Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1638
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Ahmad Sajjad - - 2005
Given evidence that most smokers start smoking before the age of 18 and that smokers who start earlier in life are less likely to quit, policies that reduce or delay initiation could have a large impact on public health. Raising the legal minimum purchase age of cigarettes to 21 may ...
Laucht Manfred - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to examine the role of DNA variants of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in smoking experimentation in adolescents and to determine the extent to which novelty seeking (NS) could account for a possible effect of DRD4 on tobacco use. METHOD: Participants were from a ...
Youssef R M - - 2005
A survey of 2120 adults in Alexandria, Egypt, studied the determinants and patterns of tobacco cessation among ever smokers. Ever smokers were 30.7% of respondents; only 3.5% had given up smoking (quit ratio of 11.4%). The quit ratio was significantly lower for ex-daily smokers (7.5%) than for ex-occasional smokers (44.8%). ...
Natali A - - 2005
Clinical and basic science studies provide strong indirect evidence that smoking may affect penile erection. The objective of this retrospective research was to investigate the role of smoking for erectile dysfunction (ED) in order to obtain some insight into the prevention of ED. We reviewed the data from 860 male ...
Salvi Giovanni E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and microbiological changes during experimental gingivitis in cigarette smokers and non-smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven current smokers (>/=5 years) and 11 (never-) non-smokers periodontally healthy or with gingivitis (PPD</=4 mm) were included. According to the original model (Löe et al. 1965), an experimental 3-week plaque accumulation ...
Wiseman Eve J - - 2005
In a 2-week intervention to reduce cigarette smoking among outpatients in treatment for cocaine addiction, 20 subjects were randomly assigned to a contingent group, receiving monetary vouchers for breath samples with carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 8 ppm or less, or to a noncontingent group, receiving vouchers regardless of CO ...
Pradeepkumar A S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: We reviewed the literature on tobacco use in Kerala and present data from three recently conducted unpublished studies. METHODS: Three cross-sectional studies were conducted; a community-based study of 1,298 individuals aged 15 years and above (mean age 37.4 years, men 630), a school-based study of 1,323 boys (mean age ...
Johannsen Annsofi - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of anxiety, measured by one single question, on gingival inflammation and periodontal disease in non-smokers and smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The participants were 144 subjects with untreated periodontal disease 30-40 years of age, and 26 healthy controls, 30-40 ...
Kim Sun Seog - - 2005
The purpose of this secondary data analysis is to report Korean male smokers' perceptions of tobacco control policies in the United States. Descriptive data from four focus groups held in New York City in 2003 are presented. Focus group interviews were used to collect data, and the two investigators independently ...
Kang Hee-Cheol - - 2005
The use of alternative medicine for smoking cessation have been increasing steadily in recent years. A series of clinical group studies was performed to clarify the effect, outcome and success rate of an acupuncture treatment for smoking cessation. This study was conducted for four weeks using 238 smoking students at ...
Razali M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with increased risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the periodontal disease severity of adult heavy smokers and never-smokers referred for assessment and treatment of chronic periodontitis. METHODS: A random sample of patients with at least 20 teeth, stratified for ...
De Reuck J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence from case-control and from cohort studies that smoking is inversely related to the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is still controversial if PD starts at an older age in ever-smoking patients compared to never-smoking ones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present retrospective study ...
Gallus S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Measures of tobacco dependence are mainly used in the clinical setting, but limited information is available on tobacco dependence on a population level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To obtain estimates of tobacco dependence on a population level, a six-item Fagerstrom questionnaire was used in two surveys, conducted in 2002-2003 on ...
Jones A Y M - - 2006
Carbon monoxide (CO) has a high affinity for haemoglobin and is a common cause of poisoning in industry and the home. Exhaled CO levels in patients with respiratory disease have been reported but exhaled CO in a large cohort of healthy subjects grouped by age and gender has not been ...
Nakashima Keisuke - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A Japanese population residing in the same area may be suitable for evaluation of the association among IgG subclass levels, smoking status, and periodontal disease due to similar racial and environmental factors, as these factors can interact to influence serum IgG subclass levels. The present cross-sectional investigation attempted to ...
Clark Duncan B - - 2005
Despite the critical importance of adolescent smoking, the assessment of nicotine dependence during this developmental period has been the subject of relatively little research. In this study, 301 adolescents (ages 12 through 18 years) reporting daily smoking were recruited for a project on alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The sample included ...
Vink Jacqueline M - - 2005
We explored the performance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a sample of 1378 daily smokers and 1058 ex-smokers who participated in a survey study of the Netherlands Twin Register. FTND scores were higher for smokers than for ex-smokers. Nicotine dependence level was not associated with age. ...
Pomerleau Ovide F - - 2005
Initial sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of a drug may affect patterns of future use and dependence for a wide variety of drugs. Retrospective reports of sensations experienced upon early experimentation, however, may be limited by recall bias based on time elapsed and subsequent experiences. To validate reports of early ...
Stanton Warren R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Adolescents' intentions to smoke are generally regarded as a valid and reliable predictor of subsequent smoking. This association is largely based on research with adults and needs a more detailed analysis for adolescents. METHODS: Data on intentions and smoking status were collected as part of a longitudinal, birth-cohort study ...
Whitehouse C A - - 2005
PURPOSE: To record the latest information on control levels of translocations in cultured human lymphocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control-level data from seven European laboratories that are using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for retrospective biological dosimetry have been combined in a meta-analysis. After correction for the differing probe combinations ...
Sánchez-Johnsen Lisa A P - - 2005
Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White ...
Karam-Hage Maher - - 2005
To investigate the possible impact of treatment of alcohol dependence on smoking, we studied 144 smokers in an alcohol treatment center for whom 6-month data were available. Of those, 18 reported not smoking at 6 months. No significant differences in age, gender, or race were observed between quitters and continuing ...
Eklund Jenny - - 2005
The focus is on evaluating the relationships between early behavioural problems and biochemical variables at adult age and their significance for early criminality and violent behaviour in a life perspective. In the present study, using prospective longitudinal data, a sample of males with a history of early criminal behaviour and ...
Hsu Chih-Cheng - - 2006
The forced opening of Taiwan's tobacco market in 1987 has changed the smoking environment. This study analyzes the effects this market opening had on Taiwan's secular smoking rates over 15 years. The data sources used were consumer surveys conducted by the Taiwan Tobacco & Wine Monopoly Bureau 1964-1996, the 2001 ...
Dunlap Eloise - - 2005
The importance of settings for marijuana use has been widely noted, but the way that informal social controls are organized to moderate the amounts consumed have not been well documented. A major ethnographic study of blunts/marijuana use in New York City observed several hundred marijuana users in group locations and ...
Basyigit Ilknur - - 2005
AIM: Oxidative stress caused by smoking has been implicated in many pulmonary diseases. Smoking causes reductions in plasma nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) concentrations and increases in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, which indicate oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of smoking a single ...
Wynd Christine A - - 2005
PURPOSE: To examine the effectiveness of guided imagery for immediate smoking cessation and long-term abstinence in adult smokers. DESIGN: A repeated measures design was used with 71 smokers recruited from a hospital outpatient clinic, 38 in the intervention group, and 33 in the control group. METHODS: Both study groups received ...
John Ulrich - - 2005
The goal was to determine whether nicotine dependence levels remain consistent or change over three years. From a population- based sample of 4075 residents aged 18-64, drawn at random, data of 696 individuals was used, who had smoked cigarettes for 21 years on average. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the ...
Bergström Jan - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: A radiographic investigation into the relationship between tobacco smoking and subgingival dental calculus was conducted in an adult population, including 48 current smokers, 57 former smokers, and 125 non-smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Assessment of subgingival calculus was based on a full set of radiographs. Mesial and distal root surfaces ...
Heinrich Joachim - - 2005
In 1998, the German Environmental Survey (GerES III) recruited approximately 5000 adults between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The study population for these analyses consisted of 1580 smokers (34% of the total population) and 3126 nonsmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in urine were determined by HPLC methods with ...
Karlikaya Celal - - 2005
Following the trends in lung cancer (LC) morbidity and mortality rates can show past trends of cigarette smoking and can give clues on some geographical factors. The demographics of LC patients and the histopathologic distribution of their disease in the Thrace region of Turkey have yet to be defined. A ...
Hwang I H - - 2005
This study was conducted to assess postmortem proteolysis using a proteomics approach, and to determine the relationship of proteolysis to WB-shear force, drip loss, and hunter L(∗) value during chiller ageing in pig longissimus muscle. To generate various meat qualities, 20 male landraces were assigned into 2×2 factorial (10 pigs ...
Leitch D N - - 2005
We quantified the influence of lapsed time, measurement of gas-transfer factor (TLCO), and passive smoking on expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and then evaluated the accuracy of smoking histories against expired CO measurements in patients newly attending 'occupational' compared with 'general' chest clinics. Expired CO levels had an estimated average ...
Grøtvedt Liv - - 2005
AIMS: To contribute to improved programs for smoking cessation, the authors wanted to assess the relationships between age, gender and ex-smokers' quitting reasons and examine predictors of the most commonly reported quitting reasons. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to 11,919 subjects in Akershus County, Norway. Among the 7,697 respondents (65%), ...
Orlando Maria - - 2005
Concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco is common among adolescents, yet little is known about the developmental patterns of concurrent use, or the consequences associated with such patterns during young adulthood. Using data collected at six time points during 1985-1995 as part of an evaluation of a school-based substance abuse ...
Gabrielli Paolo - - 2004
An iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer has been attributed to an extraterrestrial body that struck the Earth some 65 million years ago. It has been suggested that, during this event, the carrier of iridium was probably a micrometre-sized silicate-enclosed aggregate or the nanophase material of the vaporized impactor. ...
White Helene R - - 2004
This study examined racial differences in developmental trajectories of cigarette smoking from childhood into young adulthood. We used data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of high-risk males. We developed trajectories of cigarette smoking from age 10 through age 25. Models were estimated separately for African-Americans (N ...
Trinidad Dennis R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the decline in African American adolescent smoking in the 1980s reflected a delay in age of onset of regular smoking initiation rather than success in preventing initiation completely. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify whether the marked reductions in African American ...
Shadel William G - - 2004
The studies presented in this manuscript evaluated the role that affect and the self-concept play in adolescent never smokers' reactions to the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery. Study 1 (n=29; 59% female) revealed that adolescent females have more positive affective reactions to female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery compared to male-valenced ...
Betsuyaku T - - 2004
Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D are collagen-like glycoproteins that are synthesised in the distal pulmonary epithelium. This study examined the effects of ageing and long-term smoking on SP-A and SP-D in the lungs. The possible links to the development of pulmonary emphysema were also investigated. Sequential lavage was performed in ...
O'Loughlin J J Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Avenue West, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 1A3. - - 2004
Case control studies in adults suggest that defective alleles in the gene that codes for the hepatic cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) protect against nicotine dependence (ND) and higher levels of cigarette consumption. These two hypotheses were tested in young adolescents. Self reports of tobacco use and ND symptoms were collected ...
Reynolds Brady - - 2004
The present report attempts to help clarify the causal or consequent relation between frequently reported high rates of delay discounting (DD) associated with cigarette-smoking status in adults. Delay-discount functions of adolescent smokers and young-adult smokers and nonsmokers from two earlier studies [Reynolds, B., Karraker, K., Horn, K., Richards, J.B., 2003. ...
Galéra Cédric - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to examine in both genders the link between childhood hyperactivity-inattention symptoms (HI-s) and smoking in adolescence, controlling for psychopathology, temperament and environmental risk factors. METHODS: Subjects (421 males, 495 females), aged 7 to 18, were recruited in the GAZEL cohort representative of the ...
Kumar P R Vivek - - 2004
Mutant frequency at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene in the peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 44 healthy individuals (23 non-smokers and 21 smokers) of an Indian male population was studied using T-lymphocyte cloning assay. It was found that lnMF increased with age at a rate of 2.5% per year (P ...
Satarug Soisungwan S National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (EnTox), The University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Brisbane, Qld 4108, Australia. - - 2004
Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to dietary cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on urinary biomarkers of renal function and phenotypic variability of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) were investigated in a group of 96 healthy Thai men with mean age of 36.7 year (19-57 years). In non-smokers, Cd burden increased ...
Chen Xinguang - - 2004
Entrance into college may be associated with elevated risk of progression in cigarette use among Chinese students. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns and dynamics of cigarette smoking by age and grade among college students in China. Cross-sectional data from 1845 students (44% females) in 19 colleges ...
Clark Matthew M - - 2004
Many smokers perceive that smoking controls their body weight and that stopping smoking leads to weight gain. This study examined characteristics associated with weight concerns in 72 male smokers enrolled in a controlled trial for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit smoking was found to be significantly lower in those with ...
Choi Won S - - 2004
We examined the smoking relapse curves for African-American smokers by level of smoking to characterize nicotine dependence in this population of smokers. This analysis was conducted from data originally collected to study differences in level of smoking among African-Americans at an inner-city health center in Midwest. Relatively little research has ...
Ussher Michael - - 2004
Smokers report an increase in upper respiratory infections in the early phase of stopping smoking. One possible cause is a depletion in secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) which has been observed in one study. The present study sought to establish this finding in smokers using nicotine patches. Ninety-two smokers, trying to ...
Oncken Cheryl - - 2004
We examined the relationship between self-reported in utero tobacco exposure and gender on smoking initiation, progression of cigarette use (i.e., telescoping), and current levels of nicotine dependence in adult treatment-seeking smokers. Subjects (N = 298) who reported "yes" (28% of the original sample) or "no" (50% of the original sample) ...
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