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Genoud Myriam - - 2008
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In affected individuals with this syndrome, the independent contribution of low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels to the development of atherosclerosis remains to be clarified. We assessed the relationship between these 2 parameters and several surrogate markers ...
Notø Ann-Trude With - - 2008
Subjects with echolucent carotid plaques have an increased risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events independent of degree of stenosis. Low plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity promotes a proatherogenic lipid profile, and delayed chylomicron clearance is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to determine plasma LPL activity and postprandial ...
Subramanian Savitha S Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195-6426, - - 2008
Chronic systemic inflammation accompanies obesity and predicts development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase inflammation and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice. This study was undertaken to determine whether dietary cholesterol and obesity have additive effects on inflammation and atherosclerosis. LDLR(-/-) mice were fed chow, high-fat, ...
Naemura Aki - - 2008
Epidemiological evidence exists for a causative role of inappropriate diets in the development and clinical outcome of thrombotic diseases. Our previous studies have shown that some fruits and vegetables have antithrombotic activity. As rice is a principal ingredient of everyday food in Japan, the aim of the present study was ...
Percario S - - 2008
Since the involvement of free radicals in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis was proposed, antioxidant supplementation arose as a potential strategy for the management of this disease. Thus, we decided to investigate the potential benefit of a natural antioxidant--rich edible mushroom (Agaricus sylvaticus) on the prevention of atherosclerosis. New Zealand rabbits ...
Prasad Kailash - - 2007
Flax lignan complex (FLC) isolated from flaxseed suppresses the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study were to investigate if FLC produces regression of atherosclerosis and if regression is associated with reductions in serum lipids and oxidative stress. The studies were conducted in 4 groups of rabbits: group ...
Temel Ryan E - - 2007
The development of atherosclerosis in mice can be dramatically affected by the composition of the diet. The nutrients that seem to have the greatest impact on the atherosclerotic process in not only mice but also humans are fat and cholesterol. For this reason, many murine diets have been created that ...
Goharkhay Nima - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal programming on the development of atherosclerosis in the offspring in a mouse model. STUDY DESIGN: Male and female mice of the wild type and the knockout for the apoprotein E (apoE) gene were cross-bred to obtain all ...
Prasad Kailash - - 2008
Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flaxseed is a lipid-lowering and antioxidant agent. It suppresses the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits. It is however not known if SDG would produce regression of atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if SDG produces regression of atherosclerosis; (ii) if ...
Guillén Natalia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Squalene is an intermediate of cholesterol biosynthesis which can be obtained from the diet where it is abundant, for example, in olive oil. The effect of this isoprenoid on the development of atherosclerosis was investigated on apoE-knockout mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of animals, separated according to sex, ...
Joven Jorge - - 2007
The determinant factors for the development of atherosclerosis in response to dietary cholesterol were examined in two animal models to assess the comparability of results. We studied 128 male Apo E(-/-) and 128LDLr(-/-) mice randomly assigned to baseline (n=8) and 5 groups (n=24 each) that differed only in their dietary ...
Ichi Ikuyo - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have indicated that plasma sphingomyelin levels and sphingomyelinase activity are risk factors for atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is suggested that ceramides, which are hydrolyzed products of sphingomyelin and a biologically active lipid causing apoptosis in a variety of cells, have an important role in the incidence of atherosclerosis. ...
Botham K M - - 2007
Although it has been known for many years that dietary lipids influence the development of atherosclerosis, in the past this has been attributed to their effects on blood cholesterol levels. Recent work, however, has shown that CMRs (chylomicron remnants), the lipoproteins which carry dietary lipids in the blood, potentially have ...
Inoue Tatsuki - - 2007
This study examined the effects of a health education program based on the self- reliance and self-action philosophy and the use of group work methodology on hypercholesterolemia during and after the intervention period. Thirty-two people participated in the study. Measurement values were obtained at the commencement of the intervention (Baseline), ...
Sutra Thibault - - 2007
The effects of fruit and vegetable extract (Oxxynea) on plasma cholesterol, early atherosclerosis, cardiac production of superoxide anion, and NAD(P)H oxidase expression were studied in an animal model of atherosclerosis. Thirty six hamsters were divided into two groups of 18 and fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received ...
Kanashiro A - - 2007
Atherosclerosis has been described as an inflammatory disease in which polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) seem to be involved. These cells may induce atherosclerotic lesions by releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a sort of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, the PMNL oxidative metabolic status of Golden Syrian hamsters fed a normal ...
Pertovaara M - - 2007
Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of tryptophan, suppresses T cell activity and is up-regulated by various inflammatory stimuli. The ratio of kynurenine, the main metabolite of tryptophan, to tryptophan (kyn/trp) reflects IDO activity. We calculated IDO activity and measured carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a presymptomatic ...
Jung Hyun-Ju - - 2007
The inhibitory effect of the MeOH extract of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum (Umbelliferase) and its fractions were tested in hyperlipidemic and hypercholesterolemic rats using four animal models induced using poloxamer-407 or using Triton WR-1339 as intrinsic inducers and by 30% corn oil or high cholesterol diet as extrinsic inducers. We measured serum ...
Savransky Vladimir - - 2007
Obstructive sleep apnea, a condition leading to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and a high cardiovascular risk. A causal link between obstructive sleep apnea and atherosclerosis has not been established. The objective of the present study was to examine whether CIH may induce atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J ...
Vela Deborah - - 2007
CONTEXT: It has become increasingly evident that adipose tissue is a multifunctional organ that produces and secretes multiple paracrine and endocrine factors. Research into obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes has identified a proinflammatory state associated with obesity. Substantial differences between subcutaneous and omental fat have been noted, including the fact ...
Davis Nichola - - 2007
Endothelial dysfunction is an early precursor to atherosclerosis. Lifestyle interventions, including diet, have been shown to affect endothelial function. High-fat diets have been shown to impair endothelial function, and diets such as the Mediterranean diet have been associated with improved endothelial function. This review discusses the effects of diet, dietary ...
Metzner Julia - - 2007
In this study, we investigated the effects of prolonged administration of the selective COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and rofecoxib and the non-selective NSAID naproxen on the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) mice, as well as corresponding wild-type mice, were fed either a normal chow or a high fat Western diet ...
Landi Librandi Ana Paula - - 2007
This work evaluated a crude hydroalcoholic extract (ExT) from the pulp of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit as a source of compounds active on the complement system (CS) in vitro. ExT, previously characterized by other authors, had time and concentration dependent effects on the lytic activity of the CS. The ...
Behjati Mohadeseh - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: There are some lines of evidence about the role of telomeres in atherosclerotic plaque formation and development. Despite the role of telomerase in telomere elongation and protection, its role in atherosclerosis is not fully understood. The present study was designed to evaluate the importance of alternative splicing variants ofTERT ...
Katsuda Yuko - - 2007
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SNP45 of the adiponectin gene on body fat distribution and carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese obese subjects. METHODS: A total of 64 obese subjects were investigated. Genotypes of SNP45 were assayed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Visceral ...
Friedlander Arthur H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The dental literature contains little information about metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its dental implications. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 2000 through 2005, using the term "metabolic syndrome" to define its pathophysiology, medical treatment and dental implications. RESULTS: MetS is the co-occurrence ...
Qian Kun - - 2007
Increased expression of catalytically inactive hepatic lipase (ciHL) lowers remnants and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and may reduce atherosclerosis in mice lacking both LDLreceptors (LDLR) and murine (m) HL. However, in a previous study, ciHL expression failed to reduce atherosclerosis but increased liver fat accumulation after a 3-month high-fat diet, suggesting ...
Chira Ebele C EC Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, - - 2007
The transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha (alpha) and gamma (gamma), which are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis, also exert modulatory actions on vascular cells where they exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Hence, PPAR agonists potentially can affect atherogenesis both via metabolic effects and direct effects on the ...
Kleemann Robert - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we treated ApoE*3Leiden mice with cholesterol-free (Con), low (LC; 0.25%) ...
Lin Mao-Shin - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis develops in different locations of the vasculature with different degree, which may result from different antioxidant/prooxidant status. This study investigated the effect of high-fat, high-cholesterol chows, with or without vitamin E supplement (450 mg/kg diet), on lipid peroxide levels, glutathione peroxidase expression, and atheroma formation in ...
Glaros Elias N - - 2007
Glycosphingolipids (GSL) have been implicated as potential atherogenic lipids. Inhibition of hepatic serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) reduces plasma sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the absence of changes in cholesterol or triglyceride (TG) concentration and this leads to a reduction of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. The possibility that the ...
Zhang Hongmin - - 2007
Danggui-Buxue-Tang (DBT) is a famous traditional Chinese formula. We determined the effects of DBT on blood lipid and expression of genes related to foam cell formation in the early stage of atherosclerosis in diabetic GK rats. DBT (3 or 6g/kg/day for 4 weeks) was orally administrated to the diabetic atherosclerosis ...
Tsimikas Sotirios S Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, USA. - - 2007
Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are pro-inflammatory. We evaluated whether changes in plasma levels of OxPL associated with apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) reflect changes in OxPL content in atherosclerotic plaques during dietary-induced atherosclerosis progression and regression. OxPL content was measured in plasma and immunohistochemically in aortic plaques with antibody E06 in cynomolgus monkeys ...
He Shu-Ying - - 2007
Antioxidants have been expected to have potential as antiatherogenic agents. Crocetin is a natural carotenoid antioxidant isolated from Gardenia jasminoids Ellis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Crocetin on experimental atherosclerosis in quails. The atherosclerosis model was established by feeding hyperlipidamic diet to quail and ...
Parks Brian W - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major product of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and secretory phospholipase A2-mediated lipid hydrolysis within atherosclerotic lesions. The G2A receptor mediates chemotaxis of cultured macrophages and T cells to lysophosphatidylcholine, supporting a pro-atherogenic role for this receptor in vivo. We investigated the ability of G2A to modulate ...
Suzuki Masakazu - - 2006
The present study examined the effect of high fat and high fructose (HFF) diet on the development of atherosclerosis and vascular contractile responses in the cerebral artery and thoracic aorta in non-human primates. Female cynomolgus monkeys (age: 3 to 4 years) were divided into normal control diet (N=5) and HFF ...
Prasad Kailash - - 2007
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia increases the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and cytokines which are known to stimulate granulocytes and endothelial cells to produce ROS. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is an inhibitor of cytokines and PAF and would reduce the generation ...
Linares A - - 2006
Contractile-state smooth muscle cells (SMC), the only cell type in the arterial media, undergoes migration to the intima, proliferation, and abundant extracellular matrix production during the early stages of atherosclerosis. This involves the ingestion of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and modified or oxidised LDL by macrophages together with SMC by several ...
Yamaguchi Yu - - 2006
Corosolic acid (CRA), a constituent of banaba leaves, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CRA on metabolic risk factors including obesity, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia together with oxidative stress and inflammation, all of which are ...
Game Bryan A - - 2007
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. It is generally recognized that CTGF contributes to atherosclerosis by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and extracellular matrix production during the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies indicate that CTGF may also contribute to plaque destabilization as it induces ...
Ozbudak Omer - - 2006
It has been demonstrated that both hypercholesterolemia and infectious agents are contributing factors in atherosclerosis but their combined effect on the pulmonary vascular bed is not known. To answer this question, the authors tried to demonstrate the effects of recurrent infection on pulmonary parenchyma and vascular system in cholesterol-fed rats. ...
Ikenoya Mami - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), a major ACAT isozyme in macrophages, plays an essential role in foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. However, whether pharmacological inhibition of macrophage ACAT-1 causes exacerbation or suppression of atherosclerosis is controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed and characterized a novel ACAT inhibitor, K-604. The ...
Adams Michael R - - 2006
Although dietary patterns characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We determined the effects of a diet rich in green and yellow vegetables on the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary heart ...
Zhang Chi - - 2006
It is widely believed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) functions to transport cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a pathway that may protect against atherosclerosis by clearing excess cholesterol from arterial cells. A cellular ATP binding cassette transporter called ABCA1 mediates the first step ...
Johnson Jason L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) form a large family of enzymes that collectively can degrade all components of the extracellular matrix, and there is widespread interest in developing MMP inhibitors for the prevention of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. We have therefore investigated the effects of a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, RS-130830, on plaque ...
Cai Manbo - - 2006
Inflammation, closely associated with obesity, is emerging as an important risk factor for the pathophysiological development of atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Fat balance is critical in the aetiology of obesity. Lipoprotein lipase is an important enzyme in lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect ...
Suzuki Jun J Division of Medical Biochemistry and Cardiovascular Biology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Ehime University School of Medicine, - - 2006
Angiotensin II contributes to atherogenesis, mainly through oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent data suggest that aldosterone is implicated in some effects of angiotensin II. We hypothesized that aldosterone could directly contribute to oxidative stress and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice 6 weeks of age were placed on a ...
Tan Chunjiang - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is thought to be functionally active in atherosclerosis (AS) lesions. Aspirin was found to be a potent inhibitor of the UPS in some tumour studies; however, its effect on AS remains to be demonstrated in vivo. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were placed on a normal ...
Getz Godfrey S - - 2006
Lipid-enriched diets are often used to induce or accelerate the rate of atherosclerotic lesion development in murine models of atherosclerosis. It appears that the induction of persistent hypercholesterolemia to levels > or approximately to 300 mg/dL is required for the development of experimental atherosclerosis in the mouse. A variety of ...
Smith Jonathan D - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice are hypercholesterolemic and develop atherosclerosis on low-fat chow diets; however, the genetic background strain has a large effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility. This study aimed to determine the genetic regions associated with strain effects on lesion area. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a strain intercross between ...
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