessels in a large animal model of mild hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was also to test the effect of high-dose statin treatment on these processes. ...
Koopman Karin Eva KE Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam; Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The - - 2013
It is evident that there is a relationship between the brain's serotonin system and obesity. Although it is clear that drugs affecting the serotonin system regulate appetite and food intake, it is unclear whether changes in the serotonin system are cause or consequence of obesity. To determine whether obesogenic eating ...
Rankins D L DL - - 2012
Stockering calves in the southern U.S. has been an economically viable enterprise for decades. Historically, the system that yielded the best opportunity for profitability was to purchase light-weight calves (130 kg to 220 kg) in autumn, add 100 to 200 kg of BW gain, and sell them in the spring. ...
Mielenz M - - 2012
In addition to its role in energy storage, adipose tissue (AT) is an important endocrine organ and it secretes adipokines. The adipokine adiponectin improves insulin sensitivity by activation of its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Lipolysis in AT is downregulated by the G-protein coupled receptor (GPR109A), which binds the endogenous ligand ...
Kang Jeong-Hun - - 2012
Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a key amphipathic glycoprotein compound in the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins (mainly very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL). Inhibition of Apo B synthesis by short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Apo B (Apo B siRNA) is very efficient for serum LDL reduction. In the present study, ...
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