Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1638
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Bauer Joseph E - - 2006
This article presents results from two population-based promotions for free cessation products used to induce smokers to call the New York State Smokers'. The first promotion was a press announcement urging smokers to call the quitline to get a voucher for a free 2-week supply of nicotine patches or gum ...
Gan Wen Qi - - 2006
Recent reports indicate that over the next decade rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women will exceed those in men in the western world, though in most jurisdictions, women continue to smoke less compared with men. Whether female adult smokers are biologically more susceptible to COPD is unknown. ...
Aral Murat - - 2006
The aim of this study is to assess the impacts of "Maras powder" and cigarette smoking on the parameters of the humoral immune system. One hundred seventy seven subjects were included in the study. The IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C4 levels were detected via nephelometric method. In 1.4% of ...
Ozaki Shinichi S Department of Environmental Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, 807-8555, - - 2006
The relationship between CYP2A6 genotype and smoking status remains unclear although several studies have been reported. In this study, we have investigated the significance of CYP2A6 genotype on smoking habit and treatment of nicotine patch. Sixty-one smokers (1.7%) working in a Japanese company (n = 3585) participated in this smoking ...
Hu Mei-Chen - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: We describe the epidemiology of smoking behaviors in a national young adult sample and identify common and unique demographic, social, and psychological correlates of daily smoking and lifetime and current nicotine dependence by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, wave III. Dependence was ...
Eppel Ayelet - - 2006
This analysis reports the 3-month test-retest reliability of self-reports of cigarette use in novice smokers, and identifies factors associated with adequate recall. Participants included 63 novice smokers (mean age 14.1 years) from the McGill University Study on the Natural History of Nicotine Dependence in Teens. We compared data for three ...
Narayanan D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The fact that Tannerella forsythia, an important periopathogen, is difficult to cultivate from mixed infections has impeded precise estimates of its distribution within a given population. In order to discern T. forsythia alone from the mixed infection of plaque, the use of sensitive 16S ribosomal RNA based polymerase chain ...
Wong F Lennie - - 2005
The late effects of radiation on the hematopoietic system have not been fully evaluated. We examined the long-term effects of radiation exposure on hemoglobin levels in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors over a 40-year period from 1958 to 1998. Compared to the unexposed survivors, the mean hemoglobin levels for those ...
Ahmad Sajjad - - 2005
Current youth access laws, even if strictly enforced, do not prevent teenagers from obtaining cigarettes through social sources. To reduce the number of legal buyers a typical teenager routinely encounters, and to lessen ambiguity for vendors determining if a teen is of legal purchasing age, legislation raising the minimum legal ...
Joseph Anne M - - 2005
Epidemiologic studies show a dose-response relationship between cigarettes per day and health outcomes such as heart and lung disease, and health outcomes are related to some biomarkers of tobacco exposure. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between cigarettes per day and levels of selected biomarkers of ...
Stice Eric - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking retards physical development during early adolescence among girls. METHODS: A school-recruited sample of adolescent girls (N = 496) completed surveys assessing smoking behaviors and related variables as well as direct measures of height and weight annually over 3-years. Analyses tested whether ...
Rasool S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, ...
Gerrard Meg - - 2005
The affiliation preferences of 151 adult heavy smokers who joined smoking cessation groups were assessed at the 1st group session and were then used to predict their smoking status 6 and 12 months later. Those who preferred to be in groups with other smokers who were having relatively little trouble ...
Storr Carla L - - 2005
The classification of being tobacco dependent obtained via the established scoring method of the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) is compared to a method that bases classification on the pattern of item responses. Young adults participating in a longitudinal study, who indicated they had ever smoked, were asked six ...
Willemse Brigitte - - 2005
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: In general, smoking cessation programs have low success rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of a 1-year smoking cessation program. This program was part of a research project investigating the effects of smoking cessation. PARTICIPANTS: In this longitudinal study on the effects of 1 year of smoking cessation, 38 smokers ...
Kasagi Satoshi - - 2006
The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is a naturally occurring animal model for accelerated aging after normal development and maturation. SAMP1 strain was reported to show age-related structural and functional changes in lung and to be a murine model of senile lung. We postulated that aging of lung is an important intrinsic ...
Court J A - - 2005
Investigating correlates of tobacco smoking provides the only currently available opportunity of examining effects of long-term exposure of nicotinic receptors on a specific nicotinic agonist in human. Alzheimer-type pathology (Abeta and abnormally phosphorylated tau assessed on the basis of AT8 immunoreactivity) together with vascular markers has been compared in age-matched ...
Strasser Andrew A - - 2005
Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of filter vent blocking and smoking topography on carbon monoxide (CO) levels in smokers. In Study 1, 12 participants smoked two types of cigarettes (Marlboro Light and Carlton 100) under two types of blocking conditions (unblocked and half-blocked) while using a smoking ...
Lehmann Sverre - - 2006
Normative cut-off values for the bronchodilator reversibility test are published neglecting factors that may influence the test result other than disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study of a general population was to examine how a salbutamol reversibility test response is depending on anthropometrical variables and smoking. An age and ...
Abdullah Abu Saleh M - - 2006
This study assessed the gender and age differences in smoking cessation among the Chinese youth and identified factors associated with quitting smoking. This was a clinic based cross-sectional study with longitudinal components among 129 Chinese young smokers. All services in the clinic including one week's supply of nicotine replacement therapy ...
Natto Suzan - - 2005
AIM: To study the association between tobacco smoking, in particular water pipe smoking, and periodontal bone height. METHODS: A study sample of 355 individuals in the age range 17-60 years was recruited from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The smoking behavior was registered through a questionnaire during interview. Participants were stratified into ...
Irie Masahiro - - 2005
The amount of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) excreted in urine can be used not only as an indicator of DNA repair capacity, but also as a potential marker of oxidative DNA damage. To clarify the oxidation-related factors, in consideration of cancer risk, this study investigated how urinary 8-OH-dG was associated with occupational ...
Stewart-Knox Barbara J - - 2005
Previous research has indicated that young people are under considerable social pressure to take up smoking. This study has therefore sought to explore and better understand the mechanisms through which peer-related social factors operate to encourage young people to smoke. Individual qualitative interviews were held with adolescent children aged 11-12 ...
Omori Hisamitsu - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The effects of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on age-related pulmonary function decline was assessed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. METHODOLOGY: In the cross-sectional study, pulmonary function data from 11,875 healthy asymptomatic males, aged between 35 and 74, were analysed and correlated with their smoking history and age. ...
Sharma S B - - 2005
Smoking plays a dominant role in premature atherosclerosis particularly among males in South Asian countries. It initiates and promotes atherosclerosis by altering cardiac haemodynamics, causing dyslipidaemia and producing oxidative damage. Not much information is available from our country. We therefore undertook this study to see the effect of smoking on ...
Bohadana Abraham - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Spirometry is not routinely performed in smoking cessation trials. Smokers with airflow obstruction who are unavailable for follow-up incur the risk of accelerated loss in lung function. We evaluated the prevalence of airflow obstruction among smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials and the proportion of subjects with obstruction unavailable ...
Koval John J - - 2005
Since 1989 when health warning labels appeared on Canadian cigarette packages, the labels have changed from text only covering less than one quarter of the package to text and graphics covering over half the package. This study examines how Canadians in their 20s feel about the current graphic warning labels ...
David G L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has been extensively associated with childhood respiratory illness; fewer studies have addressed the effects on adults. METHODS: Childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure in relation to chronic cough, phlegm, and asthma diagnosis was studied in never smokers from a cohort of Singaporeans of Chinese ...
de Vries Hein - - 2006
The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10,751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9,282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, ...
Lee Tao-Chen - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The establishment of an environment to force animals to inspire cigarette smoke is mandatory to study the true effects of smoking. This model has been used to study long-bone healing but has not yet been used to study spinal fusion. METHODS: Forty male rabbits were divided into four equal ...
Gillum R F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Data are lacking from representative samples of total populations and Hispanic Americans on the association of cigarette smoking and religiousness/spirituality, a protective factor for mortality, and on the validity of self-reported smoking data for religious research. METHODS: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) included 18,774 ...
Tucker Joan S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study compared young adult nonsmokers (n = 1216), light smokers (n = 406), and regular smokers (n = 360) on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics, as well as identified predictors of attempted quitting and 6-month cessation among regular smokers. METHOD: Participants were recruited from middle schools in 1985 ...
Wahl Sarah K - - 2005
Outcome expectancies have been related to smoking behavior among adults, but less attention has been given to expectancies about smoking among adolescents at differing levels of smoking experience. The present study reports the psychometric properties and predictive validity of a brief expectancy scale across two samples of adolescents. Sample 1 ...
Abel Gregory A GA Department of Medicine , Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2005
To determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) Indices and several baseline variables In a large cohort of healthy smokers and to assess whether these changed after biochemically confirmed smoking cessation. The study consisted of 784 healthy smokers enrolled in a trial of sustained-release bupropion, 300 mg/d, for relapse ...
Kojima Shigeko - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines recommended a forced expiratory volume at one second per forced vital capacity as a standard diagnostic criterion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A few reports on the risk factors of COPD have used the standard diagnostic criteria. In our ...
Stockdale Margaret S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between social influences and smoking-related attitudes and age of cigarette use initiation among college students. METHODS: Responses from 3 campus surveys (2 random, 1 convenience) were analyzed. The surveys were modeled from existing state or national tobacco surveys and other psychometrically valid surveys. RESULTS: Social and ...
Koskinen Sari - - 2005
Means to boost food intake of the elderly (n = 60, age range 61-86 years) varying in olfactory and mood status were studied during home-use of cold cuts. Enhancement group (n = 28) received regular smoked ham and smoked ham flavored with extra strong smoke aroma or with pepper mix, ...
Sánchez-Johnsen Lisa - - 2006
We examined reasons for smoking among Black and White smokers. We hypothesized that Blacks would be more likely than Whites to cite tension reduction and less likely to cite weight control as a reason for smoking. Black (n = 100) and White (n = 100) female smokers completed the Reasons ...
Geijer Roeland M M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction in smokers is often diagnosed relatively late. Earlier detection of airflow obstruction and smoking cessation may result in significant health gain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of previously undetected persistent airflow obstruction according to WHO/GOLD criteria in male smokers aged 40 to 65 years and its correlation ...
John Ulrich - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a higher proportion of current smokers among female than among male ever smokers at the age above 50. However, little is known about the proportion of current smokers among ever smokers in old age groups with consideration of women in comparison to men from general population samples. ...
Shiota Satomi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The impulse oscillation system (IOS) measures respiratory impedance (Zrs) in terms of resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) at multiples of 5 Hz. These measurements can be used clinically to help diagnose and monitor respiratory disorders, independent of effort. METHODOLOGY: The predictive equation for resistance at 5 and 20 Hz ...
Velicer Wayne F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Interventions for smoking cessation have been typically evaluated on reactively recruited samples in clinical trials (efficacy trials). However, to have an impact on smoking rates in a general population, the intervention should also be evaluated with proactively recruited representative samples (effectiveness trials). PURPOSE: The characteristics of participants and two ...
Gutschoven Klaas - - 2005
This cross-sectional study of children assessed the association between television viewing and age at smoking initiation, using self-reports administered by research assistants in schools. Participants were 909 students in their first and fourth years of secondary education in a random sample of 15 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, who had ...
Ho Siu P - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Specific antioxidant enzymes play a vital role in regulating and maintaining oxidant species. The aim of this study was to determine these antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) in erythrocytes from a group of healthy Chinese subjects and to study the influence ...
Levy David T - - 2005
The present study examined the relationship between recent smoking cessation activities and sociodemographic characteristics, smoking intensity, and tobacco control policies among daily smokers in the United States. The study used the U.S. Current Population Survey 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement, supplemented with information on state-level tobacco control policies. The sample was ...
Pampel Fred C - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: I examined demographic and socioeconomic patterns of tobacco use in 2 African nations in the early stages of epidemic. METHODS: I used population-based data from the Demographic Health Surveys of men aged 15-59 years (N=5111) and women aged 15-49 years (N=20809) in Malawi (2000) and Zambia (2001/2002) and multinomial ...
Wen C P - - 2005
PURPOSE: To examine smoking behaviours in Taiwan and compare those behaviours to those in the USA. METHODS: Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of Taiwan (2001), a survey of over 20 000 participants, frequencies were calculated for smoking, ex-smoking, quantity smoked, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Breakdowns ...
Sorensen Glorian - - 2005
We assessed social disparities in the prevalence of overall tobacco use, smoking, and smokeless tobacco use in Mumbai, India, by examining occupation-, education-, and gender-specific patterns. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey conducted between 1992 and 1994 as the baseline for the Mumbai Cohort Study (n=81837). Odds ratios (ORs) ...
Viloria T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Previous observations have addressed a decreased male:female ratio associated with smoking. Our aim was to assess whether this effect is observed at the spermatozoa or at the early embryo development. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed smoking intake habits of 56 couples included in our preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) program. Three ...
Funabashi Toshiya - - 2005
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Despite having increased knowledge of the adverse reproductive effects of smoking, it is unclear whether nicotine affects the pulsatile LH secretion in humans. We addressed this issue in male and female smokers and nonsmokers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine male and 16 female nonsmokers and smokers were recruited ...
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