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Results 551 - 600 of 1637
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Lewis M Jane - - 2004
We examined adult participation in tobacco industry direct marketing: receipt of direct mail and use of coupons and brand reward programs. Participation was highest for direct mail; participation in all 3 forms differed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity; current smokers, Whites, and persons aged 25 to 64 years reported greater ...
Dietrich Thomas - - 2004
Studies on the risk factors of oral leukoplakia (OL) are relatively scarce. The objectives of this paper are to assess the clinical risk factors of OL in a representative sample of the US population. Data from the oral mucosal tissue assessment and some other covariates of 15,811 participants in the ...
Kamotho C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on ...
Hecht Stephen S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on carcinogen uptake in smokers who reduce their smoking. To determine whether reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day would lead to a corresponding reduction in carcinogen uptake, we measured levels of metabolites of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in the urine of ...
Greenwald Mark K - - 2004
Respiratory depression is a serious medical risk of opioid use. Most opioid abusers also smoke cigarettes, perhaps further compromising breathing. Differences in ventilatory response to nonhypoxic hypercapnia were studied in healthy volunteers with limited substance use (LU), tobacco smokers (SM), and opioid-dependent, methadone-maintained smokers (OD). The last two groups had ...
Rodu B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of tobacco use (smoking and smokeless tobacco) and cessation on body weight. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 2993 men aged 25-64 years who participated in the northern Sweden MONICA study in 1986, 1990 or 1994, 1650 of ...
Kanaya Setsuko - - 2004
A great deal of effort has been made on the effect of oxidative stress for smokers. What seems to be lacking, however, is its evidence. Analyzing 1076 participants (age 35.9 +/- 12.9, urinary8-OHdG Mean +/- S.D., 11.4 +/- 6.7, n = 1076), our study found the significant increase in a ...
Raitio Anina - - 2004
Tobacco smoke and UV radiation are extrinsic risk factors for accelerated skin ageing. In this study the effects of smoking on wrinkling and ageing were assessed in males living in Northern Finland, where cumulative sun exposure is low. Smoking habits, age and facial wrinkling were estimated from facial photographs of ...
Farrelly M C - - 2004
The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in ...
Zvolensky Michael J - - 2004
The present cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between anxiety sensitivity, intensity of retrospectively-rated nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and motivation to quit smoking. Participants were 127 young adult (mean age 20.4 years (SD 4.6)) regular smokers (mean cigarettes per day 10.2 (SD 5.1)). Anxiety sensitivity predicted intensity of retrospectively rated withdrawal symptoms ...
Mosavi-Jarrahi A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The patterns of smoking in ageing cohorts are important to public health authorities. The aim of this study is to describe the patterns of smoking among Iranian population. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional surveys of Health and Disease Survey (HDS) in Iran were utilized. Smoking was categorized as no smoker, ...
Okuyemi Kolawole S - - 2004
Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day than their White counterparts, African Americans have higher tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Since most tobacco control efforts have focused on heavy smokers, little is known about smoking and quitting experiences of African-American occasional and light smokers. We conducted a survey of 484 African-American smokers, ...
Sundh Mona - - 2004
AIMS: The purpose of the study is partly to compare the possibility of adolescents purchasing tobacco before and after the introduction of the minimum age law of 18 years, respectively, and partly to examine the factors that characterize the situations in which adolescents may or may not purchase tobacco, respectively. ...
Kemm John - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Data are available on the prevalence of smoking states (never, current and ex). However, data on behaviour change rates (starting - never to current, quitting - current to ex and lapsing - ex to current) are not readily available and cannot be simply derived from or related to prevalence ...
Gadalla Shahinaz - - 2003
A cross sectional study was carried out in two rural secondary schools in Qualyobia governorate in the academic year 2002-2003 in order to assess the students' knowledge, attitudes and practice toward smoking. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used. A total of 635 students, 416 males and 219 females were interviewed. ...
Park Nam-Hee - - 2003
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the stage of change of smoking cessation behavior and investigate factors associated with the stage of smoking cessation behavior according to the transtheoretical model. METHODS: The participants, 297 smokers & quitters were selected by a stratified random sampling from 127 high ...
Chen Xinguang - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed age, time period, and cohort effects on trends in adolescent cigarette smoking in California from 1990 to 1999. METHODS: Data from subjects aged 12 to 17 years (n = 26 536; 50.4% male) from the California Tobacco Survey and the California Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed, and ...
Fagan P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To describe the feasibility of implementing evaluation methods for a worksite tobacco control intervention for teens. Indicators of feasibility included employment stability, response rates to multiple surveys, and self reported 30 day smoking. DESIGN: Grocery stores that were part of a single chain were randomised to four intervention stores ...
Patterson Freda - - 2003
Participant attendance at smoking cessation-counseling sessions is an important factor in treatment outcome. In this study, we examined the influence of demographic, psychological, and smoking history variables on attendance at a randomized clinical trial comparing transdermal nicotine and nicotine nasal spray that included seven sessions of behavioral group counseling. Of ...
John Ulrich - - 2003
AIMS: Little is known about the relationship between current and past smoking behaviour and the severity of alcohol dependence. The purpose was to explore the strength of this relationship. METHODS: A random population sample of 18 to 64 year-olds from northern Germany was used (n = 4075; participation rate: 70%). ...
Landrine Hope - - 2003
We examined the standard compliance protocol and its validity as a measure of youth access to tobacco. In Study 1, youth smokers reported buying cigarettes in stores where they are regular customers. In Study 2, youths attempted to purchase cigarettes by using the Standard Protocol, in which they appeared at ...
John Ulrich - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the individual intention to quit smoking and accompanying characteristics in a country with a low amount of tobacco control (TC) provisions. METHODS: This study used a random sample of the population aged 18-64 in a German area to make ...
Tungtrongchitr Rungsunn - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of tobacco smoking on serum vitamin B12, folic acid and haematological parameters in healthy Thai smokers and non-smokers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of smokers and non-smokers in a military unit in Bangkok, Thailand. SETTING: A military unit in Thailand. SUBJECTS: One hundred and twenty-three male smokers ...
Leung C C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between smoking and tuberculosis in Hong Kong. METHOD: Indirect sex and age adjustment was used to compare the prevalence of ever smokers between a sample of 851 patients from the 1996 tuberculosis notification registry and the general population. The clinical characteristics of smokers and non-smokers ...
Ma Grace X - - 2003
This study assessed the impact of demographics and acculturation on stages of change in smoking behavior among Asian current smokers (Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodians) who live in the Delaware Valley region. Three stages (precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation) that applied to current smokers in Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model were measured, with ...
Domino Edward F EF Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0632, USA. - - 2003
American and Japanese overnight deprived tobacco smokers were compared with respect to expired CO, plasma nicotine and cotinine, and red cell carboxyhemoglobin. The participants were 51 of 59 American and 55 of 86 Japanese cigarette smokers of mixed gender who met similar strict criteria. Female and male American tobacco smokers ...
Borland R - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To explore the immediate impact of the 2001 National Tobacco Campaign (NTC) advertising on movement towards quitting in a broadly representative sample of smokers. METHOD: Repeated measures design with surveys two weeks apart. 1000 current smokers aged 18-40 were interviewed. 250 telephone interviews were conducted in each of Sydney ...
Güven Aytekin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A plant powder called "Maraş Powder" has been used widely instead of cigarette in the South-Eastern region of Turkey. It was confirmed that this powder has been made of tobacco N. rustica L. Our aim was to investigate whether the use of Maraş Powder is as harmful as cigarette ...
Kayacan O - - 2003
Pneumoconiosis is still a health problem in Turkey and has a relatively high incidence. Retired underground miners were investigated to document alveolitis, and to observe the difference in the cellular profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with or without pneumoconiosis. Twenty nine retired male miners and 17 controls, eight non-smokers ...
Hrubá D - - 2003
The questionnaire containing ten items evaluated the degree of dependence in students-volunteers from Brno secondary and vocational schools (ages ranging from 15 to 17 years) and the anamnestic data were compared with the specific (urinary cotinine) and non-specific (CO in the air exhaled) biological tests of exposure to smoking. The ...
Nicholas J S - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of translocations and insertions in the blood of long-term pilots in relation to estimated cumulative radiation dose received while flying, and to compare that to the frequency in a group of similarly aged men without a history of frequent ...
Wakefield M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the similarity in how youth in the United States, Australia, and Britain appraise anti-smoking advertisements with different characteristics. DESIGN: Each participant viewed and evaluated a set of 10 anti-smoking adverts (from an overall total of 50 adverts) in a controlled experimental context using an audience response methodology. ...
Almas K - - 2003
The estimated population of the Bedouins are up to two million in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but relatively little information is available about them. The aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene dietary pattern and smoking habits of Saudi Bedouins population around Medina, Qaseen and Khamis ...
Kozlowski Lynn T - - 2003
AIMS: To evaluate non-causal and causal patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and cigarette use; to assess the prevalence of 'non-gateway' and possible 'gateway' patterns of SLT use. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from the Cancer Control Supplement to the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a representative survey of non-institutionalized adults in ...
Tomar Scott L - - 2003
Some researchers are promoting the use of smokeless tobacco as safer than cigarette smoking and as a possible method for quitting smoking, but smokeless tobacco might be a gateway drug that leads to smoking, and the availability and marketing of smokeless tobacco may keep smokers from quitting. This study assessed ...
Baker Forest - - 2003
Research has found that nicotine-dependent individuals delay discount monetary gains at a higher rate than matched controls. Delay discount rates, however, have also been found to vary across within-subject variables such as the magnitude of the outcome (e.g., 10 dollars or 1,000 dollars), whether the outcome constitutes a gain or ...
Grant Brydon J B - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary function is dependent not only on smoking, but also on nutritional status. Since an increased RBC distribution width (RDW) has been associated with nutritional deficiencies, we postulated that RDW has an inverse relation to pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. DESIGN ...
Molinie Florence - - 2003
Oxidative stress is implicated in age-related diseases and is a possible determinant in the loss of lung function. The aim of our study was to examine the association between blood indicators of oxidative metabolism and lung function in an old population. The relationships of three antioxidant indicators (selenium, total carotenoids ...
John Ulrich - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) has been widely used in clinical samples but seldom in population samples. Data are particularly lacking for a large range of ages. The goal was to describe the FTND sum score distribution in the adult population and to show potential variation according ...
Rasmussen Finn - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous longitudinal studies of smoking and BMI have focused on smoking cessation. The aim of the present study was to disentangle the effects of long-term smoking on longitudinal changes and age-matched BMI differences (time period effects) in a nation-wide Swedish cohort. METHODS: Men and women (n = 4349) ages ...
Brookner Carrie - - 2003
Diagnostic algorithms can classify tissue samples as diseased or nondiseased based on fluorescence emission collected from the intact cervix. Such algorithms can distinguish high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. An understanding of the effects of the values of biographical covariates, such as age, race, smoking, or menopausal ...
Madsen Jan Lysgård - - 2003
The geometric centre analysis is often used for evaluating colonic transit data obtained by scintigraphy after oral intake of 111indium-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (111In-DTPA). The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the geometric centre analysis in adult humans. Forty-eight healthy volunteers (24 women, 24 men) who ...
Górecka Dorota - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To assess how the diagnosis of airflow limitation (AL) combined with advice to stop smoking in middle-aged smokers influence the smoking cessation rate and to identify predictors of successful outcome. DESIGN: Prospective, single-center, comparative study of the effects of smoking intervention in smokers with diagnosed AL and in smokers ...
Pearce Jamie - - 2003
Spatially disaggregated surveys of smoking behaviour are rare and hence estimating the geography of the incidence of smoking is difficult. The main aim of this study is to develop a technique for estimating smoking probability for different age/sex groups in small areas across the whole of Scotland using information on ...
Smith C J - - 2003
Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol of minute liquid droplets (termed the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases (CO(2), CO, NO(x), etc.) and semi-volatile compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified a number of the chemical constituents reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) as ...
Orbak Recep - - 2003
AIM: To determine any change in T-lymphocyte subsets after applying different treatment methods in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. PARTICIPANTS: 50 adults with chronic periodontitis. METHOD: The subjects were divided into smokers and non-smokers. Biopsy samples were taken from the gingival pocket wall tissues at sites with chronic periodontitis ...
Sönmez Sule - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that tobacco is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease. The reason for decreased gingival bleeding in smokers is not known. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the localization of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix of the inflamed gingiva of smokers and ...
John Ulrich - - 2003
AIMS: To estimate probabilities of alcohol high-risk drinking, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence on grounds of smoking-behaviour related variables and single nicotine dependence criteria. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING: Adult population of a region in north Germany. PARTICIPANTS: Cigarette smokers (n = 2437) among a random sample of 4075 females ...
O'Connell Meghan - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program based on "impediment profiling," the elucidation of an individual participant's personal barriers, with provision of tailored interventions accordingly. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify established impediments to smoking cessation. A long impediment profiler (LIP) was developed from validated ...
Meghdadi Susan - - 2003
The isoprostane 8-epi PGF2alpha is a vasoconstrictive, mitogenic, proliferative, and mild proaggregatory agent. We examined 8-epi-PGF2alpha and 6-oxo-PGF1alpha from venous tissue derived from varicose (venous) surgery by means of a specific radioimmunoassay. A total of 336 samples from 82 patients (50 females, 32 males; aged 22-68 years) were examined. Tissue ...
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