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Results 451 - 500 of 1053
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Monaco A - - 2006
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Anterior Temporal, Masseter, Sternocleidomastoid and Anterior Digastric muscles in response to changes in visual input in subjects with defective vision by means surface electromyography. METHODS: A total of 20 children, aged between 7 and 13 years, were evaluated. ...
Nilsson M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Conventional visual tests are not sensitive enough to detect low degree neural damage, as 6/6 (1.0) visual acuity can be upheld with less than two-thirds of the normal number of optic nerve axons. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the physiologic properties of a new computerised ...
Xu Liang - - 2006
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of blindness and low vision in Northern China. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. METHODS: The Beijing Eye Study included 4438 subjects with an age of 40+ years. Mean age was 56.2 +/- 10.6 years (range, 40 to 101 years). RESULTS: Forty-three (1.0%) individuals had ...
Dineen Brendan - - 2006
PURPOSE: To determine whether a sample of the 50-year-old and above population would provide comparable information to a total population-based survey. METHODS: In 1996, a national eye survey of the total population in The Gambia was undertaken and the results concerning the prevalence and distribution of blindness and low vision ...
Ueda Tetsuo - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess dynamic visual acuity (DVA) under pupil dilation. BACKGROUND: Pupil dilation may negatively affect driving performance. METHODS: Thirty healthy young adults (mean age 29.4 years) with pupil dilation participated in this study as the Mydrin P group. In addition to them, 15 healthy young ...
Lafuma Antoine J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Sociological and economic risk factors of visual impairment have never been described in France at a national level as the association between the number of ophthalmologists per inhabitant and visual impairment prevalence. METHODS: Two national surveys were pooled. First, 2075 institutions were selected at random from the French Health ...
Gupta Rajen - - 2006
Intraocular inflammatory diseases are collectively known as uveitis. The aetiology of this condition can be diverse, as inflammation may result from direct involvement of the uveal tract or indirect inflammation of adjacent tissues. Uveitis can present challenges to diagnosis and treatment, and is potentially a severe sight-threatening disease. In the ...
Garnham L - - 2006
AIM: To examine how stereoacuity changes with age as measured by a variety of stereotests. METHODS: Stereoacuity has been measured in 60 normal subjects aged 17-83 years by a single observer using TNO, Titmus, Frisby near, and Frisby-Davis distance stereotests. Motor fusion was measured at (1/3) metre and 6 metres. ...
Bunce Catey - - 2006
Prevention of visual impairment is an international priority agreed at the World Health Assembly of 2002--yet many countries lack contemporary data about incidence and causes from which priorities for prevention, treatment and management can be identified. Registration as blind or partially-sighted in England and Wales is voluntary and is initiated ...
Petrock Annie Marie AM New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 USA. - - 2006
Vergence eye movements were recorded from three different populations: healthy young (ages 18-35 years), adaptive presbyopic and non-adaptive presbyopic(the presbyopic groups aged above 45 years) to determine how the variability of the eye movements made by the populations differs. The variability was determined using Shannon Entropy calculations of Wavelet transform ...
Palomo Alvarez Catalina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that age affects visual function, we still have much to learn about the impact of aging on binocular vision. Our aim was to establish distance heterophoria and distance fusional vergence ranges in a large non-clinical population of wide age range, to provide normal values ...
Holas Cynthia - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This analysis of the results of 7 trials compared the taste and smell acceptability scores of cefdinir oral suspension and 4 other pediatric antibiotic oral suspensions--amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, cefprozil, azithromycin, or generic amoxicillin--using a visual smile-face scale. METHODS: Data from 7 randomized, single-blind, cross-over trials were pooled and analyzed. In ...
Laitinen Arja - - 2005
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence rates of habitual visual acuity (VA) levels and visual impairment in Finland and to assess their correlation with self-reported visual function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects were selected randomly from the Finnish population aged 30 years or older. Of 7979 eligible people, 7393 (93%) ...
Viggiano Maria Pia - - 2006
The influence of aging and expertise on visual identification as function of semantic category (animals and tools) and spatial-frequency content of stimuli was investigated. Three-age groups of experts (whose profession required the use of manipulable tools) and non-experts, participated to the experiment. Data showed a different involvement of low and ...
Feigl B - - 2005
PURPOSE: To monitor visual performance in early age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: We measured monocular visual function-high-contrast visual acuity (HC-VA), central visual fields (mean sensitivity, MS), colour vision (desaturated Panel D-15), Pelli-Robson (P-R), and cone- and rod-mediated multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) in 13 ARM subjects and 13 age-matched control subjects with normal ...
Raghuram Aparna - - 2005
We studied the effects of aging on a speed discrimination task using a pair of first-order drifting luminance gratings. Two reference speeds of 2 and 8 deg/s were presented at stimulus durations of 500 ms and 1000 ms. The choice of stimulus parameters, etc., was determined in preliminary experiments and ...
Lott Lori A - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess face recognition ability in a large sample of elders (n=572, mean age=78.1 years) and to identify factors that affect performance. METHODS: Face recognition was measured by presenting standardized faces of varying sizes to simulate normal-sized faces at different viewing distances. Subjects ...
Sandfeld J - - 2005
The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain and three levels of target size ...
Akar Yusuf - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle and gender on right and left visual hemifields in healthy subjects. METHODS: One randomly selected eye from each of 42 healthy normally menstruating women and of 37 men with no systemic and ocular problems, other than refractive error, were included in ...
Langrová J - - 2006
Pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were simultaneously tested in a group of 70 healthy subjects between the ages of 6-60 years to verify suspected differences in maturation and aging dynamics of the pattern and motion processing subsystems of the visual pathway. The motion-onset VEPs displayed dramatic configuration development ...
Al-Merjan J I - - 2005
AIM: To estimate the incidence rates and major causes of registered blindness and low vision in Kuwait. METHODS: Data on age, gender and cause of blindness and low vision were collected from the Visual Disability Committee while evaluating Kuwaiti citizens applying for a blindness allowance from January 2000 to December ...
Iliffe Steve S Department of Primary care and Population sciences, Royal Free & UCL Medical School, Hampstead Campus, London NW3 2PF, UK. - - 2005
Tractable but undetected visual impairment in older people may be relatively common, particularly amongst the very old and in more deprived populations. Measurement of visual acuity is unlikely to be helpful in identifying this impairment, but targeted assessment of visual function may be beneficial. There is uncertainty about the defining ...
Sheedy James E - - 2005
The luminance surrounding a computer display can potentially reduce visibility of the display (disability glare), result in sensations of discomfort (discomfort glare) and result in transient adaptation effects from fixating back and forth between the two luminance levels. The study objective was to measure the effects of surround luminance levels ...
Gohdes Dorothy M - - 2005
In April 2004, The Eye Disease Prevalence Research Group published a series of articles that included age-specific estimates for the prevalence of low vision and blindness in whites, African Americans, and Hispanics living in the United States. Also included were age-, sex-, and ethnic-specific incidences of the following age-related eye ...
Ricci D - - 2005
The aim of this study was to assess various aspects of visual function in 6 patients (age range: 9 months to 7 years and 8 months) with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. All patients had an ophthalmological examination and were tested with a battery of age-appropriate tests assessing various aspects of ...
Page Jonathan W - - 2005
Aging of visual pathways was measured psychophysically and physiologically in subjects aged 20-89 years. Contrast thresholds for the chromatic pathways increased with age, but there were no significant changes for thresholds of the achromatic pathway at low spatial frequencies. For visual evoked potential (VEP) responses, again only the chromatic pathways ...
Kuang T-M - - 2005
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of stereopsis on vision-related quality of life and general health status of the elderly. METHODS: A quota of 200 subjects aged 65 years or older and had their households registered in Guando district was recruited for a general physical examination including ophthalmic evaluation. A structured ...
Buch Helena - - 2005
PURPOSE: To describe the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) lesions and the related visual loss. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred forty-six residents (age range, 60-80 years) of Copenhagen participated in the study from 1986 through 1988. Excluding participants who had died since baseline, 359 persons (97.3% of ...
Goldschmidt Ernst - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to document the adult age progression of myopia and the incidence of visual impairment in a representative sample of Danish adolescents with high myopia. METHODS: This study consisted of a scheduled regular ophthalmic follow-up over 40 years of 39 otherwise unselected Copenhagen 14 ...
Shaikh Sajida Parveen - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the rapid assessment of cataract blindness and surgical services in age group 50 years and above. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: This survey was conducted in District Lower Dir, Malakand Division, NWFP, Pakistan, from March 9-23, 2003. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A community-based survey ...
Malmer L - - 2005
PURPOSE: To define normal values across age from novel computerized tests of foveal vision and to compare the findings with visual acuity (VA) at high and low contrast. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty-one healthy volunteers, aged 22-87, with subjectively normal vision participated in the study. The right eye from each subject ...
Shechtman Diana - - 2005
PURPOSE: To measure and compare the maximum angle of ocular duction in healthy individuals as a function of age. METHODS: A calibrated arc perimeter was modified to display one of six randomly presented targets (high contrast Snellen equivalent letters), in both vertical (supra/infraduction) and horizontal (ab/adduction) gaze to the dominant ...
Haggerty Helen - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of recording uniocular fields of fixation using a modified perimeter technique in healthy subjects and patients with Graves orbitopathy (GO). Patients with restrictive myopathies, particularly GO, require accurate measurement of monocular excursions. These ductions are recorded in 4 to 12 directions of ...
de Rivera Christina - - 2005
Tasks requiring visual discrimination are commonly used in assessment of canine cognitive function. However, little is known about canine visual processing, and virtually nothing is known about the effects of age on canine visual function. This study describes a novel behavioural method developed to assess one aspect of canine visual ...
Murthy G Venkata S - - 2005
Evidence based planning has been the hallmark of the blindness control programme in India. A nationwide survey was undertaken in 1999-2001 to document the magnitude and causes of blindness. One district each in 15 populous states was covered. 25 clusters were randomly selected in each district and all individuals aged ...
Haegerstrom-Portnoy Gunilla - - 2005
PURPOSE: To assess a broad range of vision functions in a large older population, to investigate the impact of vision function loss on visual performance measures, and to determine whether low contrast vision measures can predict future loss of visual acuity. METHODS: A large battery of vision functions, including spatial ...
Bianco M - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. METHODS: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers ...
Akar Yusuf - - 2005
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of menstrual cycle phases on the visual field analysis of healthy females. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One randomly selected eye each of 59 healthy normally menstruating women, and of 54 men with no systemic and ocular problems, other than refractive error, were included in the study. ...
Delahunt Peter B - - 2005
Age-related changes in the spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity function of detection, measured along S and L - M cone axes, were demonstrated in a companion paper [Hardy et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 49 (2005)]. Here senescent changes in chromatic contrast appearance were assessed by contrast-matching functions (CMFs). ...
Lorenzo-López Laura - - 2004
Effects of normal aging on pre-attentive detection of changes in motion direction were evaluated. Young, middle-aged, and older subjects performed a visual central task while standard and deviant gratings varying in motion direction were presented outside the focus of attention. A greater negativity in the event-related potentials (ERPs) to deviants ...
McClelland Julie F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Nott dynamic retinoscopy (DR) is a technique that provides an objective, rapid assessment of accommodative function. Presently there are no data available regarding age norms of accommodative function for school-age children using Nott DR. METHODS: Accommodative responses were assessed in a group of 125 school-age children (4 to 15 ...
Jiménez R - - 2004
A wide range of visual parameters used to evaluate binocular function were evaluated in a paediatric population (1056 subjects aged 6-12 years). Mean values are provided for these ages in optometric tests that directly assess the vergence system, horizontal phorias for near and far vision (measured by a modified version ...
Resnikoff Serge - - 2004
This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th ...
Renner Agnes B - - 2004
Photopigment optical density (OD) of middle-(M) and long-(L) wavelength-sensitive cones was determined to evaluate the hypothesis that reductions in the amount of photopigment are responsible for age-dependent sensitivity losses of the human cone pathways. Flicker thresholds were measured at the peak and tail of the photoreceptor's absorption spectrum as a ...
Loh K Y - - 2004
Visual impairment among the elderly is a major health problem. With advancing age, the normal function of eye tissues decreases and there is an increased incidence of ocular pathology. Demographic studies have shown that age is the best predictor of blindness and visual impairment. The most common causes of age ...
Feigl Beatrix - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and subjective function in early age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: Seventeen subjects with early ARM with visual acuity (VA) of 6/12 or better and 20 age-matched control subjects were examined. We assessed mfERGs, high and low contrast distance VA, near VA, low luminance VA, ...
Schroeter Matthias L - - 2004
It is well known that aging leads to a degeneration of the vascular system. Hence, one may hypothesize that spontaneous oscillations decrease in the cerebral microvasculature with aging. Accordingly, the authors investigated the age dependency of spontaneous oscillations in the visual cortex during rest and functional activation. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy ...
Walrath Dana E - - 2004
Interobserver variation in visual evaluation was analyzed for 10 cranial traits in a homogeneous archaeological series. Two observers independently scored cranial traits commonly used for determination of sex. Though determination of sex did not differ significantly for the two observers, individual traits had different levels of interobserver reliability. In addition, ...
Cornwall Mark W MW Gait Research Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, P.O. Box 15105, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, USA. - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of visual rating of forefoot frontal plane deformities among clinicians with different training. Thirty individuals (16 men and 14 women) between the ages of 22 and 52 years of age participated in the study. None of the patients had ...
Felius Joost - - 2004
PURPOSE: Quality of life (QOL) instruments are increasingly utilized in ophthalmological research. Measuring vision-related QOL in young children is complicated by constantly evolving abilities related to normal growth and development. Our aim was to develop vision-related QOL instruments for children in different age ranges <==7 years, and to provide initial ...
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