Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 1640
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Fronek A - - 2008
The aim of this study was first to compare the widely used flow mediated dilation ( FMD ) method with the iontophoretically induced acetylcholine vasodilation (IAV ) procedure. The ultimate goal was to examine the endothelial activity ( EA ) in patients with various cardiovascular risk factors compared with control ...
Hahn Ellen J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the adult smoking rate changed in Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, following the enactment of a smoke-free public places ordinance. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2005 were used to test whether smoking rates changed in Fayette County from the pre- to post-law period, relative ...
Thomas S S MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow G12 8RZ, UK. - - 2008
To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. Studies were included (n = 84) if they reported the effects of any population-level tobacco control intervention on smoking behaviour or ...
Matsumoto Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of chronic smoking on ocular surface and tear functions. METHODS: Fifteen right eyes of 15 healthy chronic smokers (9 men, 6 women; age range: 36-47 years) who smoked 20 cigarettes per day for 20 years and 20 eyes of 20 control non-smokers (12 men, 8 ...
Glader P - - 2008
Clinical studies have indicated increased gelatinase activity in the airways of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by tobacco smoke. The present study aimed to determine whether acute exposure to tobacco smoke per se causes a substantial and lasting impact on gelatinases and their inhibitors in the peripheral ...
Baschnagel Joseph S - - 2008
Smoking rates are higher and cessation rates are lower among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population, thus understanding the relationship between PTSD and nicotine dependence is important. In a sample of 213 participants with a crime-related trauma (109 with PTSD), the relationship between PTSD status, ...
Strong Kathleen - - 2008
This paper presents comparable tobacco use prevalence estimates for the WHO European region for two common definitions of tobacco use: current smoker (occasional and daily) and daily smoker. Data collections held in the WHO Global InfoBase (www.who.int/infobase) were used to examine patterns of tobacco use at the country level, in ...
Vasselli S - - 2008
AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess change in admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period immediately subsequent to the coming into force of law no. 3/2003 ''Protection of the health of non-smokers''. METHODS: Four Italian regions (Piedmont, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lazio and Campania) took ...
Gregor Kristin L - - 2008
The present investigation examined the extent to which the cognitive factors of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and perceived control over anxiety-related events are independently related to smoking outcome expectancies and perceived barriers to quitting. Participants were 125 community-recruited adult, daily smokers. Consistent with hypotheses, AS and perceived control over anxiety-related events ...
Jeon Hong Jin - - 2008
The rate of dependence among ever-users of a drug indicates the risk of developing dependence once an individual has been exposed to the drug. This is the first study to investigate 12-month tobacco dependence (TD) among ever-smokers in a community-based population. Analyses were based on two national studies of representative ...
Leone Aurelio - - 2008
Acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is considered to adversely influence atherogenesis. The aim of this article was to assess whether brachial ultrasonography in subjects with endothelial dysfunction after ETS exposure is associated with atherosclerotic lesions. Never smoker healthy volunteers (n = 18) and subjects with a previous myocardial ...
Alyan Omer - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increased the risk of acute cardiac events related with endothelial dysfunction and increased sympathetic activity. Impaired autonomic nervous activity is recognized as a considerable symptom of cardiac dysfunction and is strongly associated with increased risk overall mortality. METHODS: A total of 75 healthy habitual smokers (40 female, ...
Takeshita Yoshiaki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Smoking impairs neovascularization, possibly, through the impaired function of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs). Thus, the mechanism of impaired function of PB-MNCs caused by chronic smoking was examined, and whether vitamin C reversed the malfunction of PB-MNCs in smokers was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort comprised 27 healthy ...
Andia Denise C - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) has been reported to be a predictable procedure for root coverage, the impact of smoking on the long-term outcome of periodontal plastic surgery is unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking, on a long-term basis, on ...
Ahacic Kozma - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Smoking is related to many later life health outcomes. We examined age, period, and cohort patterns in smoking between 1968 and 2002. METHODS: A nationally representative panel study allowed repeated cross-sectional comparisons of ages 18-75 (5 waves n approximately 5000), and ages 77+ at later waves (2 waves n ...
Ohsawa Masaki - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3PUFA) is associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with regard to smoking status in the Japanese general population in a cross-sectional study. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 14,191 participants aged 40-69 years were enrolled and divided into ...
Smith Anne E - - 2008
Abstinence effects such as nicotine withdrawal and mood changes contribute to the maintenance of cigarette smoking in adult smokers, and emerging reports on adolescent smokers suggest they may experience similar subjective effects when deprived. This study aimed to prospectively document tobacco abstinence-induced changes during the first 48 hours of abstinence ...
Seeman Jeffrey I - - 2008
A complete and rigorous review is presented of the possible effect(s) of ammonia on the exposure, deposition and retention of nicotine during smoking and the bioavailability of nicotine to the smoker. There are no toxicological data in humans regarding ammonia exposure within the context of tobacco smoke. Extrapolation from occupational ...
Rodondi Nicolas - - 2008
Showing smokers their own atherosclerotic plaques might increase motivation for smoking cessation, since they underestimate their own risk for smoking-related diseases. To assess the feasibility and optimal processes of studying the impact of carotid atherosclerotic plaque screening in smokers, we enrolled 30 daily cigarette smokers, aged 40-70 years, in an ...
Hall Sharon M SM University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0984, USA. - - 2008
Quitting smoking benefits older individuals, yet few recent studies have described older smokers. The goal of this paper was to test a series of hypotheses about differences between smokers aged 50 years or older (50+) and those younger than age 50 (<50) presenting to the same treatment facility during 2002-2004 ...
Cavalcante Ana Sueli Rodrigues - - 2008
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and histological features of actinic cheilitis (AC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 29 patients with AC were clinically evaluated, and incisional biopsies were performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Histological features were analyzed, and dysplasia was classified as ...
Edwards Christopher L - - 2008
Blacks experience disproportionately elevated rates of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Blacks experience delayed smoking initiation relative to other racial/ethnic groups, highlighting the importance of examining smoking correlates occurring in late adolescence/early adulthood. The current study reports data collected as part of an ongoing collaborative effort to assess alcohol and drug ...
Broms Ulla - - 2008
The aim of the study was to examine whether smoking reduction over a 6-year period (1975-1981) predicted smoking cessation 9 years later by 1990. The longitudinal data from three surveys over 15-year period among the Finnish adult twin cohort were used. The data were collected by postal surveys in 1975, ...
Gazdzinski Stefan S Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, United States. - - 2008
Memory function is largely mediated by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), and its compromise has been observed in alcohol dependence and chronic cigarette smoking. The effects of heavy alcohol consumption and chronic smoking on hippocampal volumes and MTL metabolites and their recovery during abstinence from alcohol have not been assessed. ...
White Victoria M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether socio-economic status (SES) was associated with changes in smoking prevalence among Australian adolescents during three phases of tobacco-control activity between 1987 and 2005. METHODS: Triennial cross-sectional national studies of representative random samples of secondary students aged 12-17 years have been conducted since 1987. Numbers range from ...
Sigurdson Alice J - - 2008
Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected ...
Yong H-H - - 2008
AIM: To examine the impact of tobacco advertising policy on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco promotion in two developing countries--Malaysia and Thailand. METHODS: Data from 2004 Malaysian and 2000 Thai adult smokers who participated in the baseline wave of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked ...
Brigham Janet - - 2008
Retrospective assessment of tobacco use underlies much of the data collected in epidemiological and genetic epidemiological research. Although individuals are asked to report lifetime tobacco use for periods spanning months to decades, the test-retest reliability intervals of the instruments often span only a few weeks to several months. The present ...
Lessov-Schlaggar Christina N - - 2008
The present study correlates empirically constructed prospective adolescent smoking trajectories with indicators of nicotine dependence assessed in adolescence and in adulthood. Excluding individuals who reported no smoking during repeat assessment (nonadopters), we identified five smoking trajectory groups: experimenters (n=116, 48.5%), late increasers (n=39, 16.3%), early increasers (n=37, 15.5%), quitters (n=22, ...
Rosa Guillermo M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is one of the most significant risk factors for periodontal diseases; however, there have been few radiographic prospective studies of alveolar bone in young populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on alveolar bone in young adults. METHODS: ...
Pfefferbaum Betty - - 2008
Telephone survey methodology was used to examine smoking and drinking after the September 11 terrorist attacks in a representative national sample. Most ever smokers and ever drinkers reported no change in substance use after the attacks. Smokers and drinkers who increased substance use were significantly more likely than those who ...
Al-Bayaty F H - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking has been shown to be a major risk factor for tooth loss. The present study was designed to examine tooth mortality and the patterns of tooth loss in smokers and nonsmokers over a wide age range in a selected population from Sana'a, Yemen. MATERIAL AND ...
Schaap Maartje M - - 2008
Educational level is most often used to identify social groups with increased prevalence of smoking. Other indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) might, however, be equally or even more discriminatory. This study examined the extent to which smoking behavior is related to other socioeconomic indicators in addition to educational level. Data ...
Thomas G Neil - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Both active and passive smoking are prevalent in China but cardiovascular diseases were less prevalent in the past. We studied the current relationship between surrogate atherosclerosis markers and smoking in Chinese. METHODS: Endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured non-invasively by ultrasound ...
Kauffman Ross M - - 2008
Identifying factors associated with successful tobacco quit attempts may help in the development and targeting of effective cessation strategies. This paper aims to describe factors associated with smokeless tobacco (ST) cessation and compares the results to findings in the smoking cessation literature. Prospective data on 116 men aged 19 to ...
Morley Katherine I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in age of tobacco experimentation and progression to daily smoking in men and women between birth cohorts that differ in exposure to public health programmes that aim to discourage smoking. DESIGN: Analysis of national cross-sectional household surveys of smoking patterns, conducted in Australia in 2001 and ...
Messer Karen - - 2008
We compared smoking quit rates by age in a nationally representative sample to determine differences in cessation rates among younger and older adults. We used data on recent dependent smokers aged 18 to 64 years from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (n=31625). Young adults (aged ...
Fritz Deborah J - - 2008
This study evaluated a computerized intervention designed to assist high school-aged smokers to consider not smoking and move forward in the "Stages of Change." A pretest-posttest pilot was conducted with 121 high school students who completed self-reported questionnaires that provided information about smoking history and exposure, smoking dependence, stage of ...
Míguez M Carmen - - 2008
This study evaluated the effects of including a single brief prequit telephone counseling session in a self-help program for smoking cessation conducted through the mail, by comparison with the effects of the self-help program alone. Volunteer participants from northwestern Spain (N = 228) were randomly assigned to one of two ...
Brook Judith S - - 2008
This longitudinal study examined the interrelationships between early and/or middle adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), middle adolescent conduct disorder (CD), and later adult smoking behavior. This is a prospective longitudinal study. Data were collected via structured interviews of representative families in the northeastern United States (N = 641). The ...
Huss M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children on the development of nicotine use disorders (SUD-N). METHODS: Multisite retrospective non-randomised longitudinal study with 215 ADHD children (diagnosis at 9.2 years of age; reassessment for SUD-N at 21.9 years of age) strictly parallel allocated to MPH treated ...
Hii Su W - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In contrast to the well-described effects of tobacco smoking upon pulmonary emphysema, with approximately 15% of smokers being affected at the age of 65 years, the effects of marijuana smoking are rarely reported and poorly understood. METHODS: We report a series of 10 patients (mean age 41 ...
Edvinsson Marie-Louise - - 2008
Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study was undertaken to examine if cigarette smoking translates into reduced relaxant responses of the peripheral microcirculation. The cutaneous forearm blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. The vasodilator response to the iontophorectic administration of acetylcholine (ACh), acting ...
Ozasa Kotaro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To show the reduction in life expectancy due to smoking and the recovery of normal life expectancy by smoking cessation is useful for tobacco control health policy. METHODS: This study included 140,026 males and 156,810 females aged 40-79 years, who were participants of large-scale cohort studies in Japan (Japan ...
Koivisto Tarmo T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Smoking and Helicobacter pylori are both deleterious to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Smoking also seems to modify inflammation in H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and H. pylori in the Finnish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed the effect ...
Bala M - - 2008
Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or ...
Tarazi Issa S - - 2008
Quantitation of hemoglobin alpha 2 delta 2 (HbA2) is a basic and confirmatory test in diagnosing the carrier state of beta-thalassemia. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the diagnostic reliability of HbA2. A total of 2,867 (654 smokers and 2,213 never smokers) male ...
Yang Tingzhong - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although evidence has shown high prevalence rates of tobacco use in the general urban populations in China, relatively little is known in its rural population. The purposes of this study were to examine smoking patterns and sociodemographic correlates of smoking in a sample of rural Chinese male residents. METHODS: ...
Puri Basant K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is believed to cause oxidative stress by several mechanisms, including direct damage by radical species and the inflammatory response induced by smoking, and would therefore be expected to cause increased lipid peroxidation. The aim was to carry out the first study of the relationship of smoking in ...
Szklo André Salem - - 2008
This paper reviews published articles describing several instruments used currently to "capture" the attention of smokers for quit-smoking interventions and emphasizes the distinction between the strategies used to reach eligible individuals and those used to recruit them for the proposed smoking cessation intervention. The search for articles was conducted using ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >