Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1982
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Antonini M - - 2010
Hair follicle and fibre characteristics of Peruvian alpaca and llama and Bolivian llama were analysed in three experimental studies. The first experiment was designed to determine the age at which all the secondary follicles reach maturity, as well as to compare the skin follicular structure and activity among these different ...
Kang Jung Mook - - 2010
Aging changes in the stomach lead to a decreased capacity for tissue repair in response to gastric acid. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism associated with the increased susceptibility to injury of aging mucosa including reactive oxygen species (5), apoptosis, angiogenesis, and sensory neuron activity. Fischer ...
Hallam Kellie McCormick - - 2010
Aging is inevitably accompanied by gradual and irreversible innate endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that accentuation of glucose metabolism via the aldose reductase (AR) pathway contributes to age-related vascular dysfunction. AR protein and activity levels were significantly increased in aged vs. young aortic homogenates from Fischer ...
Avanzi R D T - - 2010
Epilepsy is known to influence hippocampal dentate granule cell (DGC) layer neurogenesis. In young adult rats, status epilepticus (SE) increases the number DGC newly borne cells and basal dendrites (BD), which persist at long-term. In contrast, little is known on whether these phenomena occur in elderly epileptic animals. In the ...
Richard Marion B - - 2010
Little is known about how normal aging affects the brain. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal loss is not ubiquitous in aging neocortex. Instead, subtle and still controversial, region- and layer-specific alterations of neuron morphology and synapses are reported during aging, leading to the notion that discrete changes in neural circuitry ...
Potier Brigitte - - 2010
This study aims to determine whether the regulation of extracellular glutamate is altered during aging and its possible consequences on synaptic transmission and plasticity. A decrease in the expression of the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 and reduced glutamate uptake occur in the aged (24-27 months) Sprague-Dawley rat hippocampus. ...
Kenney Michael J - - 2010
Studies completed in human subjects have made seminal contributions to understanding the effects of age on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation. Numerous experimental constraints limit the design of studies involving human subjects; therefore, completion of studies in animal models of aging would be expected to provide additional insight regarding mechanisms ...
de Villers-Sidani Etienne - - 2010
Cognitive decline is a virtually universal aspect of the aging process. However, its neurophysiological basis remains poorly understood. We describe here more than 20 age-related cortical processing deficits in the primary auditory cortex of aging versus young rats that appear to be strongly contributed to by altered cortical inhibition. Consistent ...
Fei Jia - - 2010
Aging, which is an independent risk factor for heart disease, alters body fat mass and its function. Epicardial fat plays an important physiological and pathophysiological role on cardiac structure and function. This study investigated if aging altered the abundance of epicardial (EF) and abdominal fat (AF) derived mediators in a ...
Yang Wei-Ping - - 2010
Our previous studies have shown that both apoptosis and necrosis are involved in hair cell (HC) pathogenesis in aging cochleae. To better understand the biological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of HC death, we examined the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme, in the HCs of aging ...
Aznar Susana - - 2010
Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned ...
Liu Ping - - 2010
Aging is associated with neurochemical changes in the brain that result in impaired vestibular reflex function. We analysed the concentrations of 9 related neurochemicals (l-arginine, l-citrulline, l-ornithine, agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) in the vestibular nucleus of aged (24 months old) and young (4 month old) ...
Acosta S - - 2010
The process of aging is linked to oxidative stress, microglial activation, and proinflammatory factors, which are known to decrease cell proliferation and limit neuroplasticity. These factors may lead the transition from normal aging to more severe cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases. We have shown that natural compounds such as ...
Stengel Andreas A CURE/Digestive Diseases Research Center, Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Department of Medicine, Digestive Diseases Division at the University of California Los Angeles, and VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, - - 2010
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rodents is an established model for studying innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria and mimicking symptoms of infections including reduced food intake associated with decreased circulating total ghrelin levels. The ghrelin-acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) involved in the formation of acyl ghrelin (AG) was recently identified. We ...
McQuail Joseph A - - 2011
Degeneration of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and elevation of inflammatory markers are well-established hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease; however, the interplay of these processes in normal aging is not extensively studied. Consequently, we conducted a neuroanatomical investigation to quantify cholinergic neurons and activated microglia in the medial septum/vertical ...
Kelly Laura - - 2011
Age is characterized by deficits in synaptic function identified by decreased performance of aged animals in spatial learning tasks and reduced ability of animals to sustain long term potentiation (LTP). Several cellular and molecular events are correlated with these deficits, many of which are indicative of age-related neuroinflammatory and oxidative ...
Goel Aditya A Department of Anesthesiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2010
Circulating levels of endothelin (ET)-1 and endogenous ET(A)-mediated constriction are increased in human aging. The mechanisms responsible are not known. Investigate the storage, release, and activity of ET-1 system in arteries from young and aged Fischer-344 rats. After NO synthase inhibition (L-NAME), thrombin contracted aged arteries, which was inhibited by ...
Ni Hehong - - 2010
Maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis is crucial for survival during the perinatal period. Acylated ghrelin (AG) but not unacylated ghrelin (UAG) inhibits insulin release from pancreatic islets in adult rats. Circulating AG concentrations are low in the fetus and progressively increase in the postnatal period. We tested the hypothesis that ...
Partadiredja G - - 2010
The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA2-CA3 region are reported to be unaffected by undernutrition during the gestation period. We hypothesised that this may not be the case in animals subjected to a lengthier period of undernutrition. Wistar rats were undernourished from conception until 21 post-natal days-of-age ...
Uttah Ec - - 2010
Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and ...
Kumar Ashok - - 2010
Dysregulation of the cholinergic transmitter system is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and contributes to an age-associated decline in memory performance. The current study examined the influence of carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, on synaptic transmission over the course of aging. Extracellular excitatory postsynaptic field potentials were recorded from CA3-CA1 ...
Santhanam Lakshmi - - 2010
Although an age-related decrease in NO bioavailability contributes to vascular stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that NO constrains the activity of the matrix crosslinking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) via S-nitrosylation in young vessels, a process that is reversed in aging. We sought to determine whether ...
Lee Choong Hyun - - 2010
Activation of astrocytes and microglia in the post-ischemic hippocampus has been investigated using ischemia models. The aim of this study was to investigate differences of delayed neuronal death and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) between adult and aged gerbils. Delayed neuronal death in the CA1 was later in ...
Chen Bei - - 2010
One of the most common complaints among aging individuals is difficulty in understanding speech in a compromised listening environment, such as when background noise is present. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is associated with both peripheral and central neural processing deficits, as it occurs even in those with only a mild ...
Lekontseva Olga N - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian deficiency is known to undermine vasoprotective mechanisms and accelerate cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In a rat model of menopause (aged ovariectomized [Ovx] rats), we recently revealed a vasoconstrictor pathway mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via cleavage of big endothelin-1 (ET-1). However, the specific impact of aging and/or ...
Cao Junran - - 2010
Since adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of tobacco use, we have systematically compared behavioral and endocrine responses to nicotine in Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at early adolescence (postnatal day (P) 28), mid- adolescence (P38) and adulthood (P90). Locomotion and center time in a novel open field ...
Gerrits Peter O - - 2010
Structural neuronal plasticity is present in the nucleus para-retroambiguus (NPRA) and the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 group (NTScom/A2) in female hamsters. Both brainstem nuclei play a role in estrous cycle related autonomic adaptations. We investigated how aging affects the capillary condition in these adaptive brainstem regions. Senescent female ...
Tupal Srinivasan - - 2010
Genetically epilepsy-prone rats of the severe seizure strain (GEPR-9s) exhibit audiogenic seizures (AGS) beginning with wild running and ending with tonic hind limb extension (TE). AGS kindling in GEPR-9s involves periodic repetition of >/=14 seizures over 7-21 days and results in prolonged seizures and an additional phase of generalized post-tonic ...
Kakarla Sunil K - - 2010
There is a growing need for pharmacological agents to manage cardiovascular disease in the rapidly growing elderly population. Here, we determine if acetaminophen is efficacious in decreasing age-related increases in cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in aging Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats. Compared to 6-month control animals, ...
Ciena Adriano Polican - - 2010
The myotendon junction (MTJ) is a specialised area into the muscle fibers where the sarcoplasmic membranes connect to the collagen fibers bundles. There are few data about plasticity of the MTJ in aging processes. The aim of this study is to analyse the ultrastructure characteristics of MTJ of medial pterygoid ...
Pétervári E - - 2010
Long-term regulation of energy balance involves two major trends: first age-related obesity develops in the middle-aged, later it is followed by anorexia of aging (sarcopenia and/or cachexia). A dynamic balance between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides is essential for the regulation of energy homeostasis. Special imbalances of neuropeptide effects may be ...
Cowley Thelma R - - 2012
Neuroinflammation is a significant and consistent feature of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders is age and a proinflammatory phenotype in the aged brain is believed to contribute to these neurodegenerative conditions. In animal models, neuroinflammatory changes, characterized ...
Montori S - - 2010
AIM: Stroke prevalence increases with age, while alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) and inflammation have been related to ischaemia-induced damage. This study shows how age and treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent (meloxicam) modify the levels of AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2, as well as the mRNA levels of the GluR2-editing enzyme, ...
Chung Jin Young - - 2010
Microglia are main form of active immune defense, and they are constantly moving and analyzing the CNS for damaged neurons and infectious agents. In this study, we compared microglia in the spinal cord of the young adult (1-2 years old) and aged (10-12 years old) German Shepherd dogs via immunohistochemistry ...
Li Yan-Fang - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little ...
VanGuilder Heather D - - 2010
Decreased cognitive performance reduces independence and quality of life for aging individuals. Healthy brain aging does not involve significant neuronal loss, but little is known about the effects of aging at synaptic terminals. Age-related cognitive decline likely reflects the manifestation of dysregulated synaptic function and ineffective neurotransmission. In this study, ...
Porseva V V - - 2010
Age-related changes in NADPH-diaphorase activity were studied using a histochemical method in spinal cord ventral horn motoneurons at different segmental levels in rats aged 3-90 days from birth in normal conditions and after modeling of chemical deafferentation by i.p. administration of capsaicin. Wave-like age-related changes in enzyme activity were seen ...
Shetty Ashok K - - 2011
Increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) after brain insults such as excitotoxic lesions, seizures, or stroke is a well known phenomenon in the young hippocampus. This plasticity reflects an innate compensatory response of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the young hippocampus to preserve function or minimize damage after injury. ...
Soghomonian J J - - 2010
Much of the cognitive decline shown by aging primates can be attributed to dysfunction of prefrontal cortex and, as shown previously, about 30% of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) axodendritic synapses are lost from the neuropil of layer 2/3 in prefrontal area 46 with age [Peters A, Sethares C, Luebke ...
Gashev Anatoliy A - - 2010
To accomplish its normal roles in body fluid regulation/macromolecular homeostasis, immune function, and lipid absorption; the lymphatic system must transport lymph from the interstitial spaces, into and through the lymphatics, through the lymphatic compartment of the nodes, back into the nodal efferent lymphatics and eventually empty into the great veins. ...
Domek-Łopacińska Katarzyna Urszula - - 2010
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is an important secondary messenger synthesized by the guanylyl cyclases which are found in the soluble (sGC) and particular isoforms. In the central nervous system, the nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive sGC isoform is the major enzyme responsible for cGMP synthesis. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes for hydrolysis of ...
Lee Choong Hyun - - 2010
Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) mediates neuronal synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation, and learning and memory in the hippocampus. In this study, we examined pERK1/2 immunoreactivity and its protein level in the gerbil hippocampus at various ages. In the postnatal month 1 (PM 1) group, very weak pERK1/2 immunoreactivity was detected ...
Paban Véronique - - 2010
The time course of metabolic changes was investigated in the hippocampus and the parietal, rhinal and frontal cortices of rats from 4 to 30 months old. Samples were analysed by the solid-state high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance method. Quantification was performed with the quest procedure of jMRUI software. ...
Zanetti Edoardo - - 2010
Little is known concerning the sensitivity of aged rats to xenobiotics inducing kidney damage. To increase this knowledge, the age-dependent response of the kidney to hexachloro-1 : 3-butadiene (HCBD) or potassium dichromate (chromate) was investigated. Rats were treated at different ages with a single dose of segment-specific nephrotoxicants of the ...
Jung Hangsul - - 2010
ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the age-dependent changes in nerve fibers immunoreactive to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-ir) in the periodontal ligaments of rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar-ST rats were divided into growing groups (5, 9, and 15 weeks of age) and aging groups (6, 12, and 24 months of ...
Espandiari P - - 2010
Limited experimental models exist to assess drug toxicity in pediatric populations. We recently reported how a multi-age rat model could be used for pre-clinical studies of comparative drug toxicity in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to expand the utility of this animal model, which previously demonstrated an ...
Yezierski R P - - 2010
Age-dependent changes in thermal sensitivity were evaluated with reflex- and operant-based assessment strategies in animals ranging in age from 8 to 32 months. The impact of inflammatory injury on thermal sensitivity was also determined in animals of different ages. The results showed that operant measures of escape behavior are needed ...
Solas Maite - - 2010
There is much interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for interactions among stress, aging, memory and Alzheimer's disease. Glucocorticoid secretion associated with early life stress may contribute to the variability of the aging process and to the development of neuro- and psychopathologies. Maternal separation (MS), a model of early life ...
Frenzel Monika - - 2010
Activity and stability of life-supporting proteins are determined not only by their abundance and by post-translational modifications, but also by specific protein-protein interactions. This holds true both for signal-transduction and energy-converting cascades. For vital processes such as life-span control and senescence, to date predominantly age-dependent alterations in abundance and to ...
Yun Kang Uk - - 2010
Age-related changes in hepatic expression and activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) were investigated in male rats aged 3 (weanling), 12 (young), 26 (adult), and 104 (old) weeks. Levels of microsomal protein, total CYP, and cytochrome b(5) increased fully after puberty. CYP1A1 was detected only in 3-week-old rats, and CYP1A2, CYP2B1, ...
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