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Chen Xinguang - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use remains a substantial public health challenge in China. The rapidly growing rural-to-urban migrant population currently numbering approximately 121 million individuals may be especially vulnerable to tobacco use. METHODS: Cigarette smoking levels and associated factors were examined among 2,201 subjects using cross-sectional data from the Migrant Health Behavior ...
Hamajima Nobuyuki - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Genotype announcements related to susceptibility to hazardous effects of smoking may be effective to induce smoking cessation. METHODS: Subjects were municipal government employees, 63 young smokers employed in the previous year and 59 smokers with more than 45 pack-years, who were invited to educational sessions against smoking held in ...
Oncken Cheryl - - 2004
We examined the relationship between self-reported in utero tobacco exposure and gender on smoking initiation, progression of cigarette use (i.e., telescoping), and current levels of nicotine dependence in adult treatment-seeking smokers. Subjects (N = 298) who reported "yes" (28% of the original sample) or "no" (50% of the original sample) ...
Biener Lois - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Response rates have been declining in statewide tobacco surveys. This study investigated whether there was associated evidence of increasing bias in smoking prevalence estimates. METHODS: Demographic characteristics of respondents to tobacco surveys in Massachusetts and California were compared to population data in the early 1990s, when response rates were ...
Lopes Paula A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of cigarette smoking on the levels of serum alpha-tocopherol and on the lipid profile in humans from the Lisbon population. METHODS: Serum alpha-tocopherol was evaluated by a reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection. Enzymatic tests were used for the evaluation ...
Baron-Epel Orna - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The age at which the individual begins smoking may influence the health of smokers at an older age. Cultural and social factors effect the age of smoking initiation. METHODS: A cross-sectional national survey of a random sample of 6,021 Israeli residents over the age of 21 were interviewed by ...
McCool J P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. DESIGN: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12-13 and 16-17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of ...
Binnie V - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, can be used to measure exposure to tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare cotinine levels in different biological fluids collected from both smokers and non-smokers and to relate the findings to self-reported smoking status. Data were also collected concerning the acceptability ...
Paavola Meri - - 2004
PURPOSE: To assess the associations among smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity, and to assess how the health behaviors predict changes in other health behaviors from adolescence to adulthood. METHODS: Subjects were the participants of the North Karelia Youth Project study from six schools in Eastern Finland. At the baseline ...
Adil M M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ratio of male to female gender in the offspring of smokers and non-smokers. METHOD: The tool used for the survey was a questionnaire. Four hundred subjects were analyzed and were divided into three age groups. RESULTS: Out of 400 subjects 56.5% were smokers and 43.5% were ...
Brody Arthur L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Substantial evidence from animal models demonstrates that dopamine release in the ventral striatum underlies the reinforcing properties of nicotine. The authors used [(11)C]raclopride bolus-plus-continuous-infusion positron emission tomography (PET) to determine smoking-induced ventral striatum dopamine release in humans. METHOD: Twenty nicotine-dependent smokers (who smoked > or =15 cigarettes/day) underwent a ...
Nakanishi Noriyuki - - 2004
To examine age-related change in the strength of the association of white blood cell count (WBC) with features of the metabolic syndrome (MS), body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and uric acid were assessed as the components of the MS in ...
Gilpin Elizabeth A - - 2004
Tobacco marketing contributes to adolescent smoking initiation, and the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), therefore, included relevant restrictions. We analyzed data from large population surveys of Californians, conducted in 1992 (11,905 adults, ages 18 years and older), 1993 (5,531 adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years), and 1996 (6,252 adolescents, 18,616 adults) ...
Razani Jill - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the unique effect of smoking history on cognitive functioning after adjusting for demographic factors such as age, education, and gender, and presence of vascular illness. METHODS: A sample of 127 healthy older adults (29 men, 98 women) between the ages of 47 and 83 (mean: 66.9) ...
Delnevo Cristine D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. METHODS: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The ...
Ward Rose Marie - - 2004
A crucial assumption for a measure is that it is factorially invariant; that is, the measurement model is the same in different subgroups and across different occasions. The invariance of the short form of the decisional balance inventory was investigated using data from a representative sample of smokers (N=4144). Separate ...
Al Riyami A A - - 2004
We carried out a cross-sectional survey to study the prevalence and the characteristics of current and former smoking among Omani adults. Crude prevalence of current smoking was 7.0% (males 13.4%, females 0.5%); 2.3% were former smokers. The overall highest prevalence of current smoking (11.1%) was observed in those 40-49 years ...
Skinner Marilyn D - - 2004
The impulsivity levels were evaluated and compared in smoking, nonsmoking, and ex-smoking abstinent alcoholics (N=400) in a French alcohol detoxification center. Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, French version (BIS 10). The BIS scores correlated inversely with age. Gender had no effect on impulsivity scores, while impulsivity was ...
Ishizaka Nobukazu - - 2004
Recent studies have shown the relationship between general inflammatory markers and ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases. Here we have investigated the potential association between the circulating white blood cell count and carotid arteriosclerosis in apparently healthy individuals. Between 1994 and 1998, 3455 subjects who had undergone general health screening tests ...
Milton B - - 2004
The objectives of this longitudinal study were to determine the prevalence of smoking among primary school children in Liverpool, and to identify the predictors of experimentation with cigarettes during pre-adolescence. A cohort of children (n = 270) completed questionnaires that elicited patterns of child smoking behaviour and children's experiences of ...
Fillinger Mark F - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to analyze anatomic characteristics of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), with conventional two-dimensional computed tomography (CT), including comparison with control subjects matched for age, gender, and size. Records were reviewed to identify all CT scans obtained at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center or referring ...
Paiva Ricardo Losekann RL Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, - - 2004
To evaluate cell proliferative activity by counting and measuring argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) per nucleus in cell smears from mucosa clinically exposed to smoking and alcohol. Group 1 (control) consisted 17 patients, group 2 (smoking) of 25 and group 3 (smoking and alcohol) of 18. Cell smears collected from ...
Orlando Maria - - 2004
Smoking initiation typically occurs in adolescence and increases over time into emerging adulthood. Thus adolescence and emerging adulthood compose a critical time period for prevention and intervention efforts. To inform these efforts, this study used latent growth mixture modeling to identify 6 smoking trajectories from ages 13 to 23 among ...
Biglan Michael - - 2004
School surveys conducted to monitor the prevalence of adolescent smoking generally yield higher estimates than home-based surveys. Our goal was to examine the consistency of this mode effect over age for different measures of adolescent smoking behavior. If consistent, it would be feasible to define a simple adjustment factor for ...
John Ulrich - - 2004
AIM: To determine how the age at starting smoking, any quit attempts and the single nicotine dependence criteria are related to the lifetime amount of smoking. METHODS: A population-based sample of 4075 18 to 64-year-olds drawn at random in northern Germany was used. It included 836 former and 1601 current ...
Storr Carla L CL Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2004
This study pursued a line of large-sample epidemiological research on tobacco dependence syndromes that may appear during the first 2 years of tobacco smoking, as clinical features begin to emerge. Focusing on smokers who just recently started using tobacco may provide insights into the transitions that lead from initial smoking ...
Fernández E - - 2004
Changes in cigarette price have had an appreciable impact on smoking prevalence in several countries. We analysed the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (effect of price of cigarettes on tobacco consumption) between 1965 and 2000 in Spain. For total consumption of cigarettes, a 1% increase in price is associated ...
Vitaro Frank - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of friends' and parents' smoking on the age of smoking initiation. A sample of 812 preadolescents, who were part of an accelerated longitudinal design, participated in the study over a 4-year period. Three smoking trajectory groups were first established: ...
Unal Birsen - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cigarette smoking had an effect on superior mesenteric artery postprandial blood flow. METHODS: Forty-six subjects were studied in 3 groups with Doppler sonography. Group A consisted of nonsmokers; groups B and C consisted of smokers. In group B, subjects were allowed to smoke cigarettes postprandially, whereas ...
Kim Sun H - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The influence of cigarette smoking on blood antioxidant status in teenage girls with a history of short-term smoking was followed over 18 mo. METHODS: Data obtained from female senior high school students (ages 14 to 18 y) in Korea were compared with data obtained from adult male smokers (ages ...
Shiri Rahman - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: We estimated the effects of sociodemographic, medical and lifestyle factors on erectile function in a population-based sample of 50- to 75-year-old Finnish men. METHODS: The target population consisted of all non-institutionalized men aged 50, 60 or 70 years residing in the study area in 1994. The questionnaire was mailed ...
Sewón Liisi L Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland. - - 2004
Our recent studies suggest, that elevated calcium concentration of saliva is characteristic of periodontitis. In this study we analyzed the effect of smoking on salivary calcium and bone density by comparing the level of salivary calcium and the ultrasound scale of bone density of heavy smokers to those of non-smokers. ...
Bimler David - - 2004
Tobacco smoke contains a range of toxins including carbon monoxide and cyanide. With specialized cells and high metabolic demands, the optic nerve and retina are vulnerable to toxic exposure. We examined the possible effects of smoking on color vision: specifically, whether smokers perceive a different pattern of suprathreshold color dissimilarities ...
Wu Kuen-Yuh - - 2004
The formation of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (HEV) in hemoglobin has been considered as a biomarker to assess exogenous and endogenous exposures to ethylene oxide (EO) and/or ethylene (ET). Factors associated with daily exposures to such compounds might significantly affect the formation of HEV. Tobacco smoke containing EO elicited a significant increase in ...
Yamakage M - - 2004
The present study was designed to investigate the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the anaesthetic circuit and of arterial carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) during low-flow isoflurane anaesthesia in smoking and non-smoking subjects using three kinds of cardon dioxide (CO2) absorbent. Thirty smoking and 30 non-smoking subjects were selected for this study, ...
Levent Ertürk - - 2004
PURPOSE: To measure the aortic stiffness in tobacco-smoking adolescents and to investigate its relationship to tobacco smoke. METHODS: Aortic strain (S), pressure strain elastic modulus (E(p)), and normalized E(p) (E(p)*) in tobacco-smoking adolescents and the healthy control group were measured by a sphygmomanometer with cuff and transthoracic echocardiography. The study ...
Bergström Jan - - 2004
AIM: The aim of the investigation was to estimate the magnitude of the long-term influence of chronic smoking on the periodontal bone height. METHODS: The study population included 19 continuous smokers, 28 former smokers and 44 non-smokers in the age range 20-60 years at baseline. The participants were examined at ...
Morozumi Toshiya - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of smoking cessation on gingival blood flow (GBF) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen male smokers (aged 22-39 (25.3+/-4.0) years), with no clinical signs of periodontal and systemic diseases, were recruited. The experiment was performed ...
Shiffman Saul - - 2004
We report the development of a new multidimensional questionnaire to measure nicotine dependence, based on Edwards's syndromal conceptualization of dependence. We present three studies. In study 1, we administered the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) to 317 smokers in a smoking cessation study. Factor analysis of the NDSS revealed five ...
Leigh J Paul - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Debate surrounds the usefulness of the instrumental variables (IV) technique for medical research. The choice of an instrument for the technique has been contentious. This study estimated the effects of smoking on physical functional status. We chose an especially valid and strong instrument: cigarette price. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: ...
Sovinová H - - 2004
The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that ...
Stratelis Georgios - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in developed countries, as is the mortality rate. The main cause of COPD is smoking, and COPD is usually diagnosed at a late stage. AIM: To evaluate a method to detect COPD at an early stage in smokers in ...
Cawley John - - 2004
This paper examines the influence of body weight, body image, and cigarette prices in determining adolescent smoking initiation. Adolescents who desire to lose weight may initiate smoking as a method of appetite control. Such behavior may undermine the goals of tobacco control policies that seek to prevent smoking initiation. Using ...
Kawada Tomoyuki - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is associated with subsequent obesity. This study was designed to clarify the duration of weight gain lasted after cessation of smoking. METHODS: A total of 2,511 male subjects aged 25-62 years participated in an annual health examination at their workplace. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) ...
Psujek Jessica K - - 2004
Previous research has linked female weight concerns and smoking. This study examined whether poor body image and other eating disorder variables, after controlling for symptoms of anxiety and depression, were predictive of smoking severity in a sample of 478 college students (n=215 males, n=246 females). Contrary to our hypotheses and ...
Frank P I - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In 1998, the UK government published a White Paper in which it set long-term targets for reducing smoking in the population. This longitudinal study aimed to examine whether progress has been made in achieving these in two adult general practice populations over an 8-year period. METHODS: Postal respiratory questionnaires, ...
Di Prospero Filiberto - - 2004
Female smokers experienced menopause significantly (P <or= 0.000001) earlier than non-smokers (47.1 +/- 3.3 versus 49.4 +/- 3.6 years, mean age at menopause +/- SD) and the prevalence of cigarette smoking is more frequent in females with ovarian failure before 46 years of age. These data are consistent with a ...
Franklin Teresa R - - 2004
Cigarettes acquire reinforcing properties from nicotine and from cues associated with their intake. However, smoking in males and females may be reinforced differentially. Smoking in females is posited to be influenced more by cues whereas male smoking is influenced predominantly by the direct pharmacological actions of nicotine in the brain. ...
Trinidad Dennis R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Identifying ethnic differences in the age of smoking onset from nationally representative data can lead to improved targeted prevention programs and policies to combat smoking in ethnic communities. METHODS: Analyzing data from the Tobacco Use Supplements of the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Surveys throughout the 1990s, differences in ...
Schoenborn Charlotte A - - 2004
This report presents prevalence estimates for key indicators of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, and body weight status among U.S. adults, using data from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The NHIS is conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health ...
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