Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1638
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Ferriby Laura L - - 2007
We analyzed the weighted 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to assess potential differences in mean total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) TEQ between various groups of individuals and to determine serum reference concentrations for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the general US population. Differences appeared ...
Block Gladys - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Within-person variability in biomarkers results in random error that can attenuate estimates of association. Little information on such variability is available for a number of nutrition-related biomarkers. METHODS: Blood samples obtained 2 to 4 weeks apart were analyzed for tocopherols, carotenoids, ascorbate, lipids, cotinine, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress. ...
Moriya Fumio - - 2006
The aim of this study was to determine if the endogenous levels of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in urine were affected by drinking and smoking. Urine samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers (15 males, 21-45 years; 5 females, 22-24 years). This population included four average drinkers (males), 4 average smokers ...
Boyce Robert W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Employers seek to minimize business costs by creating conditions of employment. Relying on the presumably negative effects of smoking on variables such as workers' compensation claims, absenteeism and physical fitness scores, they seek a rational basis for requirements that employees refrain from smoking. No research has been found on ...
Dicpinigaitis P V - - 2006
Recent studies have shown that cigarette smokers have diminished cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers. The current authors proposed a mechanism of chronic cigarette smoke-induced desensitisation of airway cough receptors. To investigate this hypothesis, cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin (C5) in chronic smokers was measured both while they were actively ...
Munafò Marcus R - - 2006
We investigated change in body mass index following long-term smoking cessation in a representative cohort of treatment-seeking heavy smokers in the United Kingdom, to determine the extent of long-term weight gain in successful quitters versus continuing smokers. We further investigated whether DRD4 genotype moderated any weight gain in either group. ...
Bogen Karen - - 2006
The Master Settlement Agreement between a consortium of tobacco companies and 46 states contains many restrictions on tobacco sales and advertising that were designed to reduce youth exposure to tobacco promotions. Most of the restrictions include an exception for "adult-only" facilities. The present study investigated the extent to which youth ...
Güntsch A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) represent the first line of cellular defences in the gingival crevice. Smoking, as probably the most important environmental risk factor for periodontitis, has been shown to adversely affect many neutrophil functions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of smoking on PMN ...
Hyland A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey (ITC-4) is a prospective cohort study designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioural impact of national-level tobacco control policies enacted in the Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA. Wave 1 of ITC-4 survey was conducted between October 2002 and December ...
Marako─člu K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of smoking among physicians and to describe their socio-demographic characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All professors, associate professors, assistant professors, lecturers and research assistants working for the Faculty of Medicine of Meram, University of Selçuk, were included in the study. ...
Fidler J A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the development of smoking behaviour among adolescents who, at age 11, had tried cigarettes just once. DESIGN: A five-year prospective study. SETTING: 36 schools in South London, England. SUBJECTS: A socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of students completed questionnaires annually from age 11-16. A total of 5863 ...
Pan Wei - - 2006
Proactive telephone counseling is an effective adjunct to minimal intervention for smoking cessation, but its effect has not been quantitatively synthesized thoroughly. The present meta-analysis reviewed 22 studies published between January 1990 and December 2003 and found that there was a heterogeneous, significant adjunct effect of proactive telephone counseling for ...
Gazdzinski Stefan - - 2006
Although approximately 80% of individuals with alcohol use disorders are chronic smokers and despite reported associations between chronic cigarette smoking and lower cerebral perfusion in nonalcoholics, previous brain perfusion studies with alcoholics did not account for the potential effects of concurrent chronic cigarette smoking. One-week-abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals in treatment (ALC) ...
Mumford E A - - 2006
As smoking prevalence declines in the United States, it is important to understand if smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is also changing and if so, among what groups. We examine the prevalence of SLT use and smoking, 1992-2002, using the Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplements (CPS-TUS), which used US nationally representative ...
Rehill Nirandeep - - 2006
Cardiovascular disease caused by smoking is related to the pathophysiological burden placed on the vascular endothelium. We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on arterial wave reflection (study 1) and smoking cessation on pulse wave analysis (study 2). Fifty smokers and 50 age- and sex-matched nonsmokers participated in study ...
Gregor Kristin - - 2007
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether smoking to reduce negative affect was uniquely related to a range of affective vulnerability factors (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, anxious arousal, and negative affectivity) among daily smokers. Participants were 276 young adult daily smokers (124 females; M(age)=25.12, SD=10.37). Partially consistent with ...
Ahmad Sajjad - - 2007
Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. ...
Hardie Thomas L - - 2006
Early exposure to cigarettes is connected to increasing rate of regular use later in life. We examine genetic correlation between the age of first cigarette and later smoking related behaviors. The sample consisted of twin ages 25 to 75. Biometrical analysis was used to evaluate the heritabilities and a second ...
Dirocco Danae N - - 2007
Studies have shown that increased exposure to cigarette advertising increases adolescents' risk of smoking and moreover, that gender may play an important role in moderating how cigarette advertisements are viewed and processed. However, information about the particular features of cigarette advertising that interact with gender to promote smoking among adolescents ...
Yoshino Koichi - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to obtain percentile curves for present teeth in smokers and non-smokers for use in oral health education. Dental examinations were carried out by two dentists. The number of present teeth in each subject was counted, excluding the third molars. Subjects consisted of 2,283 men ...
Chatkin J M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The clinical effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in real-life settings has yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of bupropion in general clinical practice for smoking cessation and to identify predictors of failure. METHODS: In an open, non-randomised study, smokers were recruited at the Smoking Cessation ...
Durazzo Timothy C - - 2006
Approximately 70-90% of individuals in North America seeking treatment for alcoholism are chronic smokers. A growing body of evidence suggests chronic cigarette smoking alone adversely affects neurocognition in adults. However, few studies on the neurocognitive function of short-term abstinent alcoholics have specifically considered the potential effects of chronic cigarette smoking. ...
Lee Peter N - - 2006
Between 1985 and 2000, lung cancer rates in U.S. men and women aged 35-54 yr have declined. To investigate whether these declines can adequately be explained by changes in smoking prevalence, consumption, and duration, or if changes in tar and nicotine yields also contributed, two model-fitting approaches were used. Both ...
Whetzel Courtney A - - 2007
Interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 cytokines, measures of Th1 and Th2 immunity, were examined in 20 healthy nonsmokers (12 males, 8 females) and 19 smokers (11 males, 8 females), aged 19-41 years (23.46+/-0.82 years). Nonsmokers came to the laboratory once; smokers came to the laboratory after ad lib smoking and following ...
César-Neto João Batista - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: It has been previously shown that smoking may enhance periodontal breakdown and impair bone healing around titanium implants. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effect of smoking on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone. Thus, the aim of this study was to histometrically evaluate the influence of cigarette ...
Stein Michael D - - 2006
AIM: To test, in combination with the nicotine patch, the incremental efficacy of a maximal, tailored behavioral treatment over a minimal treatment for smoking cessation. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial with 6-month follow-up. SETTING: Five methadone maintenance treatment centers in Rhode Island. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and eighty-three methadone-maintained smokers. INTERVENTION: Participants ...
Hering Dagmara - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Sympathetic responses to cigarette smoking may be implicated in the link between smoking and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that the sympathetic neural responses to smoking are age dependent. METHODS: We examined the effects of cigarette smoking and sham ...
Miller Kris Lishner - - 2006
Piagetian interviewing techniques were used to explore concepts of nicotine addiction among 96 children and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years. Verbal probes elicited each subject's most sophisticated level of reasoning about smoking and addiction. Responses were scored using the six developmentally ordered categories of the Developmental Conceptions of ...
Cavallo Dana A - - 2006
The aim of this study was to examine smoking-specific weight concerns in a well-characterized sample of adolescent daily smokers and the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). Adolescent smokers (n=103) were asked two smoking-specific weight concern questions: "How much do cigarettes help you control your weight?" and ...
Caraballo Ralph S - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Limited data on cigarette smoking among population subgroups hinder the development and implementation of intervention strategies for those subgroups. Because of small sample sizes or inadequate study formats, cigarette smoking among youths has been studied mostly among broad racial or ethnic categories (e.g., Asian, Hispanic) instead of subgroups (e.g., ...
Nagai K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Epithelial lining fluid plays a critical role in protecting the lung from oxidative stress, in which the oxidised status may change by ageing, smoking history, and pulmonary emphysema. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 109 young and older subjects with various smoking histories. The protein carbonyls, total and ...
Kanehira Takashi - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), peroxidase (POx) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in saliva of smokers and those in saliva of non-smokers. METHODS: Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 88 elderly males (65 years old or over) who visited a private ...
Whitson Heather E - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To identify subject characteristics that predict smoking cessation and describe patterns of cessation and recidivism in a cohort of elderly smokers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Piedmont region, North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred seventy-three subjects enrolled in the North Carolina Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly who ...
Martin Richard J - - 2006
Cigarette smoke has a major impact on health issues worldwide. Although genetics certainly is a factor in the sensitivity to cigarette smoke, other lung environmental factors, such as infection, potentially could interact with cigarette smoke to induce inflammatory changes associated with various diseases. Four groups of BALB/c mice (smoking only; ...
Morlá M - - 2006
Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating lymphocytes. The present study investigated whether this effect was further amplified in smokers who develop chronic ...
Awan Shaheen N - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to provide a foundation of information concerning the early effects of smoking on the laryngeal structures and phonatory physiology of young adult women using videostroboscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational. METHODS: Subjects were 34 female nonsmokers and 30 female smokers (Total N=64) between the ...
Hanewinkel Reiner - - 2006
There is a lack of effective smoking cessation programmes for young people, despite the urgent need for them. The present study reports the initial results of a real-world self-help cessation programme which also contained a "quit and win"-contest component designed for adolescents and young adults. Consecutive registrants (N=1265) were surveyed ...
Komiya Hideaki - - 2006
Epidemiological and clinical studies on the lifestyle-related obesity have identified smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake as risk factors for obesity. However, no consensus has yet been reached on the effect of smoking on visceral adiposity. This study was designed to assess whether smoking is associated with the accumulation of ...
Juliano Laura M - - 2006
In this study, the authors prospectively evaluated the impact of a smoking lapse on relapse probability. After 4 days of smoking abstinence, 60 smokers were randomly assigned to smoke 5 nicotine-containing or 5 denicotinized cigarettes, or to remain abstinent (no lapse) during a 4-hr time period. Afterward, smoking abstinence was ...
Swartz L H G - - 2006
The objective of this project was to test the short term (90 days) efficacy of an automated behavioural intervention for smoking cessation, the "1-2-3 Smokefree" programme, delivered via an internet website. Randomised control trial. Subjects surveyed at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 90 days later. The study and the intervention occurred ...
West Robert - - 2006
To assess the extent to which the prevailing model of smoking cessation (that smokers typically prepare their attempts to stop smoking in advance and that doing so increases their chances of success) is correct. Cross sectional household survey. England. 918 smokers who reported having made at least one quit attempt ...
Townsend Loraine - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Given that developing countries (and particularly women in these countries) are at increasing risk for tobacco use, the need for hard data to accurately monitor tobacco use in developing countries is needed. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the available prevalence data on current tobacco use among ...
Kumar Sandeep - - 2006
To study tobacco consumption practices in north-Indian population, a community-based, stratified sampling survey using validated interview schedule was performed in rural/urban areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. There were 432 tobacco users (385 men, 47 women; 276 urban, 156 rural) taken as subjects. Tobacco use practices ie, chewing/smoking/rubbing/snuffing, frequency, starting age, ...
Skjelbakken Tove - - 2006
Haemoglobin level declines with increasing age in cross sectional studies. Little is known about the longitudinal changes of haemoglobin. Because both high or low haemoglobin levels increase mortality and morbidity we examined how changes in lifestyle factors like body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits influence cohort changes in haemoglobin ...
Masayesva Brett G - - 2006
An increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and decline in mitochondrial function occurs with aging and in response to DNA-damaging agents, including tobacco smoke. We did a cross-sectional study and quantified changes in mtDNA content in a population of individuals with varied smoking and alcohol exposure. Age, smoking history, ethanol ...
Kurata Chinori - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the medical check-up findings associated with smoking habit, which medical professionals, particularly physicians, should use for the promotion of quitting smoking. METHODS: In 6,215 male and 1,627 female employees who participated in annual medical check-up, we compared the results of each ...
Hamajima Nobuyuki - - 2006
Genotype announcement may be one of the effective methods to induce smoking cessation, but the studies are limited throughout the world. Subjects were smokers who attended a health checkup examination provided by a local government in Hokkaido, Japan, 2003. Those who agreed to know their genotypes were informed of the ...
Rytilä Paula - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of these factors in the airways of healthy smokers and symptomatic smokers without airway obstruction, i.e. individuals with GOLD stage 0 COPD. METHODS: Exhaled NO (FENO) ...
Moolchan Eric T - - 2006
Variations in nicotine metabolism are thought to contribute to differences in cigarette consumption between African Americans and Caucasian adult smokers. To investigate the potential mechanism of previously documented lower smoking rates among African-American adolescent smokers seeking cessation treatment, we measured nicotine metabolite ratios as markers of the metabolic disposition of ...
Rachiotis G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a predictor of quality of life, while socio-economic factors influence the prevalence of smoking habits. Occupational medical research has been fairly late in coming to study quality of life aspects in working populations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is the assessment of smoking prevalence among blue- ...
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