Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 727
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Pereira Dore I A DI MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Alterations in the gut microbiota have been recently linked to oral iron. We conducted two feeding studies including an initial diet-induced iron-depletion period followed by supplementation with nanoparticulate tartrate-modified ferrihydrite (Nano Fe(III): considered bioavailable to host but not bacteria) or soluble ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 : considered bioavailable to both host ...
Dufour Elise E Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle-CNRS, UMR 7209 Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique : sociétés, pratiques et environnements, Département Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversité, Paris, - - 2014
Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast ...
He Yuyong Y Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, People's Republic of - - 2014
Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to ...
Zhou Yunxian Y Yunxian Zhou, PhD, is Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China. Xiaoqin Ma, MM, is Professor, School of Nursing, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China. Yan Chen, PhD, MD, is Chief Physician, Division of Gastroenterology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, - - 2014
Dietary factors have been linked to the development and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. However, little is known about the dietary practices of these patients after being diagnosed and what factors shape those practices. This article reports the findings of a naturalistic inquiry that explored the experience of dietary practices ...
Pitta Dipti W DW Center for Animal Health and Productivity, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
The ruminal microbiome in herbivores plays a dominant role in the digestion of lignocellulose and has potential to improve animal productivity. Kankrej cattle, a popular native breed of the Indian subcontinent, were used to investigate the effect of different dietary treatments on the bacterial diversity in ruminal fractions using different ...
Naboush Ali - - 2013
Objective: Measuring visceral and hepatic fat in clinical practice and clinical research.Methods: This is a review article looking at the different methods for assessing visceral and hepatic fat.Results: Fat in the human body is located in 2 main compartments; subcutaneous and visceral which also includes liver fat. Visceral and liver ...
Yokoyama Yoko - - 2013
Dental caries are largely preventable, and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between diet and oral health is abundant. To date, however, dentists' perceptions about the role of diet and dentists' practice patterns regarding diet counseling have not been clarified. THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) examine discordance between ...
Kalergis Maria - - 2013
A growing body of scientific evidence has linked dairy intake to a reduced type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Using an evidence-based approach, we reviewed the most recent and strongest evidence on the relationship between dairy intake and the risk of T2D. Evidence indicates that dairy intake is significantly associated with ...
Colman E - - 2012
Daily ruminal pH variation can be summarized by a cumulative logistic curve based on the amount of time below multiple pH points and characterized by 2 parameters (β(0) and β(1)). Moreover, rumen pH variation affects the rumen microbiome as well as the biohydrogenation pathways resulting in a modified secretion of ...
Schlau N - - 2012
Past research has focused on the prevention and management of subacute rumen acidosis by manipulating the ration; however, the severity of acidosis varies even among animals fed a common high-grain diet. The objectives of this study were to compare the ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile and expression of genes ...
Laarman A H - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting high fiber byproducts for dry ground corn in calf starter on growth and rumen pH during the weaning transition. Holstein bull calves were raised on an intensified nursing program using milk replacer containing 26% CP and 18% fat. ...
Sato Shigeru - - 2012
The objective of this study was to determine whether subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) could be diagnosed by continuous measurements of the reticular pH, as compared with the ruminal pH, using healthy cows fed a control diet and SARA cows fed a rumen acidosis-inducing diet. The reticular and ruminal pH were ...
Sundaram Meenakshi - - 2012
Exchangeable apolipoproteins, composed mainly of amphipathic α-helices, are associated with various plasma lipoproteins and play an important role in the metabolism of those lipoproteins to which they bind. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that exchangeable apolipoproteins, such as apoE, apoA-IV, and apoC-III, also play a role intracellularly in facilitating lipid recruitment ...
Kimura Atsushi - - 2012
To assess the relationship between pH and temperature in the ruminal bottom fluid, circadian changes were monitored using cows fed a control diet (C diet) or a rumen acidosis-inducing diet (RAI diet) by using a wireless radio-transmission pH- measurement system. These two parameters were measured simultaneously at 10-min intervals on ...
Golder H M - - 2012
The effects of grain, fructose, and histidine on ruminal pH and fermentation products were studied in dairy cattle during an induced subacute acidosis protocol. Thirty Holstein heifers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: (1) control (no grain); (2) grain [fed at a crushed triticale dry matter intake (DMI) of ...
Wahrmund J L - - 2012
The objective of this experiment was to determine if ruminal temperature rise coincides with pH reduction using an acidosis challenge model. Twelve ruminally cannulated steers (518 ± 28 kg) were administered ruminal temperature monitoring devices which recorded temperature every 2 min. Steers were fed a 63% concentrate diet at 1.6% ...
Jia X - - 2011
Objective:The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO), a crucial gene that affects human obesity and metabolism, has been widely studied in mammals but remains poorly characterized in birds. We aimed to identify variant FTO transcripts in domestic avian species, and to characterize the expression and biological functions of FTO in ...
Foppa Ivo M - - 2011
Despite the importance of per-capita feeding rates for mosquito-borne transmission dynamics, the relationship between host aggregation and per-capita feeding rates remains poorly characterized. We conducted indoor experiments to investigate how Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes distribute their blood feeding on variably aggregated domestic chickens (Callus gallus domesticus L.) (one chicken vs. ...
Roy Poritosh - - 2012
The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if ...
Kiyohara R - - 2011
The Hinai-dori is a breed of chicken native to the Akita prefecture in Japan. A cross between the Hinai-dori and Rhode Island Red breeds has been commercialized as the Hinai-jidori chicken, one of the most popular brands in Japan. High arachidonic acid (AA) content is a characteristic feature of Hinai-jidori ...
Lan Ganqiu - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Phytate-bound phosphorus (P) in poultry diets is poorly available to chickens. Hence exogenous phytase is often added to their diets. Mitsuokella jalaludinii is a rumen bacterial species that produces high phytase activity. In this study the effects of freeze-dried active M. jalaludinii culture (FD-AMJC) and Natuphos(®) phytase (phytase N) ...
Peng Xi - - 2011
The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of low selenium (Se) on cellular immune function by determining cell cycle of thymus, serum IL-2 content, and mitogenesis of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. One hundred twenty 1-day-old Avian broilers were randomly assigned to two groups of 60 each and ...
Serrano E - - 2011
The development of analytical methods to verify the production system of meat products requires the identification of biomarkers that can trace the product's origin, and secondly the factors that govern the deposition of these markers in animal tissue need to be defined. In this study, 2,3-octanedione, skatole and terpenes were ...
Saher Gesine - - 2011
Myelin consists of tightly compacted membranes that form an insulating sheath around axons. The function of myelin for rapid saltatory nerve conduction is dependent on its unique composition, highly enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate limiting for the ...
Labaied Mehdi - - 2011
Our previous morphological studies illustrated the association of sterols with Plasmodium infecting hepatocytes. Because malaria parasites cannot synthesize sterols, they must scavenge these lipids from the host. In this paper, we have examined the source/s of sterols for intrahepatic Plasmodium and evaluated the importance of sterols for liver stage development. ...
Varnado-Sullivan P J - - 2010
A disconnect between research findings and public beliefs may lead to further dieting failures for consumers. Participants (N=300) were surveyed to determine their weight loss practices, opinions of weight loss methods, and rated the acceptability of popular and empirically validated weight loss programs. Dieting, the intention to diet, and the ...
Adams Michelle R - - 2011
The importance of Niemann-Pick C1 Like-1 (NPC1L1) protein in intestinal absorption of dietary sterols, including both cholesterol and phytosterols, is well documented. However, the exact mechanism by which NPC1L1 facilitates cholesterol transport remains controversial. This study administered 22-(N(-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol) and [(3)H]cholesterol to Npc1l1(+/+) and Npc1l1(-/-) mice to determine whether NPC1L1 ...
Gallová Jana - - 2011
The structures of DMPC and DPPC bilayers in unilamellar liposomes, in the presence of 33.3 mol% cholesterol or the plant sterol β-sitosterol, have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering. The bilayer thickness d (L) increases in a similar way for both sterols. The repeat distance in multilamellar liposomes, as determined by ...
Lin Yuguang - - 2011
Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic ...
Fakheri Robert J - - 2011
Autoregulation of cholesterol synthesis focuses on the 19 metabolic steps from lanosterol to cholesterol. Although synchronization of their rates of synthesis in all tissues was the paradigm, a known exception occurs in the ovary where a local increase in a sterol intermediate, FF-MAS (follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol), activates meiosis ...
Chijimatsu Takeshi - - 2011
We investigated whether the fat and protein fractions of freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract (FCE) could ameliorate hypercholesterolaemia in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. We also explored the mechanism and the components that exert the hypocholesterolaemic effect of FCE. The doses of the fat and protein fractions were equivalent to ...
Julien C - - 2010
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of diet composition on ruminal parameters, more particularly redox potential (Eh). Four Holstein dry dairy cows, fitted with ruminal cannulas, were allocated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They were given four experimental hay-based diets D0, D25, D42 ...
De Castro-Orós Isabel - - 2011
The bile acid pool influences intestinal cholesterol absorption because this process is strictly dependent on micellar solubilization, which is disrupted by plant sterols (PS). Plasma lipid variation relates to promoter variant -204A > C (rs3808607) of the CYP7A1 gene encoding for 7α-hydroxylase, an enzyme for bile acid synthesis. We hypothesized that this polymorphism ...
Neil H A W - - 2010
To determine the effects of statin treatment and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on plasma plant sterol concentrations and cholesterol synthesis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Plant sterol concentrations and lanosterol (a marker of cholesterol synthesis) were measured using a high sensitivity assay to assess the effect of double-blind ...
Serra Montserrat M Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, - - 2010
Our recent studies have focused on cholesterol synthesis in mouse models for 7-dehydrosterolreductase (DHCR7) deficiency, also known as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Investigations of such mutants have relied on tissue and blood levels of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) and its 8-dehydro isomer. In this investigation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we ...
Lin X X Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, - - 2010
Extrinsic phytosterols supplemented to the diet reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. However, little is known about their effects on cholesterol metabolism when given in native, unpurified form and in amounts achievable in the diet. The objective of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that intrinsic ...
Mourvaki Evangelia - - 2010
Sterols are essential components of the cell membrane lipid bilayer that include molecules such as cholesterol and desmosterol, which are significantly found in the spermatozoa of several animal species. However, the presence of desmosterol in rabbit semen has never been investigated. The aims of this study were to characterize the ...
Lupattelli G - - 2012
We investigated the behaviour of non-cholesterol sterols, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (campesterol and sitosterol) and synthesis (lathosterol), in primary hyperlipemias. We studied 53 patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia (PH), 38 patients with familial combined hyperlipemia (FCH), and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In all participants, plasma sitosterol, campesterol ...
Gagliardi A C M - - 2010
Our purpose was to examine the effects of daily servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine and plant sterol margarine, within recommended amounts, on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos), biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and on the transfer of lipids to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome. This was ...
Temel Ryan E RE Section on Lipid Sciences, Department of Pathology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests that the intestine may play a direct facilitative role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), independent of hepatobiliary secretion. In order to understand the nonbiliary pathway for RCT, we created both genetic and surgical models of biliary cholesterol insufficiency. To genetically inhibit biliary cholesterol secretion, we generated mice ...
Amaral C - - 2010
Cholesterol and its precursors, namely 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol and lathosterol are important biochemical markers of cholesterol biosynthesis, and their quantification in body fluids is useful for the diagnosis of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway disorders. A rapid and sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for quantitative analysis of five sterols ...
Sato Ryuichiro - - 2010
Cholesterol is one of the major components of membrane lipids. Adjustment of the membrane cholesterol balance is, therefore, pivotal in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are tightly regulated at the transcriptional level through a negative feedback control. The transcription factor family known as sterol regulatory element-binding ...
Pakarinen Mikko P - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Small intestine essentially regulates cholesterol homeostasis. AIMS: To evaluate cholesterol metabolism in short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: Cholesterol precursors (e.g., cholestenol, desmosterol and lathosterol) and plant sterols (campesterol and sitosterol), respective markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, were determined in SBS patients (n=12) an average of 31 months after ...
Harding Scott V - - 2010
The effect of dietary plant sterols on cholesterol homeostasis has been well characterized in the intestine, but how plant sterols affect lipid metabolism in other lipid-rich tissues is not known. Changes in hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in response to high dietary intakes of plant sterols were determined in male golden Syrian ...
Brown Andrew J - - 2010
Although often considered in a negative light, cholesterol is an essential molecule with unusually diverse functions. Cholesterol and related sterols (ergosterol in yeast, phytosterols in plants) is considered a hallmark of eukaryotes, and may even have triggered the evolution of multicellular organisms. Synthesis of cholesterol is an extremely oxygen-intensive process ...
Matsuoka Keisuke - - 2010
Slight differences in the molecular structures of a category of sterol/stanol species affect the solubility of cholesterol in a bile salt solution. We systematically studied the preferential solubilization of cholesterol and sterol/stanol in sodium taurodeoxycholate solutions using relatively minor plant species of sterol/stanol (brassicasterol and stigmasterol) and a non-plant sterol ...
Betters Jenna L JL Department of Pathology Section on Lipid Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1040, - - 2010
The polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), is enriched in the apical membrane of small intestine absorptive enterocytes where it mediates extracellular sterol transport across the brush border membrane. It is essential for intestinal sterol absorption and is the molecular target of ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor that ...
Silbernagel Guenther - - 2010
Moderately elevated levels of plasma plant sterols have been suspected to be causally involved in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plant sterols and other markers of sterol metabolism predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular health (LURIC) study. A ...
Derdemezis Christos S - - 2010
Consumption of foods and supplements enriched with plant sterols/stanols (PS) may help reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In this review, we consider the effects of PS beyond LDL-C lowering. Plant sterols/stanols exert beneficial effects on other lipid variables, such as apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoAI ratio and, in some studies, high-density ...
Li Rui - - 2010
Conjugated linoleyl beta-sitosterol (CLS) was prepared from beta-sitosterol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) via lipase-catalyzed synthesis in n-hexane in the presence of molecular sieves. Its plasma cholesterol-lowering properties were also studied. The optimal biosynthesis conditions were as follows: beta-sitosterol concentration of 50 micromol/mL, the molar ratio of CLA to beta-sitosterol ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >