Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1638
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Guo Song - - 2007
RATIONALE: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme involved in the degradation and inactivation of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is important in mediating drug reward such as nicotine in tobacco smoke. Different COMT alleles encode enzyme whose activity varies from three- to fourfold that may affect dopamine levels and alter subjective effects ...
Mur─ârescu Elena Doina - - 2007
It is well known that nicotine that is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress which is responsible for the lung damages in COPD and cancer. There have been reported some cases of COPD in never smoking patients exposed to air pollutants. The aim of our study ...
Christenhusz Lieke - - 2007
In this (CAMOXI) study, three carbon monoxide (CO) monitors and salivary cotinine are assessed regarding their ability to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers, both in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy people. Twenty-six healthy smokers, 25 healthy nonsmokers, 25 smoking, and 25 former smoking stable COPD patients (age 40-72 years) ...
Hagquist Curt - - 2007
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to analyse changes in smoking habits among adolescents in three regions of Sweden following the introduction in 1997 of a law prohibiting sales of tobacco to persons under 18 years: the minimum-age law. METHODS: The analysis is based on data collected among adolescents ...
Irwin Robert W - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between age, gender, and body mass index as they relate to sacroiliac joint pathology diagnosed by dual comparative local anesthetic blocks. DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of patients at a university spine center from August 2001 until August 2004. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-eight patients ...
Moore Dennis - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of age, gender, tobacco-related knowledge, treatment modality, and changes in smoking patterns on intention to quit tobacco use among individuals participating in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment in Ohio. Of the 791 SUD program attendees, 91.7% currently used tobacco, with ...
Hanta I - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expired-air carbon monoxide level which relates to the severity of inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Chest Disease, Out-patient clinic. PATIENTS: The characteristics of patients ...
Halvorsen B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the effect of smoking cessation on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male and 22 female smokers of >7 cigarettes daily, aged 32-64 years with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or additional risk factors to smoking, participated in a program of smoking cessation ...
Bernstein Amit - - 2007
The present investigation examined the developmental course(s) of lifetime cigarette use and panic attack comorbidity. Participants included 4,409 adults, ages 15 to 54 years of age (M(Age) = 33.1, SD = 10.7, N (females) = 2,221) from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). The primary objective of the present investigation was ...
Steele Jeanne R - - 2007
Young adults were the only age group to defy the downward trend in cigarette use seen in the 1980s and 1990s. To help explain this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory study to examine the association between the sociocultural contexts of young adults' everyday lives and their smoking attitudes and behaviors. ...
Yilmaz Ahmet - - 2007
Background: Previous studies have focused mainly on the acute effects of smoking on the diastolic function of the heart. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the chronic effects of smoking on the diastolic functional parameters of the heart, including transmitral M- mode coloured flow propagation velocity (Vp), among relatively ...
Horiuchi Noriaki - - 2007
Although rates of emphysematous change in smokers have previously been reported, the precise effects of smoking on emphysematous change have yet to be established because the study subjects of previous reports were heterogeneous in background, and particularly in their professions. This study was prospectively designed to determine the incidence of ...
Tait Robert J - - 2007
AIMS: To: (a) identify characteristics of older smokers considering cessation of smoking; (b) evaluate a cessation intervention plus access to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); (c) identify predictors of those who successfully quit; and (d) evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in those AGED >or = 75 years. DESIGN: Self-selection of: ...
Rubinstein Mark L - - 2007
The goal of this study was to identify associations among self-reported nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, and actual nicotine intake as measured by salivary cotinine levels in adolescent smokers. A total of 170 adolescent smokers with a mean age of 15 years were recruited from seven northern Californian public high schools. ...
Monchuk Daniel C - - 2007
Using a new brand of cigarettes with less nicotine content than conventional cigarettes, we conducted experimental auctions at two grocery stores to estimate smokers' value of nicotine. Our approach is novel because the brand of cigarettes auctioned was new to the market and the cigarette's nicotine content is reduced using ...
White Helene Raskin - - 2007
This study examined adolescent risk factors for late-onset cigarette smoking among African American males. Data came from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of young men followed from age 13 to age 25. Individuals who began smoking at age 17 or older were compared with those who began smoking ...
Taylor D Robin - - 2007
Exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect F(E)NO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting F(E)NO in a well characterised adult population. Data were ...
- - 2006
Smoking cessation among adolescent smokers is relatively rare, with approximately 15.6% of smokers aged 12-19 years quitting smoking in a 4-year period (approximately 4% per year). Rates for failed quitting attempts among younger smokers are higher than those for adults (43%), with approximately 58% of high-school smokers having tried to ...
Louis Elan D - - 2007
Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean+/-S.D.=65.7+/-11.5 years, ...
McLeish Alison C - - 2007
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the relation between smoking rate and panic vulnerability variables, both concurrently and prospectively (3 months), among a community-based sample of 125 daily smokers (60 females; M(age) =26.02 years, S.D. =10.98). Consistent with prediction, ...
Geijer Roeland M M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether in a high-risk group of middle-aged male current smokers, patient characteristics are useful to recognize mild COPD (GOLD stage I). DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study spirometry was performed according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. COPD was defined according to the GOLD criteria for COPD. SETTING: ...
Schick Suzaynn F SF Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, Cardiovascular Research Institute, and Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco CA 94143-1390, - - 2006
To determine the effects of aging on the toxicity of sidestream tobacco smoke, the complex chemical mixture that enters the air from the lit end of burning cigarettes and constitutes the vast bulk of secondhand smoke. Statistical analysis of data from controlled experimental exposures of Sprague Dawley rats to fresh ...
Morton Lindsay M LM Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. - - 2006
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated the association between smoking behavior and genetic variations in the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), which mediates nicotine dependence. To assess the specificity of genetic effects, we also investigated other reward-motivated characteristics (obesity, alcohol consumption). Four single nucleotide ...
Andelid Kristina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there is very little information on the development of systemic inflammation in smokers without severe airway symptoms. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether smokers with mild or no airway symptoms develop signs ...
Brook Judith S - - 2006
The purpose of this longitudinal, prospective study was to evaluate trajectories of smoking in a cohort of African-American and Puerto Rican young adults and describe personality and behavioral factors associated with specific smoking trajectory group membership. Participants consisted of African-American and Puerto Rican male and female young adults (N = ...
Albrecht Susan A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The smoking prevalence rate among pregnant adolescents has been estimated at 59-62%, and 60-80% of these adolescents continue to smoke throughout their pregnancies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of smoking cessation strategies tailored to the pregnant adolescent to attain and ...
Edelen Maria Orlando - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with age of smoking initiation and distinguish vulnerable periods for initiation according to those factors. METHOD: Discrete time hazards analysis was used to model smoking initiation as a function of age (5-23), demographic and familial influence variables (measured at age 13), and their interactions in ...
Kaya Eser - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The welding process produces metal fumes and gases which may affect respiratory health. Technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) dynamic lung scanning is an easy, noninvasive method to assess disorders of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability secondary to epithelial damage. We aimed to investigate the alveolar clearance by Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation ...
Jhun Hyung-Joon - - 2006
This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and ...
Furberg Helena - - 2006
To investigate the prevalence and patterns of transitions between cigarette and snus use. Cross-sectional study within the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. A total of 31 213 male and female twins 42-64 years old. Age-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) described the association between gender and tobacco ...
Degirmenci Bumin - - 2006
AIM: To ultrasonographically evaluate the acute effects of smoking on gallbladder contraction and refilling in chronic smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: Fifteen chronic smokers (21-30 years old) and fifteen nonsmokers (21-35 years old) participated in this study. Chronic smokers were selected among the volunteers who had been smoking for at least ...
Harman Juliet J Centre for Applied Statistics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YF, UK. - - 2006
Marked and increasing socioeconomic gradients in cigarette smoking are well established. Tracking these differentials among women requires appropriate measures of their socioeconomic position (SEP) which are equivalent across older and younger age groups. This study examines socioeconomic gradients in cigarette smoking by age among women aged 20-34, using a standard ...
Sassalos Konstantinos - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Aortic elastic properties are markers and prognosticators of cardiovascular risk. Smoking adversely affects arterial elastic properties. The acute and chronic effect of cigarette smoking on the elastic properties of the ascending aorta has not been determined. METHODS: The chronic part of the study included 130 healthy male subjects (age ...
Li Hong - - 2006
Cigarette smoking, an established cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, is known to impair pulsatile arterial function. However, information is scant in this regard on asymptomatic younger adult former smokers. As part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, the pulsatile arterial function was examined noninvasively in 278 nonsmokers, 277 current smokers, and ...
Nadziakiewicz P - - 2006
Nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air. Factors affecting the level of exhaled nitric oxide (exNO), except for smoking, are not well defined. In this study we seek to determine whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), part of the day, or time after a meal could modulate exNO ...
Silva Maria Alayde M da - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of smoking and the presence of variables associated with the habit in children and adolescents of both sexes, aged 7 to 17 years, resident in the city of Maceió. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study of the student population of the both private and public education ...
Siegrist Patrick T - - 2006
The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of endothelium-related myocardial blood flow (MBF) responses to cold pressor testing (CPT) as assessed by PET. METHODS: In 10 age-matched control subjects (26.6 +/- 3.4 y) and 10 tobacco smokers (24.9 +/- 3.3 y) MBF was assessed at rest and ...
Wallace Amy E - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To examine recent rates of tobacco cessation counseling and whether patient age or sex was associated with providers' adherence to tobacco cessation guidelines. DESIGN: Survey study. SETTING: The 2002 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of 22,605 records representing 687 million ambulatory care appointments with adults from ...
Sugiyama Kazuko - - 2006
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcome of smell activity after endoscopic sinus surgery in chronic sinusitis, it is important to verify evidence of smoking-induced olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: In both the preoperative and the postoperative stages, the 5-odorant T&T olfactometer (T&T5) and the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT40) were ...
Geijer Roeland M M - - 2006
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem with an estimated prevalence of 10-15% among smokers. The incidence of moderate COPD, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), is largely unknown. To determine the cumulative incidence of moderate COPD (forced expiratory volume in ...
Sardu C - - 2006
To assess how the prevalence of smokers in Italy from 1950 to 2000 has changed, in parallel with law development and the growing attention towards smoking prevention. Historical data on smoking trends have been obtained using data collected in 2000 by the National Institute of Statistics. A correction coefficient is ...
Barone-Adesi Francesco - - 2006
AIMS: We used the hospital discharge records of Piedmont region (northern Italy) to evaluate whether a national law banning smoking in public resulted in a short-term reduction in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Rates of admission for AMI before the ban (October-December 2004) and during ...
Andersen Susan - - 2007
Addiction is important to account for when designing smoking cessation interventions as withdrawal symptoms impede quitting. Ameliorating symptoms may increase those successfully quitting. A two-group, two-time, five-week, multi-site experimental design using the Transtheoretical Model examined whether addiction predicted post-intervention smoking behavior (point prevalence and stage of change), controlling for NRT ...
Musso Francesco - - 2007
RATIONALE: There is abundant evidence from clinical and preclinical studies that acute administration of nicotine has beneficial effects on attentional network function in the brain. In contrast, little is known about potentially neurotoxic effects on the attentional network during neurodevelopmentally critical periods, such as during adolescence and early adulthood. METHODS: ...
Haswell-Elkins Melissa - - 2007
This study explored urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islanders in response to concerns about potential health impact of high levels of cadmium in some traditional seafood (dugong and turtle liver and kidney). Cadmium levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry in de-identified urine samples collected during general screening ...
Sundh M - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to study possible changes in adolescents' opportunities for purchasing tobacco during the period 1996-2005. The study also investigated regional differences in adolescents' opportunities for purchasing tobacco, and elucidated the efforts by the authorities to affect the compliance with the minimum-age law of 18. METHODS: In 1996, ...
Funck-Brentano Christian - - 2006
Although all forms of smoking are harmful, smoking pipes or cigars is associated with lower exposure to the lethal products of tobacco products and lower levels of morbidity and mortality than smoking cigarettes. Cytochrome P-450-1A (CYP1A) is a major pathway activating carcinogens from tobacco smoke. Our primary aim was to ...
Wang Mei Lin - - 2006
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Spirometry is performed to monitor lung health, but variability between tests can hinder recognition of excessive FEV(1) declines. We sought to describe the relationship between FEV(1) changes over 1 to 5 years and FEV(1) declines over longer terms, using 21,821 test results from 1,884 workers who participated in ...
Gilpin Elizabeth A - - 2006
California experienced a notable decline in per capita cigarette consumption during its comprehensive tobacco control programme. This study examines what proportion of the decline occurred from: (1) fewer ever smokers in the population, (2) more ever smokers quitting, and (3) current smokers smoking less. Per capita cigarette consumption computed from ...
Liu K-Z - - 2006
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 has been associated with the progression of periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the teeth, and with other degradative diseases. Tobacco smokers are at high risk of developing periodontitis that may progress more rapidly and respond poorly to treatment. Therefore, MMP-8 expression was ...
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