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Results 251 - 300 of 1943
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Hannan Johanna L - - 2010
Aging increases the risk of both erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular disease. These conditions have similar etiologies and commonly coexist. One unifying concept is the role of arterial insufficiency which is a primary factor in the onset of age-related ED. Based on the novel finding that the pudendal arteries contribute ...
Southard Veronica - - 2010
Being overweight is defined as having a body mass index greater than 25. Reduced postural control has been implicated in the presence of increased body mass index. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of body mass index on postural stability in healthy sedentary middle-aged adults. Based ...
Burke Sara N - - 2010
Normal aging is associated with impairments in stimulus recognition. In the current investigation, object recognition was tested in adult and aged rats with the standard spontaneous object recognition (SOR) task or two variants of this task. On the standard SOR task, adult rats showed an exploratory preference for the novel ...
Tottey Stephen - - 2011
Biologic scaffold materials composed of mammalian extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used for the repair and reconstruction of injured tissues. An important, but unexplored variable of biologic scaffolds is the age of the animal from which the ECM is prepared. The objective of the present study was to compare the ...
Waters Elizabeth M - - 2011
Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. Young female rats express more estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunolabeling in CA1sr spine synapse complexes than aged rats and ERα regulation is E ...
Wang Hao - - 2010
Function of visual cortical cells declines during normal aging. Whether there are sex-related differences in this functional degradation is still unknown. In the present study we compared the properties of adaptation, onset latency, and signal-to-noise ratio of visual cortical cells between age-matched sexes in order to investigate any sex related ...
Chopek Jeremy W - - 2010
The first purpose of this study was to determine the effect of advanced age (31 months) on the number of motoneurons in the lumbar enlargement of the rat and to determine if motoneurons die via apoptosis with age. The second purpose was to determine if caloric restriction (CR) would attenuate ...
Frinchi Monica - - 2010
It is largely accepted that neurogenesis in the adult brain decreases with age and reduced levels of local neurotrophic support is speculated to be a contributing factor. Among neurotrophic factors involved on neurogenesis, we focused our attention on the neurotrophic system fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and its receptor FGFR1, a ...
Adams M M - - 2010
Caloric restriction (CR) is a reduction of total caloric intake without a decrease in micronutrients or a disproportionate reduction of any one dietary component. While CR attenuates age-related cognitive deficits in tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular mechanisms by which CR improves this cognitive decline are poorly understood. Previously, we ...
Bodhinathan Karthik - - 2010
A decrease in the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons contributes to the age related decrease in hippocampal function and memory decline. Decreased neuronal excitability in aged neurons can be observed as an increase in the Ca(2+)- activated K(+)- mediated post burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP). In this study, we demonstrate that the ...
Williams Tanya J - - 2011
Circulating estrogen levels and hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions decline with aging. Moreover, the responses of hippocampal synaptic structure to estrogens differ between aged and young rats. We recently reported that estrogens increase levels of post-synaptic proteins, including PSD-95, and opioid peptides leu-enkephalin and dynorphin in the hippocampus of young animals. However, ...
von Rohden Christoph - - 2010
We employed environmental tracers ((3)H-(3)He, SF(6)) in a study investigating the groundwater recharge in the North China Plain (NCP), a sedimentary aquifer system consisting of fluvial and alluvial river deposits near the city of Shijiazhuang. The (3)H-(3)He dating method revealed reasonable results for the young groundwater with ages covering the ...
Antonini M - - 2010
Hair follicle and fibre characteristics of Peruvian alpaca and llama and Bolivian llama were analysed in three experimental studies. The first experiment was designed to determine the age at which all the secondary follicles reach maturity, as well as to compare the skin follicular structure and activity among these different ...
Kang Jung Mook - - 2010
Aging changes in the stomach lead to a decreased capacity for tissue repair in response to gastric acid. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism associated with the increased susceptibility to injury of aging mucosa including reactive oxygen species (5), apoptosis, angiogenesis, and sensory neuron activity. Fischer ...
Hallam Kellie McCormick - - 2010
Aging is inevitably accompanied by gradual and irreversible innate endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that accentuation of glucose metabolism via the aldose reductase (AR) pathway contributes to age-related vascular dysfunction. AR protein and activity levels were significantly increased in aged vs. young aortic homogenates from Fischer ...
Avanzi R D T - - 2010
Epilepsy is known to influence hippocampal dentate granule cell (DGC) layer neurogenesis. In young adult rats, status epilepticus (SE) increases the number DGC newly borne cells and basal dendrites (BD), which persist at long-term. In contrast, little is known on whether these phenomena occur in elderly epileptic animals. In the ...
Richard Marion B - - 2010
Little is known about how normal aging affects the brain. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal loss is not ubiquitous in aging neocortex. Instead, subtle and still controversial, region- and layer-specific alterations of neuron morphology and synapses are reported during aging, leading to the notion that discrete changes in neural circuitry ...
Potier Brigitte - - 2010
This study aims to determine whether the regulation of extracellular glutamate is altered during aging and its possible consequences on synaptic transmission and plasticity. A decrease in the expression of the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 and reduced glutamate uptake occur in the aged (24-27 months) Sprague-Dawley rat hippocampus. ...
Kenney Michael J - - 2010
Studies completed in human subjects have made seminal contributions to understanding the effects of age on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation. Numerous experimental constraints limit the design of studies involving human subjects; therefore, completion of studies in animal models of aging would be expected to provide additional insight regarding mechanisms ...
de Villers-Sidani Etienne - - 2010
Cognitive decline is a virtually universal aspect of the aging process. However, its neurophysiological basis remains poorly understood. We describe here more than 20 age-related cortical processing deficits in the primary auditory cortex of aging versus young rats that appear to be strongly contributed to by altered cortical inhibition. Consistent ...
Fei Jia - - 2010
Aging, which is an independent risk factor for heart disease, alters body fat mass and its function. Epicardial fat plays an important physiological and pathophysiological role on cardiac structure and function. This study investigated if aging altered the abundance of epicardial (EF) and abdominal fat (AF) derived mediators in a ...
Yang Wei-Ping - - 2010
Our previous studies have shown that both apoptosis and necrosis are involved in hair cell (HC) pathogenesis in aging cochleae. To better understand the biological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of HC death, we examined the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial bioenergetic enzyme, in the HCs of aging ...
Aznar Susana - - 2010
Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned ...
Liu Ping - - 2010
Aging is associated with neurochemical changes in the brain that result in impaired vestibular reflex function. We analysed the concentrations of 9 related neurochemicals (l-arginine, l-citrulline, l-ornithine, agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) in the vestibular nucleus of aged (24 months old) and young (4 month old) ...
Acosta S - - 2010
The process of aging is linked to oxidative stress, microglial activation, and proinflammatory factors, which are known to decrease cell proliferation and limit neuroplasticity. These factors may lead the transition from normal aging to more severe cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases. We have shown that natural compounds such as ...
Stengel Andreas - - 2010
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rodents is an established model for studying innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria and mimicking symptoms of infections including reduced food intake associated with decreased circulating total ghrelin levels. The ghrelin-acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) involved in the formation of acyl ghrelin (AG) was recently identified. We ...
McQuail Joseph A - - 2011
Degeneration of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and elevation of inflammatory markers are well-established hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease; however, the interplay of these processes in normal aging is not extensively studied. Consequently, we conducted a neuroanatomical investigation to quantify cholinergic neurons and activated microglia in the medial septum/vertical ...
Kelly Laura - - 2011
Age is characterized by deficits in synaptic function identified by decreased performance of aged animals in spatial learning tasks and reduced ability of animals to sustain long term potentiation (LTP). Several cellular and molecular events are correlated with these deficits, many of which are indicative of age-related neuroinflammatory and oxidative ...
Goel Aditya - - 2010
Circulating levels of endothelin (ET)-1 and endogenous ET(A)-mediated constriction are increased in human aging. The mechanisms responsible are not known. Investigate the storage, release, and activity of ET-1 system in arteries from young and aged Fischer-344 rats. After NO synthase inhibition (L-NAME), thrombin contracted aged arteries, which was inhibited by ...
Ni Hehong - - 2010
Maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis is crucial for survival during the perinatal period. Acylated ghrelin (AG) but not unacylated ghrelin (UAG) inhibits insulin release from pancreatic islets in adult rats. Circulating AG concentrations are low in the fetus and progressively increase in the postnatal period. We tested the hypothesis that ...
Partadiredja G - - 2010
The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA2-CA3 region are reported to be unaffected by undernutrition during the gestation period. We hypothesised that this may not be the case in animals subjected to a lengthier period of undernutrition. Wistar rats were undernourished from conception until 21 post-natal days-of-age ...
Uttah Ec - - 2010
Onchocerciasis is endemic in the Imo River Basin, Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and intensity of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus in the area. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Okigwe Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. Two skin snips (one from the waist and ...
Kumar Ashok - - 2010
Dysregulation of the cholinergic transmitter system is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and contributes to an age-associated decline in memory performance. The current study examined the influence of carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, on synaptic transmission over the course of aging. Extracellular excitatory postsynaptic field potentials were recorded from CA3-CA1 ...
Santhanam Lakshmi - - 2010
Although an age-related decrease in NO bioavailability contributes to vascular stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that NO constrains the activity of the matrix crosslinking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) via S-nitrosylation in young vessels, a process that is reversed in aging. We sought to determine whether ...
Lee Choong Hyun - - 2010
Activation of astrocytes and microglia in the post-ischemic hippocampus has been investigated using ischemia models. The aim of this study was to investigate differences of delayed neuronal death and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) between adult and aged gerbils. Delayed neuronal death in the CA1 was later in ...
Chen Bei - - 2010
One of the most common complaints among aging individuals is difficulty in understanding speech in a compromised listening environment, such as when background noise is present. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is associated with both peripheral and central neural processing deficits, as it occurs even in those with only a mild ...
Lekontseva Olga N - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian deficiency is known to undermine vasoprotective mechanisms and accelerate cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In a rat model of menopause (aged ovariectomized [Ovx] rats), we recently revealed a vasoconstrictor pathway mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) via cleavage of big endothelin-1 (ET-1). However, the specific impact of aging and/or ...
Cao Junran - - 2010
Since adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of tobacco use, we have systematically compared behavioral and endocrine responses to nicotine in Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at early adolescence (postnatal day (P) 28), mid- adolescence (P38) and adulthood (P90). Locomotion and center time in a novel open field ...
Gerrits Peter O - - 2010
Structural neuronal plasticity is present in the nucleus para-retroambiguus (NPRA) and the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 group (NTScom/A2) in female hamsters. Both brainstem nuclei play a role in estrous cycle related autonomic adaptations. We investigated how aging affects the capillary condition in these adaptive brainstem regions. Senescent female ...
Tupal Srinivasan - - 2010
Genetically epilepsy-prone rats of the severe seizure strain (GEPR-9s) exhibit audiogenic seizures (AGS) beginning with wild running and ending with tonic hind limb extension (TE). AGS kindling in GEPR-9s involves periodic repetition of >/=14 seizures over 7-21 days and results in prolonged seizures and an additional phase of generalized post-tonic ...
Kakarla Sunil K - - 2010
There is a growing need for pharmacological agents to manage cardiovascular disease in the rapidly growing elderly population. Here, we determine if acetaminophen is efficacious in decreasing age-related increases in cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in aging Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats. Compared to 6-month control animals, ...
Ciena Adriano Polican - - 2010
The myotendon junction (MTJ) is a specialised area into the muscle fibers where the sarcoplasmic membranes connect to the collagen fibers bundles. There are few data about plasticity of the MTJ in aging processes. The aim of this study is to analyse the ultrastructure characteristics of MTJ of medial pterygoid ...
Pétervári E - - 2010
Long-term regulation of energy balance involves two major trends: first age-related obesity develops in the middle-aged, later it is followed by anorexia of aging (sarcopenia and/or cachexia). A dynamic balance between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides is essential for the regulation of energy homeostasis. Special imbalances of neuropeptide effects may be ...
Cowley Thelma R - - 2012
Neuroinflammation is a significant and consistent feature of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders is age and a proinflammatory phenotype in the aged brain is believed to contribute to these neurodegenerative conditions. In animal models, neuroinflammatory changes, characterized ...
Montori S - - 2010
AIM: Stroke prevalence increases with age, while alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) and inflammation have been related to ischaemia-induced damage. This study shows how age and treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent (meloxicam) modify the levels of AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2, as well as the mRNA levels of the GluR2-editing enzyme, ...
Chung Jin Young - - 2010
Microglia are main form of active immune defense, and they are constantly moving and analyzing the CNS for damaged neurons and infectious agents. In this study, we compared microglia in the spinal cord of the young adult (1-2 years old) and aged (10-12 years old) German Shepherd dogs via immunohistochemistry ...
Li Yan-Fang - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little ...
VanGuilder Heather D - - 2010
Decreased cognitive performance reduces independence and quality of life for aging individuals. Healthy brain aging does not involve significant neuronal loss, but little is known about the effects of aging at synaptic terminals. Age-related cognitive decline likely reflects the manifestation of dysregulated synaptic function and ineffective neurotransmission. In this study, ...
Porseva V V - - 2010
Age-related changes in NADPH-diaphorase activity were studied using a histochemical method in spinal cord ventral horn motoneurons at different segmental levels in rats aged 3-90 days from birth in normal conditions and after modeling of chemical deafferentation by i.p. administration of capsaicin. Wave-like age-related changes in enzyme activity were seen ...
Shetty Ashok K - - 2011
Increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) after brain insults such as excitotoxic lesions, seizures, or stroke is a well known phenomenon in the young hippocampus. This plasticity reflects an innate compensatory response of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the young hippocampus to preserve function or minimize damage after injury. ...
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