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Results 101 - 150 of 1638
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Caks Tomaz - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to explore whether smoking is positively related with the abdominal obesity. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was analyzed from a random sample of 1,342 subjects, stratified by their age and gender. Cigarette smoking habits were assessed and anthropometric measures obtained during the health examination. ...
Hodge Penny - - 2009
DESIGN: This was a cohort study. COHORT SELECTION: A longstanding prospective study was carried out of a birth cohort born in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 1972-1973. EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT: Periodontal examinations of the study participants were carried out when they reached the age of 26 and 32 years by calibrated examiners; ...
Basu Samar - - 2009
Oxidative stress is assumed to be the key underlying factor in the pathogenesis of many common diseases. This study describes the basal levels of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha ), a major F(2)-isoprostane and an in vivo oxidative stress biomarker in healthy subjects from three countries, namely Italy, Poland and Sweden, in relation to ...
Liao Duanping - - 2009
The relationships between ambient PM(2.5) and PM(10) and arrhythmia and the effect modification by cigarette smoking were investigated. Data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of PM at addresses of 57,422 individuals ...
Klatt Colleen - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Helping young smokers to quit early in life substantially reduces the risk of later morbidity and mortality due to tobacco use. The RealU study demonstrated the efficacy of a smoking-cessation website for college students that incorporated both individually tailored feedback and peer e-mail support. The relationship between peer e-mail ...
Fidler Jennifer A - - 2008
Documenting smoke intake by objective biochemical markers is important for quantification of exposure to toxins. The aim of this report is to show the most definitive distribution of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, yet available from English smokers in the period before implementation of the legislation banning smoking in indoor public ...
Forster Jean L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Reported prevalence of cigarette smoking among American Indian youth is higher than other racial/ethnic minorities, and limited data indicate that this disparity is especially pronounced in the Upper Midwest of the U.S. The purposes of this study are to measure traditional and recreational tobacco use among American Indian youth ...
Ramkissoon Ishara - - 2008
Chronic and acute smoking effects on the auditory middle latency response (AMLR) were studied in older (55-81 years) and younger (19-30 years) normal-hearing listeners. Forty healthy participants were selected for one of four groups: older smokers, older nonsmokers, younger smokers, or younger nonsmokers. Biochemical urine analyses confirmed participant categorization as ...
Furberg Helena - - 2008
We investigated patterns of cigarette smoking and Swedish snus (oral smokeless tobacco) use in a population-based sample of 19,073 Swedish twins 20-47 years old who participated in the baseline assessment of a prospective study of tobacco use and cessation in 2005-2006. Age-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals ...
Sherrill-Mittleman Deborah - - 2009
The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between smoking and body weight in a cohort of young U.S. Air Force recruits (mean age=20 years) enrolled in basic military training (N=35986). Twenty-two percent of recruits smoked daily prior to basic military training (n=8087) and were compared to ...
Benowitz Neal L - - 2009
Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is widely used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers in epidemiologic studies and smoking-cessation clinical trials. As the magnitude of secondhand smoke exposure declines because of proportionally fewer smokers and more clean-indoor-air regulations, the optimal cotinine cutpoint with which to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers is expected ...
Kendzor Darla E DE Louisiana State University, Department of Psychology, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, United States. - - 2009
Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine ...
Chatrchaiwiwatana Supaporn - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recent data has shown that a great number of Thai adults as well as people worldwide have died from smoking-related diseases. Measurements of exhaled carbon monoxide have been increasingly used to evaluate smoking status and cutoff levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and have been widely reported among other populations ...
Schnoll Robert A - - 2009
Transdermal nicotine is widely used for smoking cessation, but only approximately 20% of smokers quit successfully with this medication. Interindividual variability in nicotine metabolism rate may influence treatment response. This study sought to validate, and extend in a larger sample, our previous finding that the ratio of plasma nicotine metabolites ...
Franz G A - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To provide a cigarette price elasticity reference for adult age groups, and to estimate the smoking behaviour changes in US adults in light of unprecedented state excise tax increases on cigarettes during the 1990s. STUDY DESIGN: Individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 1993-2000 were merged ...
Iwamoto Hiroshi - - 2009
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Although a close association between COPD and atherosclerosis has been speculated, such scientific information is limited. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis in smokers with airflow limitation. METHODS: The subjects of this study were healthy ...
Bhargava Eishaan K - - 2008
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of paternal smoking on the respiratory function of adolescents. The study group comprised thirty healthy males between the ages of 12-18 years whose fathers were smokers (Group 1). They were compared with age and sex matched thirty active smoker males (Group ...
Ng Sam K S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study compared per-sextant periodontal attachment levels of smokers and non-smokers attending private dental practices. METHOD: One thousand adults (51.5% female) aged 25 to 64 years underwent an oral clinical examination and questionnaire survey covering demographic characteristics, personal traits, coping and history of tobacco consumption. Medical history was also ...
Rivas-Vilchis José F - - 2008
Smoking is reported to increase arterial stiffness. Indices obtained from the second derivative of digital volume pulse (SDDVP) waveform have been proposed to characterize vascular aging and arterial rigidity. PC6 (Neiguan) is a traditional acupoint in each forearm that has been shown to modify cardiovascular functioning. To investigate the acute ...
Kasicka-Jonderko Anna - - 2008
The aim of this study is to determine if age is a factor influencing the results of a [(13)C]methacetin breath test ((13)C-MBT). Two groups of healthy volunteers, each comprising six men and six women, but differing in average age (Y=young, 25.1+/-0.6 years, MA=middle-aged;, 46.0+/-2.1 years) orally took 75 mg [(13)C]methacetin. ...
Traylor Amy C - - 2008
Cigarette smokers, when confronted with cues associated with smoking, evidence strong reactions, including increased craving. These reactions have not been extensively studied in young adult smokers, a group that research suggests may respond differently than adults or adolescent smokers. We used virtual reality, which presents a complex array of smoking ...
Pomerleau Cynthia S - - 2009
To shed light on the complex relationship between smoking and body weight, we used never-smokers stratified on family smoking history to model the effects of a diathesis for smoking on body weight without the potential confound of metabolic changes or decreased physical activity caused by chronic tobacco smoke exposure. Participants ...
Buduneli Nurcan - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To compare the salivary receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations in smokers versus non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Whole saliva samples were obtained from 67 untreated chronic periodontitis patients, of whom 34 were smokers, and from 44 maintenance patients, of whom 22 were ...
Werbrouck Joke - - 2008
We investigated the effect of different levels of smoking and drinking on the development of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (HNSCC) and performed analyses to evaluate possible differences in cancer susceptibility among the anatomical subregions of head and neck. Moreover, we investigated the association between 5 single nucleotide ...
Tønnesen Philip - - 2008
Smokeless tobacco might be effective as an adjunct for smoking cessation. We evaluated the efficacy of smokeless tobacco and group support for smoking cessation in an open, randomized study that compared smokeless tobacco plus group support versus group support only. The study enrolled 263 healthy smokers (M (age) = 49 ...
Vesper Hubert W - - 2008
Acrylamide exposure was investigated in subgroups of the EPIC study population (510 subjects from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, gender, and smoking status) using hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its primary metabolite glycidamide (HbGA). Blood samples were analyzed for HbAA and HbGA by HPLC/MS/MS. Statistical ...
Raduan A P P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the relationship between smoking and cutaneous ageing. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 301 subjects (191 women and 110 men, aged between 25 and 86 years), of which 165 were non-smokers and 136 were smokers and ex-smokers. The association between tabagism and ...
Abrantes Ana M - - 2008
Individual differences in the ability to tolerate negative affect due to psychological and/or physical discomfort (e.g., distress tolerance) are emerging as an important predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to build on existing evidence by exploring the relationship between levels of distress tolerance (DT) and ...
Klein Sarah M - - 2008
Cigarettes with candy, fruit and alcohol flavors have been introduced in recent years as extensions to popular cigarette brands, raising concerns in the public health community that the enticing names, creative packaging, and intense flavorings of these products may be especially appealing to youth. This study used two national surveys ...
Weiss Robert B - - 2008
People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genetic variants and nicotine dependence assessed in adulthood will be stronger among smokers who began daily nicotine exposure during adolescence. We compared ...
Lu Yuquan - - 2008
We investigated the number of cigarettes smoked daily, years of smoking, cigarette pack-years, levels of daily exposure to cigarette tar (LECT, mg/day) or nicotine (LECN, mg/day) in 53 male Japanese smokers using a questionnaire and measured each participant's baseline leukocyte DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay. The results showed ...
Verdonk-Kleinjan Wendy M I - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at ...
Gerlach Karen K - - 2008
Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have been available without a prescription in the United States since 1996. Given that nicotine, at least as it is delivered through tobacco products, is addictive, we examined whether NRT was being used by individuals who have never smoked cigarettes. Adults (n=18,986) and adolescents (n=9187) who ...
Chan Sophia S C - - 2008
This study describes the establishment, promotion, and preliminary findings of a peer-led smoking cessation quitline for Chinese youth smokers in Hong Kong. The Youth Quitline targeted Chinese smokers aged 12 to 25, who smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days and were willing to leave telephone numbers ...
Caraballo Ralph S - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: U.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated ...
Richter Patricia - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: In 2002, 16 focus groups with young adult smokers who used or had tried nontraditional tobacco products (e.g., bidis, shisha, herbal cigarettes, kreteks, cigars, herbal smokeless products) were conducted in Dallas, Texas, and Chattanooga, Tennessee, to gain an understanding of the appeal of these products. METHODS: In each city, ...
Fontes Patrícia Campos - - 2008
To compare exfoliative cytology from the oral mucosa of smokers and nonsmokers, with emphasis on proliferative activity. Exfoliative cytology specimens were obtained from clinical normal mucosa from the lateral border of the tongue in 30 nonsmokers and 30 smokers ranging in age from 40 to 70 years of age, who ...
Salem A - - 2008
Smoking is known to be a risk factor for the progression of periodontal disease. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between intensity and duration of cigarette smoking with the presence of periodontal pockets at a young adult age in relation to oral hygiene practices. MATERIALS ...
KÅ‚ucinski Piotr - - 2008
It has been postulated that ionizing radiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are annihilated by an intracellular enzymatic system composed mainly of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Workers of X-ray departments are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation, which may affect their ...
Piasecki Thomas M - - 2008
Smokers (N=74) who volunteered for a smoking cessation study monitored their daily experiences for up to 6 weeks prior to the quit date. Self-reports from 7,707 diary records were used to examine the associations among alcohol consumption (present in 607 diary records), situational factors, smoking, urge to smoke, and subjective ...
Abrams Kenneth - - 2008
Individuals who smoke are more likely to experience panic attacks and develop panic disorder than those in the general population. One possible explanation is that smokers may experience a heightened fear response to somatic disturbances. To date, few laboratory studies have tested this hypothesis directly. The present study examined 24 ...
Rosendahl K Ingvar - - 2008
Developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking have often been described, but there are no such analyses dealing with smokeless tobacco use. A semi-parametric group-based mixture modeling procedure was used to determine the development of smokeless tobacco (snus) use, as well as of cigarette smoking, over time in a cohort of 2,175 ...
Brook Judith S - - 2008
This study examined the psychosocial predictors of nicotine dependence in Blacks and Puerto Ricans. A longitudinal, prospective study design was employed. Data on five psychosocial domains were obtained from a four-wave study of tobacco use and smoking behavior; data were analyzed using logistic regression. Participants (N = 475) included adult ...
Storr Carla L - - 2008
Epidemiologic data suggests the smoking trajectory for some adolescents escalates rapidly and that tobacco dependence can develop quickly after initiation. In this study, we examine variation in cigarette consumption and individual characteristics associated with the rapid development of tobacco dependence, focusing particularly on the 24-month interval after tobacco initiation. The ...
Wills Thomas A - - 2008
The authors tested 2 mechanisms for the relation of movie smoking exposure with onset of cigarette smoking in adolescence. Longitudinal data with 8-month follow-up were obtained from a representative sample of 6,522 U.S. adolescents, ages 10-14 years. Structural modeling analysis based on initial nonsmokers, which controlled for 10 covariates associated ...
McCambridge Jim - - 2008
Brief interventions are known to be effective in changing both substance use and other health-compromising behaviors. It is unknown whether they may have secondary effects on behaviors which are not specifically targeted. The literature on brief alcohol interventions was selected to explore this possibility, with a study focus on secondary ...
Kirby A C - - 2008
Past research has shown that veterans and individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased rates of smoking. However, the rates of smoking in younger help-seeking veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, and possible correlates of smoking among this population are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the rate of ...
Schaap M M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recently a scale was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies at country level. Our study used this scale to examine the potential impact of these policies on quit ratios in European countries. Special attention was given to smoking cessation among lower educational groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional data ...
Fronek A - - 2008
The aim of this study was first to compare the widely used flow mediated dilation ( FMD ) method with the iontophoretically induced acetylcholine vasodilation (IAV ) procedure. The ultimate goal was to examine the endothelial activity ( EA ) in patients with various cardiovascular risk factors compared with control ...
Hahn Ellen J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the adult smoking rate changed in Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, following the enactment of a smoke-free public places ordinance. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2005 were used to test whether smoking rates changed in Fayette County from the pre- to post-law period, relative ...
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