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Shih Diana M DM Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, - - 2014
We report the engineering and characterization of paraoxonase-3 knockout mice (Pon3KO). The mice were generally healthy but exhibited quantitative alterations in bile acid metabolism and a 37% increased body weight compared to the wild-type mice on a high fat diet. PON3 was enriched in the mitochondria-associated membrane fraction of hepatocytes. ...
Ishimwe Nestor N School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China, 214122; Departments of Chemistry and Biology, College of Science and Technology, University of - - 2014
The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol lowering mechanisms, ...
Wang Jilite J a Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Department of Applied Life Science , Gifu University , Gifu , - - 2014
Dietary plant protein is well known to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is a good source of protein. The present study examined whether feeding rats a high-cholesterol diet containing 10% rice bran protein (RBP) for 10 d affected cholesterol metabolism. Rats fed ...
Matsuoka Ryosuke - - 2014
Dietary egg white protein (EWP) decreases serum cholesterol levels. We previously showed that EWP decreased cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Rats subjected to permanent lymph duct cannulation were used to investigate the effects of dietary EWP on lipid transport. They were fed diets with 20% EWP and casein, and their ...
Joyce Susan A SA a Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre , University College Cork , Cork , - - 2014
Abstract Controlled, reductionist approaches are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the functional capabilities of the gut microbiota. We recently identified microbial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity as a gut microbial activity that has the capacity to profoundly alter both local (gastrointestinal) and systemic (hepatic) host ...
Daou Cheickna C State Key Laboratory of the School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, 214122 People's Republic of China ; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, 214122 People's Republic of China ; Universite des Sciences des Techniques et des Technologies de Bamako, Bamako, - - 2014
Enzymatic- gravimetric method was used to obtain three fractions of dietary from defatted rice bran. The functional and physiological properties such as viscosity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cholesterol and bile salt adsorption capacity of the resultant fractions were evaluated. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and ...
Balasubramanian P P Neuroendocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2012
The incidence of ovulatory disorders is common in obese animal models. The mechanism behind this effect is unclear. We hypothesised that a high-fat (HF) diet induces alterations in neuroendocrine mechanisms resulting in anovulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) animals. Adult female DIO and diet-resistant (DR) rats were fed either chow or ...
Paoli A - - 2012
The influence of nutrition on skin health is a growing research area but the findings of various studies on the effect of diet on the development of acne have often been contradictory. The general opinion among researchers has oscillated between two different, opposing positions: that diet either is or is ...
Aires Daniel J - - 2012
Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan across multiple species including mouse. Antioxidant plant extracts rich in polyphenols have also been shown to increase lifespan. We hypothesized that polyphenols might potentiate DR-induced lifespan extension. Twenty week old C57BL/6 mice were placed on one of three diets: continuous feeding (control), alternate day chow ...
Schoch Ashlee H - - 2012
Underreporting in self-reported dietary intake has been linked to dietary restraint (DR) and social desirability (SD), however few investigations have examined the influence of both DR and SD on reporting accuracy and used objective, rather than estimated, measures to determine dietary reporting accuracy. This study investigated accuracy of reporting consumption ...
Duivenvoorde Loes P M - - 2011
High energy intake and, specifically, high dietary fat intake challenge the mammalian metabolism and correlate with many metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. However, dietary restriction (DR) is known to prevent the development of metabolic disorders. The current western diets are highly enriched in fat, and it is as ...
Paulino do Nascimento Adriana - - 2011
Diet-induced overweight rats exhibit delayed cutaneous healing; however, when receiving an obesogenic diet, some rats are susceptible to developing the overweight phenotype, whereas others are resistant. We investigated cutaneous healing in diet-induced obesity (DIO)-prone and diet-resistant (DR) rats. Male rats were fed with a standard (control) or a high-saturated fat ...
Li Jie - - 2011
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility and gut hormones have been considered to be involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. Our aim was to assess the relationships between gastric emptying (GE), GI transit and gut hormones and leptin concentrations in diet-induced obese rat model. Male 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with ...
Drewry M D - - 2011
Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced reproduction each extend life span in many species. Females undergoing DR typically experience a reduction in their fecundity, which raises the question of whether the two treatments are actually extending life span in overlapping ways. Life span in lubber grasshoppers has been shown to be ...
Park Hee Ra - - 2011
Adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are negatively and positively regulated by a broad range of environmental stimuli that include aging, stress, social interaction, physical activity, and dietary modulation. Interestingly, dietary regulation has a distinct outcome, such that reduced dietary intake enhances neurogenesis, whereas excess ...
Misra Anoop - - 2011
India is facing an 'epidemic' of diet-related non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs), along with widely prevalent undernutrition resulting in substantial socio-economic burden. The aim of this paper is to review secular trends in food groups and nutrient intake and implications for DR-NCDs in India so as to understand optimal choices for healthy ...
Duivenvoorde Loes - - 2011
High energy intake and, specifically, high dietary fat intake challenges the mammalian metabolism and correlates with many metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. Dietary restriction (DR) is, on the other hand, known to prevent the development of metabolic disorders. The current Western diets are highly enriched in fat and ...
Liu Zheng-Juan - - 2011
Aim: Leptin resistance is a feature of most cases of obesity in both humans and rodents. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a negative-feedback regulator of leptin signaling involved in leptin resistance, therefore the suppression of SOCS3 is a potential therapy for leptin-resistance in obesity. In the studies, ...
Stefanyk Leslie E - - 2011
Leptin is an adipokine that increases fatty acid (FA) oxidation, decreases intramuscular lipid stores, and improves insulin response in skeletal muscle. In an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which these metabolic changes occur, we administered leptin (Lep) or saline (Sal) by miniosmotic pumps to rats during the final ...
de Lartigue Guillaume G Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, - - 2011
Ingestion of high-fat, high-calorie diets is associated with hyperphagia, increased body fat, and obesity. The mechanisms responsible are currently unclear; however, altered leptin signaling may be an important factor. Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) integrate signals from the gut in response to ingestion of nutrients and express leptin receptors. Therefore, we ...
Conceição E P S - - 2011
Litter size reduction during lactation is a good model for childhood obesity since it induces overnutrition and programming for obesity at adulthood. Adult offspring develop higher fat mass content, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, hypertension, lower HDL cholesterol, hyperphagia, and leptin resistance. Leptin resistance is often associated with hyperleptinemia. Although we ...
Tan Heok Yit - - 2011
Adiponectin is a key adipokine that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It circulates in stable low (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) forms. The aims of this study were to characterize baseline adiponectin profiles (total, LMW and HMW multimers) in healthy cats and to assess the effects of varying dietary ...
Labayen Idoia - - 2011
Hormones related to energy balance control may play an important role on weight loss resistance after low-caloric diet (LCD) intervention. To investigate the predictive value of baseline leptin and ghrelin on body fat mass (FM) loss after 12 wk of LCD intervention and to study whether these associations could be ...
Summer Suzanne S - - 2011
Adiponectin is an adipose-derived protein with beneficial metabolic effects. Low adiponectin is associated with obesity and related diseases. Significant weight loss increases adiponectin, reducing disease risk. This study compared the effects of two weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on adiponectin. Eighty-one obese women in two cohorts were randomized to ...
Nascimento André F - - 2011
Aims Leptin resistance has been associated with cardiac lipotoxicity; however, whether leptin resistance is a risk factor associated with cardiac lipotoxicity at different time points in diet-induced obesity is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate this relationship. Main methods Male Wistar rats were fed a normal chow ...
Shapiro Alexandra - - 2011
Chronic consumption of a Western-type diet, containing both elevated sugar and fat, results in leptin resistance. We hypothesised that fructose, as part of the sugar component of Western-type diets, is one causative ingredient in the development of leptin resistance and that removal of this component will prevent leptin resistance despite ...
Vaidya Anand A Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, RFB 386, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. - - 2011
Previous studies have suggested that circulating adiponectin concentrations are associated positively with vitamin D and negatively with body mass index (BMI) but have not accounted for the influence of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in this relationship. This is particularly relevant because increased RAAS activity is associated with obesity and is ...
Liu Xin-Yu - - 2011
Maternal serum leptin concentrations have been suggested as a key factor in programming growth patterns and protecting against adult metabolic disease in human offspring. However, the role of maternal leptin in the development of wild rodent offspring is not clear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal hyperleptinemia in lactating Brandt's ...
Beckman Lauren M - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) imparts long-term weight loss, the mechanisms for which are not well understood. Changes in leptin and gastrointestinal (GI) hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin, may contribute to the relative success of RYGB compared with conventional weight loss methods. This study evaluated ...
Boustany-Kari Carine M - - 2011
We hypothesized that a combination of low doses of rimonabant and leptin would markedly reduce body weight through modulation of neuronal activity within the hypothalamus. To this end, high fat diet-induced obese rats were randomized to receive either leptin (0.5mg/kg subcutaneously), rimonabant (3mg/kg), the combination of both, or vehicle, daily ...
Qiao Liping L Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., MC 0983, La Jolla, CA 92093, - - 2011
Hypoadiponectinemia and decreased adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been well observed in obese subjects and animal models. However, the mechanism for obesity-associated hypoadiponectinemia is still largely unknown. To investigate the regulatory role of energy intake, dietary fat, and adiposity in adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin ...
Klempel Monica C - - 2011
Calorie restriction (CR)-induced weight loss has been shown to lower the risk of chronic disease in obese individuals. Although the mechanisms that link weight loss to disease risk reduction remain unclear, evidence suggests adipokines may play a role. What has yet to be determined, however, is the dose-response effect of ...
Dubinion John H - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet ...
Murer Stefanie B - - 2011
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether high plasma leptin in obese individuals represents leptin resistance or whether individuals with marked reductions in leptin concentrations in response to weight loss may be at greater risk of regaining weight. Moreover, whether changes in leptin predict metabolic improvements during weight loss is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: ...
da Silva Lima Natália - - 2011
Maternal malnutrition during lactation programmes for overweight and central leptin resistance in adulthood. The inhibition of lactation by maternal treatment with bromocriptine (a prolactin inhibitor) programmes for obesity, hyperleptinaemia and leptin resistance. Here, we evaluated the short- and long-term effects of early weaning (EW) on body-weight regulation, leptin signalling, and ...
Long Nathan M - - 2011
A neonatal peak in rodent plasma leptin plays a central role in regulating development of the hypothalamic appetite control centres. Maternal obesity lengthens and amplifies the peak in altricial rodent species. The precise timing and characteristics of the neonatal leptin peak have not been established in offspring of either normal ...
How Jackie M Y - - 2011
Gastric leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) act on vagal afferents to induce cardiovascular effects and reflex inhibition of splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SSND), and may act co-operatively in these responses. We sought to determine whether these effects are altered in animals that developed obesity in response to a medium high fat ...
Pasiakos Stefan M - - 2011
Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the effects of 48 h near complete energy restriction on endocrine regulators of appetite and satiety were assessed. Twelve men and one woman participated in this controlled, 2-day diet intervention study. One experimental trial was completed in a calorie deprived state (CAL-DEP; <10% of estimated ...
Cottrell Elizabeth C EC Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, United Kingdom. - - 2011
Low birth weight and rapid postnatal weight gain are independent and additive risk factors for the subsequent development of metabolic disease. Despite an abundance of evidence for these associations, mechanistic data are lacking. The hormone leptin has received significant interest as a potential programming factor, because differences in the profile ...
Zhang Z - - 2011
Fasting leptin and ghrelin levels were measured in 36 insulin-sensitive (IS) and 28 insulin-resistant (IR) men who consumed a legume-enriched low-glycemic index (LG) diet or healthy American (HA) diet in a randomly ordered cross-over feeding study consisting of two 4-week periods. Weight remained stable over the entire study. Fasting plasma ...
Yu Danxia - - 2011
Little is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW-) adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations. Plasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women ...
Nemoseck Tricia M - - 2011
Various dietary carbohydrates have been linked to obesity and altered adipose metabolism; however, the influences of honey vs common sweeteners have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that in comparison with sucrose, a honey-based diet would promote lower weight gain, adiposity, and related biomarkers (leptin, insulin, and adiponectin) as well ...
Friedman Jeffrey M - - 2011
The cloning of the ob gene and its gene product, leptin, has led to the elucidation of a robust physiologic system that maintains fat stores at a relatively constant level. Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue in proportion to its mass. Recessive mutations in the leptin gene ...
Eng Jui Yee - - 2011
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Malaysia. Evidence shows that dietary fat intake is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies assessing the association of fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular diseases in Malaysia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to develop ...
Penumetcha Meera - - 2011
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of oxidized linoleic acid (Ox-LA) on plasma leptin and to determine the relationship between plasma leptin levels and atherosclerosis in animals treated with Ox-LA. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDL r(-/-)) mice were fed a high fat diet with or ...
Palsdottir Vilborg - - 2011
Our objective was to investigate the long-term metabolic effects of postnatal essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Mouse dams were fed an EFAD diet or an isoenergetic control diet 4 days before delivery and throughout lactation. The pups were weaned to standard diet (STD) and were later subdivided into two groups: ...
Hecker P A - - 2011
The adipokine adiponectin is decreased in severe obesity and is inversely associated with adipose mass. Adiponectin is associated with insulin sensitivity and cardioprotection. Obesity frequently results in the development of a "cardiometabolic syndrome" characterized by increased circulating insulin and leptin, and cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. This study examined if adiponectin-deficiency ...
Puglisi Michael J MJ Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, - - 2011
Fish oil improves several features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Fish oil may mediate some of its beneficial effects by modulating the storage and/or secretory functions of adipose tissue (AT). The storage of triglycerides in AT is regulated by the availability of free ...
Fang Te-Chao - - 2010
Leptin correlates with body fat content and plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. This study aimed to investigate the relationships of fasting serum leptin levels and the anthropometric fat components among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 40 PD patients. Leptin levels were measured using ...
Nakagawa Yasuhiko - - 2011
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with atherosclerotic cardio-vascular disease. We reported recently daytime hypoadiponectinemia and nocturnal falls in circulating adiponectin concentrations (Δadiponectin) in OSAS patients, in part due to hypoxic stress. The present study investigated the association between Δadiponectin and fat distribution in OSAS males, and the effect ...
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