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Maurer Alannah D - - 2011
Risk of developing the metabolic syndrome may be influenced by nutritional environment early in life. We examined the effects of high-fibre (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets consumed during pregnancy and lactation on satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring. Wistar dams were fed ...
Oosting Annemarie - - 2010
This study investigates whether improved quality of nutrients during early postnatal life has effects on adult metabolic profile and body composition in a murine model of nutritional programming. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j dams received a diet containing 21% energy (En%) as fat of either 100% vegetable oils [control (CTRL)] or ...
Vucskits A V - - 2010
Effect of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on production parameters, immune response and thyroid function of rats were investigated in two experiments. First experiment: control or 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8% HA- or FA-supplemented diets. Second experiment: control and 0.4% HA- or FA-supplemented diets. The feeding period lasted 26 ...
Sultan Najia - - 2010
The diet of expectant mothers was a significant issue of social, political and scientific concern between 1930 and 1960. However, while histories of maternity services and nutritional science are independently available, no existing study addresses the nutrition of expectant mothers in this period. Between 1900 and 1930, maternal mortality rates ...
Rymer C - - 2011
Supplementing broiler diets with conventional vegetable oils has little effect on the long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) content of the meat. The present study investigated the effect on fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of chicken meat when broilers were fed oil extracted from soyabeans (SDASOY) that had been ...
Grant Shannan M - - 2011
the objectives of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and effect on glycaemic control of a low-glycaemic-index (GI) diet in women with gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance of pregnancy. participants, recruited from the Diabetes-in-Pregnancy Clinic of an inner-city teaching hospital serving a predominantly non-Caucasian population, were randomized ...
Toufektsian Marie-Claire - - 2011
Flavonoids probably contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their effects are not fully elucidated. PUFA of the (n-3) series also have health benefits. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that wine flavonoids may interact with the ...
Zhou Qiu-Bai - - 2011
The effects of different lipids on tissue fatty acid profile and reproductive performance in female rice field eel were investigated in this study. Virgin female eels were fed with six diets containing different lipids (diets FO, LO, SO, PO and PL with fish oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil ...
Ulven Stine M - - 2011
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and ...
Varney Melinda E - - 2011
The effects of the polyunsaturated omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids (FA) on hematopoiesis are complex in that both FA forms are processed into leukotrienes, eicosanoids, and prostaglandins, which can have independent effects. These FA have antagonistic effects in that n-6 FA prostaglandins tend to be pro-proliferative and pro-inflammatory, ...
Fini Lucia L Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor Research Institute and Sammons Cancer Center, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, - - 2010
Although cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors could represent the most effective chemopreventive tool against colorectal cancer (CRC), their use in clinical practice is hampered by cardiovascular side effects. Consumption of ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs) is associated with a reduced risk of CRC. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the efficacy of a ...
Yu Yu-Hsiang - - 2011
Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a critical role in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. To become functional, PPARγ must be activated by binding an appropriate ligand. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are potential ligands for PPARγ. The current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic ...
Sampels S - - 2011
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for the development of the nervous system in animals. It is known that pigs are good models for human in many aspects. The aim of the study was to investigate how fat content and FA composition in sows' diet influence FA composition in brain ...
Tierney A C - - 2011
Background:Excessive energy intake and obesity lead to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) may be particularly detrimental on insulin sensitivity (SI) and on other components of the MetS.Objective:This study determined the relative efficacy of reducing dietary SFA, by isoenergetic alteration of the quality and quantity of dietary ...
Lau Beatrice Y - - 2010
Previous studies have suggested that high-fat diets adversely affect bone development. However, these studies included other dietary manipulations, including low calcium, folic acid, and fibre, and (or) high sucrose or cholesterol, and did not directly compare several common sources of dietary fat. Thus, the overall objective of this study was ...
Sirot V - - 2012
Fish, especially fatty fish, are the main contributor to eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) intake. EPA and DHA concentrations in red blood cells (RBC) has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, with <4% and >8% associated with the lowest and greatest protection, respectively. The relationship between high fat fish ...
Kuipers Remko S - - 2010
Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity ...
Miyazawa Daisuke - - 2010
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine a relatively short-term effect of feeding an α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3)-restricted, linoleic acid (LA, n-6)-adequate diet on neurotrophin contents and protein kinase activities in brain regions of the mouse. MAIN METHODS: After feeding mice a safflower oil (SAF) diet (ALA-restricted, LA-adequate) ...
Gronroos Noelle N NN Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2010
Dietary factors might affect the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but available studies have provided inconsistent results. A review of published observational studies and randomized trials identified 4 dietary exposures that had been investigated regarding AF risk: alcohol, fish-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, caffeine, and ascorbic acid. Though studies were ...
Wongsuthavas S - - 2011
The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty ...
Glick Norris R - - 2010
Fatty acids, being multi-functional and partially diet-dependent, are crucial for health yet optimal dietary composition remains controversial. Previous work suggests that nutritionally-dependent populations live with significant fatty acid abnormalities despite abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. An analysis of fasting plasma phospholipids, including plasmalogens, and total fatty acids was conducted on ...
Talahalli Ramaprasad R - - 2010
We made a comparative analysis of the uptake, tissue deposition and conversion of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to its long chain metabolites eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with preformed EPA + DHA. Diets containing linseed oil [with ALA at approximately 2.5 (4 g/kg diet), 5 (8 g/kg diet), ...
Kono Hiroshi - - 2010
The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid ...
Rymer Caroline - - 2010
Enriching poultry meat with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) can increase low population intakes of LC n-3 PUFA, but fishy taints can spoil reheated meat. This experiment determined the effect of different amounts of LC n-3 PUFA and vitamin E in the broiler diet on the fatty ...
Castellano C-A - - 2010
To evaluate the influence of dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on storage of boar semen, three experiments were conducted: two involved long-term, fresh semen storage (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2), whereas the other involved cryopreservation (Exp. 3). Boars were allocated randomly to three dietary treatments (for ...
Jelenik Tomas - - 2010
The induction of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance by high-fat diet in rodents can be prevented by n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). We tested a hypothesis whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a role in the beneficial effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Mice with a whole-body deletion of the α2 ...
Kim Bumsik - - 2010
Hypoadiponectinemia is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including the quality of dietary fats. We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) with dietary fat intake or fatty acid (FA) composition in serum phospholipids, plasma adiponectin, and insulin resistance. Nondiabetic subjects (n = ...
Tanaka Naoki - - 2010
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in fish oil is known to improve hepatic steatosis. However, it remains unclear whether such action of EPA is actually caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation. To explore the contribution of PPARα to the effects of EPA itself, male wild-type and Ppara-null mice were fed ...
Muhlhausler Beverly S BS School of Agriculture, Food, and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, - - 2010
n-3 (omega-3) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) inhibit fat cell differentiation and fat storage in adults, and this has led to the hypothesis that maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation may reduce fat mass in children. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation in ...
Davis Paul F - - 2010
Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long-Evans rats. An alpha-linolenic acid-deficient ...
Mahecha Liliana - - 2010
This study evaluated the influence of different n-3 and n-6 PUFA-enriched diets on the relationship between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status by analyzing fatty acids (FA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity (AOC), antioxidant enzymes, trace elements, and fat-soluble vitamins in the longissimus muscle. Diet caused significant changes in muscle FA composition, ...
Dangardt Frida - - 2010
Compared to normal weight adolescents, obese adolescents have lower serum omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations, augmented inflammatory activity and endothelial dysfunction. We wanted to assess whether n-3 supplementation increases the serum n-3 PUFA concentration, improves vascular function and morphology, and lowers inflammation in obese adolescents. Twenty-five obese adolescents ...
Khairallah Ramzi J - - 2010
Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether ...
Hallund Jesper - - 2010
Increased intake of marine long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) may decrease the risk of CVD and reduce mortality by lowering serum TAG and blood pressure (BP). Furthermore, n-3 LCPUFA may affect novel CVD risk markers related to inflammation and vascular function. The objective of the present study was to examine ...
Casós Kelly - - 2010
Oxidative stress contributes to lipid peroxidation and decreases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in atherosclerosis. While long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are easily oxidized in vitro, they improve endothelial function. Hence, this study postulates that long-chain (n-3) PUFA decrease atherogenic oxidative stress in vivo. To test this, apoE(-/-) mice were ...
Zhang Jian - - 2010
Although the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on several physiologic functions have been widely reported, information about the effects of oily fish in the Asian diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is diminutive. We hypothesize that daily inclusion of oily fish for 8 weeks in the Chinese diet will ...
Yen Chi-Hua - - 2011
This study assessed effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) supplementation on fecal bifidobacteria, lipid peroxidation index, indices of nutritional status, and whether effects of FOS were sustained after its withdrawal in constipated nursing-home residents. The associations of fecal bifidobacteria and blood measurements were also examined. Six men and four women participated in ...
Selvaraj Ramesh K - - 2010
This study investigated the effects of dietary lutein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the total lutein and lipid levels, the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) alpha and gamma, retinoic acid X receptor (RXR) alpha and gamma and IL-1 mRNA levels in chicken (Gallus gallus) liver and spleen. In experiment ...
Petersson Helena - - 2010
Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be implicated in these conditions. We investigated the impact of four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality on 8-iso-PGF2α (a major F2-isoprostane and oxidative stress indicator), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major ...
Mullen Kerry L - - 2010
Adiponectin (Ad) is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine known to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle can become resistant to Ad very rapidly, after only 3 days of high saturated fat feeding in rats. Whether the same occurs following a high polyunsaturated fat diet is unknown. Obesity, insulin ...
Ramel A - - 2010
In vitro studies have shown that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) can affect inflammation; however, results from intervention studies in overweight or obese individuals are contradicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of weight loss and seafood consumption on inflammation parameters during energy ...
Auinger Annegret - - 2010
The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) is involved in lipid metabolism whereby variations in the promoter (haplotypes A/B) and exon 2 (Ala54Thr) are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To elucidate which factors determine FABP2 expression in human mucosa, we investigated the association between fat intake, genotypes, biochemical variables, ...
Czernichow Sébastien - - 2010
n-6 PUFA are well known for their critical role in many physiological functions and seem to reduce risks of CHD. However, some argue that excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA may lead to adverse effects on health and therefore recommend reducing dietary n-6 PUFA intake or fixing an upper limit. In ...
Bernardini D - - 2010
According to a 2 x 2 crossover design, 14 Holstein dairy cows were fed two isoenergetic diets based on either grass hay (GH) or maize silage (MS). Milk samples were collected during the third week of each period, and fatty acid (FA) profiles were analyzed using gas chromatography. The data ...
Misra Anoop - - 2010
Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show ...
Wien Michelle - - 2010
The n-6/n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio has increased in the Western-style diet to approximately 10-15:1 during the last century, which may have contributed to the rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prior studies have evaluated the effects on CVD risk factors of manipulating the levels of n-6 and n-3 FA using ...
Lefils Jennifer - - 2010
Consumption of DHA has numerous beneficial effects, but little is known about these effects during the first few days of the DHA dietary intake. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the time course of DHA incorporation into phospholipids in different mouse tissues and the effects of ...
Lu Yingchang - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases, encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are rate-limiting enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster region have been associated with both PUFA concentrations in plasma or erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and cholesterol concentrations in recent genome-wide ...
Levant Beth B Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. - - 2010
Insufficient availability of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during pre- and neonatal development decreases accretion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in the developing brain. Low tissue levels of DHA are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, 1st- and 2nd-litter male Long-Evans rats were ...
Vissapragada Sarada - - 2010
Diet and obesity, and their associated metabolic alterations, are some of the fastest-growing causes of disease and death in America. Findings from epidemiological studies correlating obesity, the sources of dietary fat and prostate cancer (PCa) are conflicting. We have previously shown that 15% of PB-ErbB-2 x pten(+/-) mice developed PCa ...
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