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McClelland Julie F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Nott dynamic retinoscopy (DR) is a technique that provides an objective, rapid assessment of accommodative function. Presently there are no data available regarding age norms of accommodative function for school-age children using Nott DR. METHODS: Accommodative responses were assessed in a group of 125 school-age children (4 to 15 ...
Jiménez R - - 2004
A wide range of visual parameters used to evaluate binocular function were evaluated in a paediatric population (1056 subjects aged 6-12 years). Mean values are provided for these ages in optometric tests that directly assess the vergence system, horizontal phorias for near and far vision (measured by a modified version ...
Resnikoff Serge - - 2004
This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th ...
Renner Agnes B - - 2004
Photopigment optical density (OD) of middle-(M) and long-(L) wavelength-sensitive cones was determined to evaluate the hypothesis that reductions in the amount of photopigment are responsible for age-dependent sensitivity losses of the human cone pathways. Flicker thresholds were measured at the peak and tail of the photoreceptor's absorption spectrum as a ...
Loh K Y - - 2004
Visual impairment among the elderly is a major health problem. With advancing age, the normal function of eye tissues decreases and there is an increased incidence of ocular pathology. Demographic studies have shown that age is the best predictor of blindness and visual impairment. The most common causes of age ...
Feigl Beatrix - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and subjective function in early age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: Seventeen subjects with early ARM with visual acuity (VA) of 6/12 or better and 20 age-matched control subjects were examined. We assessed mfERGs, high and low contrast distance VA, near VA, low luminance VA, ...
Cornwall Mark W - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of visual rating of forefoot frontal plane deformities among clinicians with different training. Thirty individuals (16 men and 14 women) between the ages of 22 and 52 years of age participated in the study. None of the patients had ...
Schroeter Matthias L - - 2004
It is well known that aging leads to a degeneration of the vascular system. Hence, one may hypothesize that spontaneous oscillations decrease in the cerebral microvasculature with aging. Accordingly, the authors investigated the age dependency of spontaneous oscillations in the visual cortex during rest and functional activation. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy ...
Walrath Dana E - - 2004
Interobserver variation in visual evaluation was analyzed for 10 cranial traits in a homogeneous archaeological series. Two observers independently scored cranial traits commonly used for determination of sex. Though determination of sex did not differ significantly for the two observers, individual traits had different levels of interobserver reliability. In addition, ...
Felius Joost - - 2004
PURPOSE: Quality of life (QOL) instruments are increasingly utilized in ophthalmological research. Measuring vision-related QOL in young children is complicated by constantly evolving abilities related to normal growth and development. Our aim was to develop vision-related QOL instruments for children in different age ranges <==7 years, and to provide initial ...
Carvalho Keila Monteiro de - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine the causes of low vision in an elderly population attended by a university visual rehabilitation service and to check for the use of prescribed optical aids. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients aged 60 years or over attending for the first time a university ...
Karwatsky Peter - - 2004
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether normal aging and glaucoma are associated with red-green (R/G) chromatic processing abnormalities, a function that is primarily performed by the parvocellular visual pathway. METHODS: Chromatic processing mechanisms were examined in 98 glaucomatous observers (between the ages of 49 and 93 years; mean ...
Nesher Ronit - - 2004
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of performing visual field with the Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) in children aged 5 to 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty healthy children and fifteen healthy adults, all with no previous experience with visual field testing, underwent visual field testing with the C20 threshold test ...
Drozdzowska Bogna - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was an assessment of skeletal status in a group of subjects with impaired vision. METHOD: 91 subjects with poor visual acuity (44 males, mean age: 61.4 +/- 10.9 years and 47 females, mean age: 61.3 +/- 16.8 years) were evaluated and compared with age-matched ...
Martin Lene - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) resulting in infants born small for gestational age is a known risk factor for neurologic deficits and may predispose to poor cognitive development later in life. We recently found an association between IUGR and a reduced neuroretinal rim area at 18 years of age. We ...
Durrani O M - - 2004
Uveitis (intraocular inflammation) is a potentially blinding group of, probably autoimmune, conditions predominantly occurring in the working age group. Although the aetiology is unknown in most cases, many patients have an associated underlying systemic disease. Central vision loss, in the form of cystoid macular oedema, is the commonest type of ...
Rivest Josée - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Individuals experience a visual illusion created by shape interaction: when two shapes are presented successively and briefly, the form of the second (test) shape appears distorted due to the form of the first (prime) shape; this shape interaction is called the shape distortion effect. While age-related deterioration in performance ...
Blom J - - 2004
AIM: To evaluate tolerability and technical feasibility of colorectal cancer screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy. METHODS: One thousand men and women aged 59-61 years, randomly selected from the population register of Uppsala, Sweden, were invited by mail. After random allocation, half of them were called up by a nurse (group 1), ...
Garcia-Suarez Luis - - 2004
While most positional acuity tasks exhibit an age-related decline in performance, the effect of ageing upon vernier acuity continues to be the subject of some debate. In the present study we employed a stimulus design that enabled the simultaneous determination of bisection and vernier acuities in 36 subjects, aged between ...
Pesudovs K - - 2004
To compare the performance of keratoconus, penetrating keratoplasty (PK), and control subjects on clinical tests of contrast and glare vision, to determine whether differences in vision were independent of visual acuity (VA), and thereby establish which vision tests are the most useful for outcome studies of PK for keratoconus. All ...
Congdon Nathan - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cause-specific prevalence and distribution of blindness and low vision in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender, and to estimate the change in these prevalence figures over the next 20 years. METHODS: Summary prevalence estimates of blindness (both according to the US definition of < ...
Karakucuk Sarper - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Performance of mountaineers, civil aircraft pilots, and of the personnel involved in many military operations in high mountains may rely on color discrimination at these moderate levels. The authors aimed at investigating the effects of moderate altitude (3000 m) exposure on color vision. METHODS: Sixteen high school students, ages ...
Bergman Birgitta - - 2004
AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for ocular disorders and the effects of timing of cataract surgery from age 70-97 years. POPULATION: A representative population sample taken from within the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies (H 70) in Gothenburg, Sweden (n = 958). All subjects underwent ...
Blumenthal Eytan Z - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether healthy young children are able to perform automated static perimetry reliably using the frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimeter. DESIGN: Prospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Forty healthy children aged 4 to 14 years. TESTING: Subjects underwent, in 1 randomly chosen eye, 2 consecutive visual field (VF) tests using ...
Wahl Hans-Werner - - 2004
This study examines the effect of primary and secondary control on 3 major outcomes experienced by visually impaired older adults, that is, functional ability, adaptation to vision loss, and positive affect. The authors' theoretical model is based on the J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz (1995) control framework, as well as ...
Wall Michael - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the properties of the visual field of high-pass resolution perimetry in normal subjects. METHODS: Four centers collected normative data for high-pass resolution perimetry. In two of the centers the subjects were stratified by age. One eye was tested per subject using high-pass resolution perimetry (Ophthimus). We tested ...
Miller Penny L - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate whether there is a sex difference in the analgesic response to mu versus kappa opioids in the management of acute moderate to severe pain of injury in the emergency department. METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial comparing the prototypical mu-receptor agonist, morphine ...
Schneck Marilyn E - - 2004
Can vision tests predict subsequent loss of acuity? The association between performance on several low contrast spatial vision measures, glare recovery, color discrimination, flicker sensitivity, stereopsis and ocular disease status at baseline and acuity loss 4.4 years later was examined in a large aged random sample with good initial acuity. ...
Hsu Wen-Ming - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Few population-based data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment are available from East Asia. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The Shihpai Eye Study was a ...
Buch Helena - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the age-specific prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an epidemiologic study of an adult Scandinavian population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The study population was composed of 9980 persons, ages 20 to 84, from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS: This study is ...
Leske M Cristina - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe the 4-year incidence of visual impairment and causes of blindness among black participants of the Barbados Eye Studies. DESIGN: Population-based incidence study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Barbados Incidence Study of Eye Diseases (BISED) followed the cohort of the Barbados Eye Study (BES), a prevalence study based on ...
Coeckelbergh Tanja R M - - 2004
We assessed the performance of younger and older individuals by using the Attended Field of View test, a visual search task in which eye movements were allowed. When adjusting for slower processing in the older age group by log transformation, we observed significant effects of age, eccentricity, and Age x ...
Norrlin Simone - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to analyze the ability to programme and execute reaching movements in individuals with myelomeningocele (MMC) and in a control group. Thirty-one participants (18 males, 13 females; mean age 12 years 11 months, SD 2 years 7 months, range 9 to 19 years) with ...
Kherif Ferath - - 2003
Standard group analyses of fMRI data rely on spatial and temporal averaging of individuals. This averaging operation is only sensible when the mean is a good representation of the group. This is not the case if subjects are not homogeneous, and it is therefore a major concern in fMRI studies ...
Dimitrov Peter N - - 2003
PURPOSE: To describe the age-, gender-, and cause-specific 5-year incidence of bilateral visual impairment in participants in the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project, Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Participants aged 40 years and older were recruited from Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, by random cluster sampling. The mean age of the 3271 (83% of the ...
Essick Greg K - - 2003
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals who differ in taste perception differ in lingual tactile perception. To address this issue, spatial resolution acuity was estimated for 83 young adult females (52 Asians and 31 Caucasians) by their ability to examine with the tongue and identify embossed letters of ...
Lee Harry K M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: a cross-sectional study was used to compare the balance ability of older people with and without visual impairment. SETTING: Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Jockey Club Rehabilitation Complex and the Pok Oi Hospital Jockey Club care and attention homes for aged individuals. SUBJECTS: a total of 66 subjects, 65 ...
Rothe Nissen Kamilla - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Reviews on the prevalence of blindness and low vision in persons of age 20 to 59 years are lacking. We have therefore carried out a review based on a Medline search. METHODS: The review was confined to epidemiological studies performed in Western Europe, North America and Australia covering the ...
Ukai Kazuhiko - - 2003
The effect of aging on the time of spontaneous perceptual alternation in binocular rivalry was examined in 59 subjects. An earlier study reported the change of alternation time by comparing middle-age and elderly subjects. We also observed age-related prolongation in alternation time by comparing subjects in a lower age group ...
Blumenthal Eytan Z - - 2003
To quantify factors affecting test-retest variability of threshold measurements over a series of 3 serial visual fields (VF). Prospective comparative observational study. Forty-one normals, 10 suspects and 35 stable glaucoma patients. All subjects performed 3 standard and 3 short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP) VFs. At each VF location, severity (defined as ...
Farber Marilyn D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To describe the population registered as blind in Israel and estimate the prevalence and incidence of blindness, by age, sex and the causes of blindness. METHODS: Israel has maintained a Registry for the Blind since 1987. Patients are identified by ophthalmologists and registered if they have a visual acuity ...
Gerth Christina - - 2003
To determine age-related changes in retinal response dynamics derived from multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs). MfERG data were obtained from 70 subjects with normal phakic eyes, age 9 to 80 years. Whereas the first- and higher-order kernels resulting from the mfERG contain detailed information regarding the nonlinear response dynamics of the retina, ...
Beelen R M J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The short and long term variability of the interrupter technique was assessed to determine whether interrupter resistance is a stable individual characteristic over time. The effect of field and standardised measurement conditions on the within-subject variability of the interrupter technique was also examined. METHODS: The interrupter technique was studied ...
Stiers Peter - - 2003
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of stimulus and response differences to the different developmental courses of grating and optotype visual acuity at the preschool age range. METHODS: Binocular visual acuity at 228 cm was assessed in 205 children in 7 age groups between 2.5 and 6 years and in 12 ...
Courtright P - - 2003
In the coming two decades significant increases in the burden of blindness are anticipated unless concerted efforts are made to improve eye care in developing countries. Evidence of changing prevalence rates or numbers of blind people are few. The change in blindness prevalence and the number of blind people in ...
Nguyen-Tri David - - 2003
PURPOSE: It has been reported that greater age-related losses in sensitivity occur for short-wavelength visual stimuli than for medium- and long-wavelength visual stimuli. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine to what extent optical, receptoral, and postreceptoral factors contribute to these age-related changes in color vision. METHODS: One ...
Thulasiraj R D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of blindness and vision impairment in a rural population of southern India. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17200 subjects aged 6 years or older, including 5150 subjects aged 40 years or older from 50 clusters representative of three southern districts of ...
AARON J. ROTH
The common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) is a crepuscular species known to use visual signals for agonistic and sexual communication. To test the hypothesis that white plumage patches function in visual communication of reproductive quality, we measured the size of white patches present on the wing, tail and throat of the ...
Hausmann Markus - - 2003
A total of 92 participants, 50 younger (mean age 26.3 years) and 42 older (mean age 63.8 years), were tested for visual-field asymmetries. On a word-matching task, a right-visual-field (RVF) advantage increased with age, consistent with the theory that right-hemispheric function shows relatively greater decline with age than left-hemispheric function. ...
Schulze Karen A - - 2003
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the color and surface chemistry changes of two fiber-reinforced composites and one "advanced composite" as a function of an accelerated aging process by light exposure and water spray. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three composites (Artglass, Targis, and Conquest Sculpture) were assessed for ...
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