Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1639
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Míguez M Carmen - - 2008
This study evaluated the effects of including a single brief prequit telephone counseling session in a self-help program for smoking cessation conducted through the mail, by comparison with the effects of the self-help program alone. Volunteer participants from northwestern Spain (N = 228) were randomly assigned to one of two ...
Green Joseph P - - 2008
In an earlier meta-analysis of 12 studies using hypnosis-based treatments for smoking cessation, we provided preliminary evidence that males fare better than females when trying to quit smoking (Green, Lynn, & Montgomery, 2006). By excluding studies that reported no gender differences, but failed to report final outcome-statistics-by-gender, our previous conclusion ...
Tarazi Issa S - - 2008
Quantitation of hemoglobin alpha 2 delta 2 (HbA2) is a basic and confirmatory test in diagnosing the carrier state of beta-thalassemia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the diagnostic reliability of HbA2. A total of 2,867 (654 smokers and 2,213 never smokers) male ...
Edvinsson Marie-Louise - - 2008
Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study was undertaken to examine if cigarette smoking translates into reduced relaxant responses of the peripheral microcirculation. The cutaneous forearm blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. The vasodilator response to the iontophorectic administration of acetylcholine (ACh), acting ...
Bae Yun-Jung - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in Korean male collegians as related to smoking situation. One hundred sixty one young adult males at the age of 20-26 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into ...
Mohammad Yousser - - 2008
Narguileh is a water pipe. Narguileh smoking is a traditional pattern of smoking among Eastern Mediterranean women, publicly considered as a harmless entertainment. We performed a survey aimed at tracking chronic respiratory symptoms and alteration in respiratory functions in 77 female narguileh smokers, 77 cigarette smokers, and controls. A questionnaire ...
Nilsson Peter M - - 2008
It has often been recognized that a discrepancy exists during the clinical consultation between the chronological age of a patient on the one hand with the signs and symptoms of biological age that can be recorded on the other hand. In cardiovascular medicine this is obvious when a heavy smoker ...
Brook Judith S - - 2008
This longitudinal study examined the interrelationships between early and/or middle adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), middle adolescent conduct disorder (CD), and later adult smoking behavior. This is a prospective longitudinal study. Data were collected via structured interviews of representative families in the northeastern United States (N = 641). The ...
Bala M - - 2008
Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or ...
Cahill Kate K Department of Primary Health Care, University of Oxford, Rosemary Rue Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford, UK, OX3 7LF. - - 2008
Material or financial incentives may be used in an attempt to reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been widely used in workplace smoking cessation programmes, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. Quit and Win contests are the subject of a companion review. To determine whether competitions ...
Scragg Robert - - 2008
Individuals have lost full autonomy over their smoking when quitting becomes unpleasant or difficult. We examined autonomy in relation to smoking frequency and lifetime cigarette use. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by three convenience samples of Year 10 students (ages 14-15) in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004 (n=96,156). The ...
Johnson Eric O - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Measurement non-invariance of the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) across demographic groups could significantly bias group comparisons and screening for recruitment into treatment and genetic studies. Here clinically meaningful bias in the FTND across European-American and African-American men and women was assessed by: (1) testing measurement invariance; (2) ...
Romero Romina A - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Filipinos comprise about 18% of the Asian/Pacific Islander American (APIA) population and are increasing. Few studies have examined Filipino current smoking prevalence rates (CSPR) and none have described trends over time. METHODS: Trends in CSPR were estimated for Filipinos and non-Hispanic whites (NHW) from 1990-2002 from the California Tobacco ...
Hanewinkel Reiner - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To assess the opinion on tobacco tax increases in Germany. DESIGN: Ten wave cross-sectional study with assessments before and after the tax increases. SETTING: General population of Germany. PARTICIPANTS: Ten representative samples from general population with a total number of 27,608 persons aged 14 and above were interviewed. MAIN ...
Ganatra H A - - 2007
SETTING: Tobacco use among adolescent females is gaining importance as they take up smoking in increasing numbers. Recent studies show that sex differences in tobacco use are disappearing and that tobacco companies are agressively targeting females in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing the use of cigarettes among ...
Maleki-Yazdi M Reza - - 2007
This pilot study aimed to identify early stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in an urban population of smokers and ex-smokers using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2001, 2003) classification guidelines and to assess the impact of early disease on quality of life. Smokers and ...
Katotomichelakis Michael - - 2007
Although smoking is a widely spread habit, its effect on olfaction has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory function, using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test. Sixty-five smokers were studied, with a median period of smoking of 10 ...
Radwan Ghada N - - 2007
Little is known about the genetic contribution to cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction in Egypt. The dopamine D2 receptor gene contains a TaqI repeat fragment length polymorphism creating two alleles with functional significance, DRD2*A1 and DRD2*A2. We investigated the relationship between these alleles and tobacco use in a study of ...
d'Herbomez Michèle - - 2007
The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the adult C(T) reference values determined by five different immunoassays and by introducing criteria for selecting control subjects. A prospective multicenter study. Three hundred and seventy-five clinically euthyroid subjects. We used five different C(T) immunoassays. Sera were assayed for the concentration of ...
Hrubá Drahoslava - - 2007
The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" programme stems from a theory of the consequences of cultural and social miming in the onset of smoking addiction: it initiates non-smokers' active encouragement in supporting a non-smoking environment in class groups of teenagers. The first experience with the programme (Our Class Does Not Smoke) in ...
Copeland Amy L - - 2007
A measure of smoking outcome expectancies was developed for children ages 7-12 years. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine whether a 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-factor solution was most appropriate for the data set. CFA revealed that the 3-factor model produced the most adequate fit (Positive Reinforcement, Negative ...
Myung Seung Kwon - - 2007
This study investigated sociodemographic and smoking behavioral factors associated with smoking cessation according to follow-up periods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of transdermal nicotine patches, subjects were a total of 118 adult male smokers, who were followed up for 12 months. Univariable logistic regression analysis and stepwise multiple logistic ...
Cooney Ned L - - 2007
Alcohol dependent smokers (N=118) enrolled in an intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomized to a concurrent brief or intensive smoking cessation intervention. Brief treatment consisted of a 15-min counseling session with 5 min of follow-up. Intensive intervention consisted of three 1-hr counseling sessions plus 8 weeks of nicotine ...
Bancej Christina - - 2007
To synthesise estimates of the prevalence of cessation attempts among adolescent smokers generally, and according to age and level of cigarette consumption. PubMed, ERIC, and PsychInfo databases and Internet searches of central data collection agencies. National population-based studies published in English between 1990 and 2005 reporting the prevalence, frequency and/or ...
Hitsman Brian B Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, The Miriam Hospital and Brown Medical School, Coro Building, Suite 500, 1 Hoppin Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA. - - 2008
Acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) is a validated neurobiological challenge that results in reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission, allowing examination of the effects of a hypodopaminergic state on craving-related processes. We studied 16 nonabstaining smokers (>10 cigarettes/day; 9 males; age 20-33 years) to whom was administered a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free) and a balanced ...
Yeh Chih-Ching - - 2008
Cigarette smoking is a major source of oxidative stress. Protein carbonyls have been used as a biomarker of oxidative stress because of the relative stability of carbonylated proteins and the high protein concentration in blood. Increased levels of carbonyl groups have been found in serum proteins of smokers compared to ...
Shiffman Saul - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and pharmacological treatments have been shown to improve smoking cessation rates, but treatments are under-utilized. AIMS: To examine the demographic and smoking history characteristics associated with adoption of treatment for cessation. DESIGN: Analysis of the 2003 tobacco use special cessation supplement to the current population survey. PARTICIPANTS: Representative ...
Do Ron - - 2008
Recent studies have suggested that the collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may be a viable method in occupational field studies to sample secretions of the lower airway because it is simple to perform and non-invasive. However, there are unresolved questions about whether certain laboratory conditions may influence the analysis ...
Patten Christi A - - 2008
This study assessed differences between Black and White young adults on prior attempts and motivation to help a smoker quit. A total of 1,621 undergraduates (912 Black, 709 White; 63% female) ages 18-24 years completed a cross-sectional survey. Overall, 54% reported they had previously tried to help someone else stop ...
Riggs Nathaniel R - - 2007
This study evaluated the adolescent tobacco-use trajectories that predict nicotine dependence in early adulthood and when these trajectories start to diverge. As part of a follow-up to a large prevention trial, the present study evaluated 1,017 individuals from early adolescence (age 12) to early adulthood (age 28). Participants were recruited ...
Cavallo Dana A DA Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, - - 2007
This pilot study evaluated the optimal format of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to combine with contingency management (CM) in a four-week, high school-based smoking cessation program. Thirty-four adolescent smokers received a standard weekly version of CBT or a frequent brief behavioral intervention. Results indicate a trend toward a higher seven-day ...
Piccillo Giovita - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Given the observed association between smoking, inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) one may predict that smoking cessation may improve AHR. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of smoking on AHR and their results appear to be conflicting depending on the stimulus used in their bronchoprovocation protocol. ...
Morita Akimichi - - 2007
Smoking tobacco is the most preventable cause of morbidity and is responsible for more than three million deaths a year worldwide. In addition to a strong association with a number of systemic diseases, smoking is also associated with many dermatological conditions, including poor wound healing, premature skin aging, squamous cell ...
Backman Janne T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of gender and smoking on the pharmacokinetics and effects of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 substrate tizanidine. METHODS: Seventy-one healthy young volunteers (male and female nonsmokers, male smokers) ingested 4 mg tizanidine. Plasma concentrations and pharmacodynamics of tizanidine were measured, and a caffeine test was ...
Storr Carla L - - 2008
Without ongoing surveillance systems to assess tobacco product demand and exposure levels, many low and middle income countries monitor smoking via periodic cross-sectional surveys. In this article, we seek to update estimates for the prevalence of adult smoking in Colombia and contribute additional information useful for tobacco control initiatives. Data ...
Xiao Yongmei - - 2008
DNA methylation is catalyzed by a family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) including the maintenance enzyme DNMT 1 and de novo methyltransferases DNMT 3a and DNMT 3b. Elevated levels of DNMTs have been found in cancer cells and in several types of human tumors. A polymorphism found in DNMT3b has been ...
Sundy J S - - 2007
Age-related declines in forced expiratory volume in one second are accelerated in smokers. Smoking is associated with decreased exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F(eNO)). The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of age on F(eNO) in otherwise healthy smokers and nonsmokers. F(eNO) and serum cotinine levels were ...
Nagler R M - - 2007
Saliva is the first biological fluid to encounter inhaled cigarette smoke, whose numerous carcinogens and oxidants are responsible for the oral cancer so prevalent among smokers. Whole saliva, collected from 25 consenting heavy smokers and from a control group of 25 age- and gender-matched non-smokers, was subjected to sialochemical, biochemical, ...
Bricker Jonathan B - - 2007
AIMS: The first longitudinal investigation of the extent to which same-age and older schoolmates' smoking and non-smoking are associated with adolescents' smoking transitions during three grade intervals. DESIGN: Same-age and older schoolmates' smoking and non-smoking were assessed when adolescents were at grades 5 (age 10), 7 (age 12) and 9 ...
Ustün Kemal - - 2007
The negative effects of smoking on periodontal health are well known. But the mechanism is not clear yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume. The study included 26 age and gender matched periodontally healthy males. Half of ...
Esterberg Michelle L - - 2007
Individuals with schizophrenia have very high rates of cigarette smoking, and much has been discovered about the influence of nicotine on brain functioning in schizophrenia. However, less is understood about the relationship between nicotine consumption and milder phenotypes related to schizophrenia, specifically schizotypy. This study examined the relationship between nicotine ...
Cropsey Karen L - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate racial and sex differences on the risk factors for smoking initiation and daily smoking among juvenile justice adolescents, a population that is traditionally ignored in school-based epidemiological samples. This study used archival data collected by juvenile justice authorities for a large sample ...
Garaj-Vrhovac Verica - - 2008
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) was used to assess the variability and determine possible influences of external and internal factors on the background levels of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 50 healthy volunteers selected at random from the general population of Croatia. The mean MN frequency for ...
Acosta Michelle C - - 2008
Retrospective self-report data indicate that early cigarette use episodes may be important predictors of smoking. Unfortunately, recall of early experiences are confounded with current smoking. The current study is the first to examine early cigarette use episodes (EUEs) prospectively in novice smokers (less than 15 lifetime cigarettes). Smoking amount, context ...
Melbye Hasse - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Bronchial airflow limitation is a known predictor of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) level. The aim of this study was to explore this association in an elderly population, as well as the influence of other known and possible predictors of the CRP level, like smoking and the use of statins ...
ZieliƄska-Danch Wioleta - - 2007
An objective assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke may be accomplished by means of examining particular biomarkers in body fluids. The most common biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure is urinary, or serum, cotinine. In order to distinguish non-smokers from passive smokers and passive smokers from active smokers, it is necessary ...
Jacobovicz Joel - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Plastic surgeons are always concerned about integrity of facial vascularization in smokers and elderly candidates for face-lifting. Using Doppler ultrasound, this study aimed to evaluate influence of chronic smoking and aging on facial transverse and infraorbital artery blood flow. METHODS: For this study, 40 healthy volunteer women were submitted ...
Wong Chit-Ming - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that ambient air pollution and smoking are both associated with increased mortality, but until now there has been little evidence as to whether the effects of these 2 factors combined are greater than the sum of their individual effects. We assessed whether smokers are subject ...
Calderón-Ezquerro C - - 2007
Genotoxicity caused by tobacco smoke was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers living in Mexico City by determining sister chromatid exchange (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK), replication index (RI) and mitotic index (MI). Nicotine levels, and its major metabolite cotinine, were also estimated in urine samples using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry ...
Sezer Murat - - 2007
We aimed at evaluating the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the histopathological changes in the lungs of rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke exposure. Four groups with six rabbits each were as follows: cigarette smoke group, CAPE group, cigarette smoke + CAPE group and control group. The cigarette ...
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