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Rothgerber Hank - - 2013
The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal ...
Panchal Sunil K - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Caffeine is a constituent of many non-alcoholic beverages. Pharmacological actions of caffeine include the antagonism of adenosine receptors and the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. The A(1) adenosine receptors present on adipocytes are involved in the control of fatty acid uptake and lipolysis. In this study, the effects of caffeine ...
Kimura Miyuki M Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, - - 2012
Phenotyping of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) was determined by assessing urinary caffeine metabolites in a Japanese population with a high frequency of CYP2A6 whole-gene deletion (CYP2A6*4). The levels of 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U), 1-methylxanthine (1X), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (17X) were measured in non-smokers whose CYP2A6 and NAT2 genotypes had been determined. Low ...
Sugiura Chikako - - 2012
To elucidate the inhibiting mechanisms of fat accumulation by catechins, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ICR mice were fed diets containing either 0.3% catechins or 0.1% EGCG and/or 0.05% caffeine for 4 weeks. After the feeding, intraperitoneal adipose tissues weights were significantly lower in the caffeine, catechins + caffeine, and EGCG + caffeine groups ...
Joharatnam Jalini J Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, - - 2011
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with dyslipidaemia and obesity. It is not clear whether the dyslipidaemia of PCOS is attributable to PCOS itself, obesity, or a combination of both. Our objective was to assess the importance of familial dyslipidaemia in PCOS by comparing fasting lipids between probands and their ...
Ferreira Adaliene Versiani Matos - - 2011
Obesity may represent a state of chronic low-grade inflammation associated with infiltration of adipose tissue by inflammatory cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/JE), two important inflammatory cytokines, have been shown to be regulated according to changes in body adiposity. In this study on Swiss mice, we ...
Ornstein Rollyn M - - 2011
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a hypocaloric low-fat diet with those of a very low carbohydrate diet on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and menstrual function in overweight adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Randomized pilot trial of two diets in a prospective, 12-week ...
Dilbaz Berna - - 2011
The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical, endocrine, and cardiovascular disease risk profile differences among main polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes. One hundred and thirty-nine consecutive women were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, ...
Siepmann Timo - - 2011
Previous research has focused on the beneficial effects of soy and its active ingredients, isoflavones. For instance, soy consumption has been associated with lower cardiovascular and breast cancer risks. However, the number of reports demonstrating adverse effects of isoflavones due to their estrogenlike properties has increased. We present the case ...
Penaforte F R O - - 2011
Fat accumulation in the upper region of the body is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and is associated with metabolic complications. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between trunk circumference, metabolic indicators, and abdominal and visceral fat in obese PCOS women. The weight, fat mass, and subcutaneous ...
Toscani Mariana K - - 2011
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Around 60% of PCOS patients are obese. Weight loss has consistently been shown to improve the clinical status of women with PCOS. We hypothesized that dietary factors are associated with the hormonal and metabolic abnormalities of ...
Nilsen Vegard - - 2011
Lifestyle change is probably the most important single action to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a low-intensity individual lifestyle intervention by a physician and compare this to the same physician intervention combined with an interdisciplinary, group-based approach in a ...
Newell-Fugate A E - - 2011
The objective of this study was to validate the obese Ossabaw pig as a model of the obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotype. Four sows were fed a high fat-high fructose diet to induce metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 5 sows were fed a control diet (Lean). Sows had twice-weekly blood ...
Ma R C W - - 2010
Objective: Visceral fat is believed to be important in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver. In this study, we examined the relationship between mesenteric fat thickness and other sonographic indices of adiposity and the presence of fatty liver among subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects and Methods: ...
Kalgaonkar S S Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, - - 2011
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased inflammation, which all benefit from dietary intake of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and n-3 PUFA). Our goal was to compare the effects of MUFA-rich almonds vs n-3/n-6 PUFA-rich walnuts on metabolic and endocrine parameters ...
Shih Chun-Ching - - 2010
The effect of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (loquat) on insulin resistance was examined in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. First, the mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a 45% HF diet for 10 ...
de Oliveira Paola Raquel Braz - - 2010
Previously, we have demonstrated that the seed of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) from the Amazon region exerts vasodilator and antihypertensive actions. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of oral chronic treatment with açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) on high-fat (HF) diet–induced ...
Li Jie - - 2011
Gut hormones play key roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the long- and short-term effects of changing dietary fat content on gut hormones. We aim to examine the effects of changing dietary fat content on plasma gut hormone concentrations in diet-induced obese (DIO) and ...
Clegg M E - - 2011
Background/Objectives:High-fat (HF) diets of 2 weeks have been shown to accelerate gastric emptying (GE). To date, no studies have shown any alteration in GE following shorter HF diets. The aim of this study was to assess if an HF, high-energy diet of 3 days can adapt gastrointestinal (GI) transit, blood ...
Palou Mariona - - 2011
We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric ...
Alisi Anna - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging disease with a broad spectrum of liver conditions. The complex molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD is still unclear. In this study, we conducted an analysis of microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in liver of rats made NAFLD by different diets. To this aim, Sprague-Dawley ...
Nikolic Dejan M - - 2011
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase I (PKG-I) is a multifunctional protein. The direct effects of PKG-I activation on energy homeostasis and obesity development are not well understood. Herein, we generated transgenic mice with expression of the constitutively active PKG-I in adipose tissue as well as in other tissues. Male ...
Kelly Alan K - - 2011
Our objective was to evaluate the effects of phenotypic ranking on residual feed intake (RFI) on the transcription of genes 1) involved in the respiratory chain complex and 2) coding for transcriptional factors regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, across two contrasting diet types. Beef heifers (n = 86) fed a diet comprising ...
Childs Caroline E - - 2010
Both animal and human studies demonstrate that the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of plasma and/or tissue lipids is increased during pregnancy. We hypothesised that increasing the α-linolenic acid (ALA) or longer chain (n-3) PUFA content of the maternal diet during pregnancy influences fetal fatty acid composition and the fetal immune ...
Castro-Perez Jose - - 2011
High resolution LC/MS-MS and LC/APPI-MS methods have been established for the quantitation of flux in the turnover of cholesterol and cholesterol ester. Attention was directed toward quantifying the monoisotopic mass (M0) and that of the singly deuterated labeled (M+1) isotope. A good degree of isotopic dynamic range has been achieved ...
Shapiro Alexandra - - 2011
To test the hypothesis that exercise increases central leptin signaling, and thus reduces dietary weight gain in an aged obese model, we assessed the effects of voluntary wheel running (WR) in 23-month-old F344×BN rats fed a 60% high-fat (HF) diet for 3 months. After 2 months on the HF diet, ...
Schultz Alini - - 2012
The study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming training in reducing the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated comorbidities, including the hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferator receptor activity-alpha. Male C57BL/6 mice were separated into two major groups according to their nutrition and studied during ...
Kalupahana Nishan S - - 2010
We investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on prevention (P) and reversal (R) of high saturated-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and glucose-insulin homeostasis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed low-fat (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF (45% energy from fat), or a HF-EPA-P (45% energy from fat; 36 g/kg EPA) diet ...
Ono Tomoji - - 2011
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein in mammalian milk. In a previous report, we showed that enteric-coated bovine LF tablets can decrease visceral fat accumulation, hypothesising that the enteric coating is critical to the functional peptides reaching the visceral fat tissue and exerting their anti-adipogenic activity. The aim of the ...
Kalupahana Nishan S - - 2011
This study aimed at investigating whether the weight loss due to energy-restricted high-fat diets is accompanied with parallel improvements in metabolic markers and adipose tissue inflammation. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given free access to a low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (45% of energy from fat-HF) diet for 6 months. Restricting ...
Gregorio Bianca M - - 2010
This work aimed to verify the hypothesis that maternal intake of high-fat diet in critical periods of pregnancy and/or suckling period predisposes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adult C57BL/6 mice offspring. Male pups were divided into 5 groups: (1) SC, from standard chow-fed dams; (2) G, from high-fat chow (HF)-fed ...
Song Guang-yao - - 2010
As an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), rosiglitazone can prevent acute fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in rats, however, the precise mechanisms by which rosiglitazone alleviates insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet need to be further investigated. Wistar rats aged 23-24 weeks were divided into three groups: (1) aged control ...
Yamazaki Tomomi - - 2011
The effects of a diet rich in saturated fat on fatty liver formation and the related mechanisms that induce fatty liver were examined. C57BL/6J mice were fed butter or safflower oil as a high-fat (HF) diet (40% fat calories) for 2, 4, 10, or 17 weeks. Although both HF diets ...
Jebb Susan A SA Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Insulin sensitivity (Si) is improved by weight loss and exercise, but the effects of the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or carbohydrates of high glycemic index (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) are uncertain. We conducted a dietary intervention trial to study these effects ...
Rabot Sylvie - - 2010
Recent studies showed that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to obesity when consuming a high-fat, high-carbohydrate Western diet. However, it remains unclear what mechanisms are involved in the antiobesity phenotype and whether GF mice develop insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with high-fat (HF) feeding. In the present study, we compared the ...
la Fleur S E - - 2011
Objectives:In diet-induced obesity, it is not clear whether impaired glucose metabolism is caused directly by the diet, or indirectly via obesity. This study examined the effects of different free-choice, high-caloric, obesity-inducing diets on glucose metabolism. In these free-choice diets, saturated fat and/or a 30% sugar solution are provided in an ...
Yamaguchi R - - 2010
Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a maternal high-fat (HF) diet on serum lipid concentration and PPAR gene expression in liver and adipose tissue in the early life of the rat ...
Makarewicz-Wujec Magdalena - - 2011
Dietary quality probably may impact heart failure outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the potential effects of nutrient intake on homocysteine, MCP-1 and GGT levels in patients with heart failure. The study group comprised 55 patients with diagnosed HF with coronary artery disease origin, below 65y, with ...
Tandy Sally - - 2010
The ability of the fatty acid composition of dietary phosphatidylcholine (PC) to affect hepatic lipid levels was investigated in C57BL/6 mice (n=8-10 per group) by feeding: (1) a high-fat semi-purified diet (HF), (2) HF diet supplemented with 1.25 wt% soy PC (SPC), (3) HF with 1.25 wt% hydrogenated soy PC ...
Kim Mi-Hyun - - 2010
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been deeply associated with visceral adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation and a variety of adipocytokines. We reported previously that genistein inhibited NAFLD by enhancing fatty acid catabolism. However, this molecular approach focused on hepatic metabolism. Thus, we have attempted to determine whether this anti-steatotic effect ...
Vucetic Zivjena Z University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, 805 Biomedical Research Building II/III, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6160, - - 2010
Maternal obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of obesity in the offspring. Obesity, arising from an imbalance of energy intake and expenditure, can be driven by the ingestion of palatable [high fat (HF), high sugar], energy-dense foods. Dopamine and opioid circuitry are neural substrates associated with reward that can affect ...
Sato Ayumi - - 2010
Given the pleiotropic effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), it is interesting to know whether EPA is capable of improving obesity. Here we examined the anti-obesity effect of EPA in mice with two distinct models of obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (25.0% [w/w] fat, 32.5% [w/w] sucrose) ...
Lima-Silva Adriano Eduardo - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term low- or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet consumed after exercise on sympathetic nervous system activity. Twelve healthy males underwent a progressive incremental test; a control measurement of plasma catecholamines and heart rate variability (HRV); an exercise protocol to reduce ...
De Vogel-van den Bosch Johan - - 2011
Excess dietary long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) intake results in ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. Since medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are preferentially oxidized over LCFA, we hypothesized that diets rich in MCFA result in a lower ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance compared to diets rich in LCFA. Feeding mice ...
Cooper J A - - 2010
Acute high-fat (HF) diets can lead to short-term positive fat balances until the body increases fat oxidation to match intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a HF diet, rich in either mono-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and exercise, on the rate at which ...
Brock D W DW Department of Exercise and Movement Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0068, USA. - - 2011
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been reported to be inversely associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, independent of body weight. However, the confounding effect of physical activity on the association between CRF and VAT remains inadequately addressed. On the basis of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 143 sedentary, overweight women ...
De Vogel-van den Bosch Johan - - 2011
Accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle upon high-fat (HF) feeding is the resultant of fatty acid uptake and oxidation and is associated with insulin resistance. As medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are preferentially β-oxidized over long-chain fatty acids, we examined the effects of medium-chain TAGs (MCTs) and long-chain ...
Swartz Timothy D - - 2010
Adult rats chronically fed a high-fat (HF) diet maintain reduced sensitivity to cholecystokinin (CCK). We hypothesized that, similar to adult rats, pups fed a HF diet would also exhibit reduced sensitivity to CCK. To test this, male pups fed low-fat (LF) and HF isoenergetic (16.2 kJ/g) diets were administered CCK ...
Sugatani Junko - - 2010
Rats that consumed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HF diet) developed hepatic steatosis. Treatment of HF diet-fed rats with fluvastatin (8 mg/kg) was lethal, followed by an elevation in levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities and skeletal muscle toxicity. This study was conducted to determine whether nutritional ...
Peragón Juan - - 2010
We have determined the kinetic behaviour of serine dehydratase (SerDH) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) in the liver and white muscle of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed on a low-protein/high-fat (LP/HF) and control diets. The relationship between the kinetic parameters and tissue-DNA concentration has also been determined. SerDH and TyrAT ...
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