Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1638
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Negley Candice - - 2007
This study measured distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and DPOAE input/output (I/O) curves to assess the effects of smoking on cochlear function. Twenty-four healthy adults, 12 smokers and 12 nonsmokers in the 20-30 years age range were selected based on self-reported histories of five to eight years of smoking or ...
Liang Qiwei - - 2008
Cigarette burn time (CBT), conventionally defined as the time a cigarette burns during smoking, can be affected by cigarette design and smoking behavior. A previous study showed a strong negative correlation between CBT and nicotine yield under machine smoking conditions. This study for the first time examined the relationship of ...
Patten Christi A - - 2007
The Internet offers a potential medium for delivering smoking cessation treatment to adolescents. However, few Internet-based cessation programs for adolescents have been evaluated. We describe adolescent use of a home-based Internet intervention to stop smoking (Stomp Out Smokes [SOS]) and explore baseline characteristics associated with SOS use. Participants were 70 ...
Munafò Marcus R - - 2007
We investigated the impact of the administration of a tyrosine-depleting amino acid mixture compared to a balanced mixture on measures of mood, craving and selective processing of smoking-related cues in healthy cigarette smokers instructed to abstain from smoking for 12 h prior to, and during, the experiment. A modified stroop ...
Alexeeff Stacey E - - 2007
Decreased lung function has been linked to increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Statins have demonstrated antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of statin use on decline in lung function in the elderly, and whether smoking modified this effect. Our study population included 2,136 measurements on 803 elderly men ...
Wu Ta-Peng - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is responsible for human diseases of the lung, heart, circulatory system and various kinds of cancers, and is a serious public health problem worldwide. Acupuncture has been promoted as a treatment modality for smoking cessation. However, its efficacy still remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, ...
Turesky Robert J - - 2007
Carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are formed in cooked meats, poultry, and fish and arise in tobacco smoke. We measured the concentrations of four prevalent HAAs in spot urine samples collected at baseline from 170 participants of the Shanghai Cohort study, a population-based cohort study of adult men recruited during ...
Awan Shaheen N - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to provide information concerning the possible early effects of smoking on measures of respiratory capacity and control in young adult female smokers vs. nonsmokers. In particular, maximum performance test results (vital capacity and maximum phonation time) and measures of air pressures and airflows during ...
Fidler Jennifer A - - 2007
AIM: To assess the effect of smoking uptake on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and height during adolescence. DESIGN: Five-year longitudinal study. SETTING: Thirty-six schools in South London, England, selected by a stratified random sampling procedure designed to ensure ethnic and socio-economic diversity. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5863 students ...
Widome Rachel R Healthy Youth Development Prevention Research Center, Division of Adolescent Health and Medicine, University of Minnesota, MN 55455-200, USA. - - 2007
To measure community-level changes in the methods youth use to obtain cigarettes over time and to relate these methods to the progression of smoking. We analyzed 2000-2003 data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort study, where youth (beginning at age 12), who were living in Minnesota at baseline, were surveyed ...
Hodge Sandra - - 2007
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with defective efferocytosis (apoptosis and alveolar macrophage [AM] phagocytic function) that may lead to secondary necrosis and tissue damage. We investigated ex vivo AM phagocytic ability and recognition molecules (CD36, integrin alphaVbeta3, CD31, CD91, CD44) using flow cytometry. The transferrin receptor (CD71) was ...
Vander Weg Mark W - - 2008
Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in ...
Collins Bradley N BN Health Behavior Research Clinic, Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA. - - 2007
Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral problems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease ...
Hanioka Takashi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A causal association between cigarette smoking and periodontal disease has been established. The present study examined the association between smoking and tooth loss using national databases in Japan. METHODS: Records of the Survey of Dental Diseases and the National Nutrition Survey in 1999 were linked electronically using common identification. ...
Yufu Kunio - - 2007
The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a quick test which adequately estimates arterial stiffness. Because flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery assesses an essential endothelial function, we tested the hypothesis that the brachial-ankle PWV could reflect the early stages of endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking in young, healthy ...
Ritz Beate - - 2007
Epidemiologic studies have reported that cigarette smoking is inversely associated with Parkinson disease (PD). However, questions remain regarding the effect of age at smoking onset, time since quitting, and race/ethnicity that have not been addressed due to sample size constraints. This comprehensive assessment of the apparent reduced risk of PD ...
Cunningham John A - - 2007
We used a random-digit-dialed survey of 434 smokers to demonstrate that approximately three quarters of young adult (aged 19-24 years) smokers overestimated by 20% or more the proportion of their peers who smoked. The effect of this normative fallacy was significantly greater in young adult smokers than in smokers aged ...
Green Molly P - - 2007
We sought to fill gaps in knowledge of smoking behaviors among college-educated and non-college-educated young adults. We used data from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey to analyze smoking behaviors among young adults aged 18-24 years and older young adults aged 25-34 years by college status ...
Solberg Leif I - - 2007
We sought to determine whether the educational backgrounds of young adult smokers (aged 18 to 24 years) affect their cessation attitudes or behaviors in ways that could be used to improve smoking interventions. We surveyed 5580 members of the HealthPartners health plan and conducted a follow-up survey 12 months later ...
Defazio G - - 2007
Prior coffee and smoking habits were investigated in a multicentre case control study involving 166 patients presenting with primary late onset blepharospasm (BSP), 228 hospital control patients with primary hemifacial spasm and 187 population control subjects from five Italian centres. Information on age at disease onset, smoking and coffee drinking ...
Ferketich Amy K - - 2007
The objective of the current study was to examine demographic, tobacco-related, and psychosocial factors associated with cotinine concentration in a group of 256 male smokeless tobacco (ST) users living in the Ohio Appalachian region. Participants completed a survey that included questions on: 1) current and past tobacco use behaviors; 2) ...
Hanioka Takashi - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Various factors may be associated with edentulism in elderly people. Association of total tooth loss with smoking, alcohol intake and nutrition in non-institutionalised elderly Japanese was assessed utilising national database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of independent surveys, the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD) and the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) ...
Lawrence Deirdre - - 2007
Most tobacco control programs focus on prevention for children or cessation for adults. Little is known about cigarette smoking among young adults. This study examined sociodemographic variables associated with current, daily, heavy, and light smoking among young adults in the United States. Data from the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to ...
Türe Mevlüt - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine how the major risk factors are related to each other in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) using Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID). METHODS: All patients with suspected CAD seen in the cardiology clinic between January 1999 and February 2003 ...
Ureme S O - - 2007
Methaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations and some haematological parameters were studied in fifty tobacco snuff addicts (40 males and 10 females) in some villages of Anambra State, Nigeria. The aim was to investigate possible adverse effects of tobacco snuff in addicts in Igbos of Anambra State. Fifty apparently healthy persons (25 males ...
Lusk Christine - - 2007
The authors evaluated determinants of response to Internet-based surveys in a sample (n = 5600) of Texas healthcare professionals. Participants were given the option of responding by mail or over the Web (response, 66%). Internet respondents were younger (p < .001), had worked fewer years in healthcare (p < .001), ...
Edwards Christine - - 2007
To evaluate the effect of an antismoking advertisement on young people's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. 3091 cinema patrons aged 12-24 years in three Australian states; 18.6% of the sample (n = 575) were current smokers. Quasi-experimental study of patrons, surveyed after having viewed a ...
Sorkun Hulya Cetin - - 2007
This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and ...
Schiaffino Anna - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To analyze the pattern in the incidence of quitting smoking in Spain from 1965 to 2000 according to gender, age and educational level. METHODS: We used data from 5 Spanish National Health Interview Surveys including 33532 ever smokers>or=20 years old. We reconstructed the history of smoking and the age ...
Flynn Brian S - - 2007
Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, ...
De Leon Jose - - 2007
AIMS: The main objective of this article was to compare alcohol and tobacco consumption in the US and the Basque Country (the North of Spain) with particular attention to the association between alcohol and tobacco use. The consistency of findings was considered by analyzing data from two different years. These ...
Velicer Wayne F - - 2007
Intervention effectiveness can potentially be affected by membership in different demographic subgroups (race, ethnicity, gender, age, and education level) or smoking behavior variables (time to first cigarette, longest previous quit attempt, number of attempts in the past year, number of cigarettes, and stage of change). Previous research on these 2 ...
Lillard Dean R - - 2007
Although the prevalence of smoking has declined among US adults, an estimated 22.5% of the adult population (45.8 million adults) regularly smoked in 2002. Starting from this level, it will not be possible to achieve the Healthy People national health objectives of a reduction in the prevalence of smoking among ...
Roethig Hans J - - 2007
This randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group study in 100 adult male and female smokers of conventional cigarettes evaluated 8 biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. After baseline exposure determinations, adult smokers were switched to a second-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) for 8 days in a clinical setting. After 8 ...
Gunes Gulsen - - 2007
The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior based on "stages of change" model of the workers and to assess the effectiveness of a education program at a workplace. The first step was descriptive and the second step was an experimental study. The intervention group received an ...
Zvolensky Michael J - - 2007
The aim of the present investigation was to extend previous work on anxiety sensitivity (AS) and early smoking relapse among a sample of 130 (74 females) young adult (M (age) = 22.5 years, SD = 2.1) daily low-level smokers (9.3 cigarettes/day, SD = 11.5) from Mexico City, Mexico. Results indicated ...
Wakai Kenji - - 2007
To evaluate the impact of smoking cessation on individuals and populations, we examined the decrease in risk of lung cancer death in male ex-smokers by age at quitting by pooling the data from three large-scale cohort studies in Japan. For simplicity, subjects were limited to male never smokers and former ...
Nisar Nighat - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of people consuming tobacco in various forms, level of knowledge and practices regarding various harmful effects of tobacco and passive smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Ghulam Mohammad Jokhio Goth, a small semi urban community of Gadap Town Karachi, which comprises of a ...
Siahpush Mohammad - - 2007
To determine the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who experience smoking-induced deprivation (SID), and to examine its effect on quit attempts, relapse and cessation. Waves 2 and 3 (2003-5) of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey were used, which is a prospective study of a cohort of smokers in ...
Messer Karen - - 2007
To estimate national population trends in long-term smoking cessation by age group and to compare cessation rates in California (CA) with those of two comparison groups of states. Retrospective smoking history of a population sample from the US: from CA, with a comprehensive tobacco-control programme since 1989 with the goal ...
Al-Delaimy Wael K - - 2007
To investigate the association of the California Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program with self-reported population trends of cigarette consumption during 1992-2002. Participants were non-Hispanic white daily smokers (aged 20-64 years, n = 24 317) from the Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (1992-2002). We compared age-specific trends in consumption ...
Gallinat J - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence indicates a crucial role of glutamate in the brain reward system and nicotine addiction. Because the pertinent models involve frontal and hippocampal glutamatergic projections, our goal was to investigate cerebral glutamate concentrations in healthy subjects with different smoking behavior. METHODS: Glutamate was measured with proton magnetic resonance ...
Herzog Thaddeus A - - 2007
According to the transtheoretical model (J. O. Prochaska & C. C. DiClemente, 1983), current smokers can be usefully divided into three distinct stages. Questionnaire items needed for staging smokers contain questions about intentions to quit within fixed time frames (30 days and 6 months) and require "Yes" or "No" responses. ...
Munafò Marcus R MR Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom. - - 2007
We attempted to clarify the strength and nature of the association between personality and smoking status in early and middle adulthood, using a longitudinal study design. Data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, based on a stratified sample of all single, legitimate births occurring in ...
Kandel Denise B - - 2007
Nicotine metabolism has been hypothesized to affect patterns of smoking. The recent development of a noninvasive measure of nicotine metabolism, the nicotine metabolite ratio (trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine), makes it possible to examine the association between rate of nicotine metabolism and smoking behavior in the general population. This US study examined group differences ...
Cook Jessica Werth - - 2007
RATIONALE: The possibility that individuals administer nicotine to self-regulate persistent negative affect has received interest as a possible explanation for the high prevalence of affectively vulnerable smokers. Relatively overlooked, however, is the possibility that smokers might also self-administer nicotine to elevate low positive affect. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether nicotine ...
Karatzi Kalliopi - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Acute smoking causes endothelial dysfunction through impairment of nitric oxide (NO) production, or increased oxidative stress, but the exact mechanism still needs to be elucidated. In healthy non-smokers acute endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking one cigarette was counterbalanced by red wine's antioxidants. The aim of the present study is ...
Nolan John M - - 2007
PURPOSE: Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two dietary carotenoids that accumulate at the macula, where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP). There is a biologically plausible rationale, with some supporting evidence, that MP may protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship ...
Easton Caroline J - - 2007
This study examined differences between alcohol dependent offenders of intimate partner violence (IPV) with early initiation of cigarette smoking versus alcohol dependent offenders of IPV with later initiation of cigarette smoking. Seventy-eight alcohol dependent men who were arrested for domestic and referred to substance abuse treatment were randomly assigned to ...
Munafò M R - - 2007
We investigated the association of the OPRM1 genotype with long-term smoking cessation and change in body mass index (BMI) following a smoking cessation attempt among smokers who attempted to quit using the nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch or placebo in a randomized controlled trial, and were followed-up over an 8-year ...
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