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Furlan Julio C - - 2014
This study examines whether age is a key determinant for inflammatory response, oligodendroglial apoptosis and axonal survival after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). This study includes post-mortem spinal cord tissue from 64 cases of SCI (at cervical or high-thoracic level) and 38 control cases. Each group was subdivided into younger ...
Mascalchi Mario M Quantitative and Functional Neuroradiology Program at Meyer Children's Hospital and Careggi Hospital of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, - - 2014
To explore gender, age-related, and regional differences of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM). In all, 102 healthy subjects (51 women and 51 men; range 25-84 years) were examined with 3-mm thick MT images. We assessed MTR in automatically segmented GM structures including frontal, ...
Shivakumar Venkataram V The Schizophrenia Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India; Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Cognitive Neurobiology Division, Neurobiology Research Centre, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. Electronic address: - - 2014
The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in ...
Papenberg Goran G Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, - - 2014
Genetic factors may partly account for between-person differences in brain integrity in old age. Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the dopaminergic system is implicated in the modulation of white-matter integrity. We investigated whether a genetic variation in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which influences dopamine availability in ...
Harrison-Felix Cynthia L CL Craig Hospital, Research, Englewood, Colorado, United States ; - - 2014
This study characterized life expectancy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB) was weighted to represent those 16 years of age and older completing inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the United States (US) between 2001 and 2010. Analyses included Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs), Cox ...
Ambrose Charles T CT Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, - - 2014
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related senile dementias (SDs) represent a growing medical and economic crisis in this country. Apart from cautioning persons about risk factors, no practical, effective therapy is currently available. Much of the recent research in AD has been based on the amyloid cascade theory. Another approach assumes ...
Failla Michelle D MD Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, - - 2014
Background. Mortality predictions following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and our understanding of TBI pathology, may be improved by including genetic risk in addition to traditional prognostic variables. One promising target is the gene coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a ubiquitous neurotrophin important for neuronal survival and neurogenesis. Objective. We ...
Vitaro Frank F University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, - - 2014
This study examined sibling influence over gambling involvement and delinquency in a sample of 628 twins (151 male dyads, 163 female dyads). Self-reports of gambling involvement and delinquency were collected for each twin at ages 13, 14 and 15 years. Results revealed evidence of between-twin influence. Higher levels of an adolescent's ...
Burke Sara N SN Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, ARL Division of Neural Systems, Memory & - - 2014
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala are both necessary for decisions based on expected outcomes. Although behavioral and imaging data suggest that these brain regions are affected by advanced age, the extent to which aging alters appetitive processes coordinated by the OFC and the amygdala is unknown. In the current ...
Burke Luke K LK Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
The phenomenon commonly described as "the middle-age spread" is the result of elevated adiposity accumulation throughout adulthood until late middle-age. It is a clinical imperative to gain a greater understanding of the underpinnings of age-dependent obesity and in turn, how these mechanisms may impact the efficacy of obesity treatments. In ...
Moran Chris C Stroke and Ageing Research Group, Department of Medicine, Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaNeurosciences, Monash Medical Centre, Monash Health, Melbourne, - - 2014
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with brain atrophy, but the mechanisms underlying this link are unknown. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in T2DM resulting in inflammation, oxidative stress, and protein cross-linking, which are known contributors to neurodegeneration. We aimed to study whether tissue AGE accumulation is associated ...
Peskind Elaine R ER Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle2Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, - - 2014
The Healthy Brain Initiative 2013-2018 seeks to optimize brain health as we age. Free radical injury is an important effector of molecular and cellular stress in the aging brain that derives from multiple sources. To identify potentially modifiable risk factors associated with increased markers of brain oxidative stress. This cross-sectional, ...
Chang Vicky C VC Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
To provide an overview of the epidemiology of work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) in the state of Victoria, Australia. Specifically, we investigated sex differences in incidence, demographics, injury characteristics, in addition to outcomes associated with wrTBI. This study involved secondary analysis of administrative workers' compensation claims data obtained from the ...
Scharfman Helen E HE Departments of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Physiology & Neuroscience, and Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016. Electronic address: - - 2014
When all of the epilepsies are considered, sex differences are not always clear, despite the fact that many sex differences are known in the normal brain. Sex differences in epilepsy in laboratory animals are also unclear, although robust effects of sex on seizures have been reported, and numerous effects of ...
Vegh Marlene J MJ VU University Amsterdam, - - 2014
Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/6J wildtype mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To ...
Harris Kelly C - - 2014
Abstract Background: The N1-P2 is an obligatory cortical response that can reflect the representation of spectral and temporal characteristics of an auditory stimulus. Traditionally, mean amplitudes and latencies of the prominent peaks in the averaged response are compared across experimental conditions. Analyses of the peaks in the averaged response only ...
Laing Andrew C AC Injury Biomechanics and Aging Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada; International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), University of British Columbia, 818 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 1M9, - - 2014
Rat models are commonly used to investigate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). The high incidence of fall-induced SCI in older adults has created a need for aging models of SCI in rats to investigate potential age-related differences in SCI severity and outcomes. The aims ...
Painter Michio W MW F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital and Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Immunology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2014
The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons ...
Chang Kwang-Hwa KH Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University , Taipei , Taiwan - - 2014
Abstract Purpose: To explore the association between muscle power impairment and each World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule second edition (WHODAS 2.0) domain score among subjects with physical disability. Methods: Subjects (≥60 years) with physical disability related to neurological diseases, including 730 subjects with brain disease (BD) and 126 subjects ...
Galea Liisa A M LA Department of Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2014
The peripartum period is accompanied by dramatic changes in hormones and a host of new behaviors in response to experience with offspring. Both maternal experience and maternal hormones can have a significant impact on the brain and behavior. This review outlines recent studies demonstrating modifications in hippocampal plasticity across the ...
Sakurai Ryota R - - 2014
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between normalized regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (normalized-rCMRglc) and gait function in physically and mentally high-functioning older women. One hundred eighty-two community-dwelling older women (mean age [SD], 69.4 [6.6] years) without disability in instrumental activities of daily living and ...
Gaur Pankaj P Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Lab, CAS in Zoology, Banaras Hindu, University, Varanasi, 221005, UP, - - 2014
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) has been implicated in learning, memory and cognition, therefore, information on alterations in FMRP expression during maturation and aging may provide a clue towards understanding mechanisms of age-dependent cognitive changes in the brain. In the present paper, we have studied Fmr-1 gene expression and ...
Pal Rameswar R Centre for Advanced Research and Training in Yoga (CARTY), Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054, - - 2014
Aging is associated with decline in cardiovascular, autonomic function, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Reports are scanty regarding whether yoga can improve age-related degenerative changes in healthy active men. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in improving age-related degenerative changes in cardiometabolic risk profile, autonomic function, ...
Dopper Elise G P EG From the Departments of Neurology (E.G.P.D., L.C.J., T.d.H., H.S., J.C.v.S.), Epidemiology (T.d.H.), and Neuropsychology (J.R.A.d.G., I.d.K.), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam; Department of Radiology (E.G.P.D., S.A.R.B.R., I.M.V., M.A.v.B.), Leiden University Medical Center; Departments of Neurology (E.G.P.D.) and Clinical Genetics (A.R.H., P.R., J.C.v.S.), VU Medical Center, Amsterdam; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (S.A.R.B.R., I.M.V., M.A.v.B.) and Institute of Psychology (S.A.R.B.R., I.M.V.), Leiden University; Department of Neurology (T.d.H.), Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and Department of Neurology (W.W.S.) and Memory and Aging Center (W.W.S.), University of California, San - - 2014
We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) or GRN (progranulin) mutations. In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20-70 years) with 50% risk of frontotemporal dementia ...
Tennant Kelly A KA University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada - - 2014
Background. The incidence of stroke in adulthood increases with advancing age, but there is little understanding of how poststroke treatment should be tailored by age. Objective. The goal of this study was to determine if age and task specificity of rehabilitative training affect behavioral improvement and motor cortical organization after ...
Gupta Arpana A From the Oppenheimer Family Center for Neurobiology of Stress and Pain and Interoception Network (PAIN) (A.G., L.K., J.L., K.T., A.B., J.-Y.H., C.A.-M., B.N., E.A.M.), Los Angeles, California; Departments of Medicine (L.K., J.L., K.T., B.N., E.A.M.) and Psychiatry (J.L., K.T., B.N., E.A.M.) and Division of Digestive Diseases (A.G., L.K. J.L., K.T., B.N., E.A.M.), David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; and Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center (E.A.M.), UCLA, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Early adverse life events (EALs) and sex have been identified as vulnerability factors for the development of several stress-sensitive disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to identify disease and sex-based differences in resting state (RS) connectivity associated with EALs in individuals with IBS. A history of EALs before ...
Gómez Pedro A PA Department of Neurosurgery, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
To describe the demographic and clinical profiles of a cohort of environmentally representative severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases collected for the past 25 years and to analyse the changes that occurred by dividing the analysis period into 3 equal time periods. This was an observational cohort study of consecutive ...
Yang A A From the Medical Imaging Center, Affiliated Zhongshan City Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. - - 2014
To date, MRS study of both normal and pathologic brains have focused mainly on the supratentorial regions; few studies have investigated the infratentorial regions. However, the pons, an important structure of the brain, is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases and is often damaged by brain trauma. For MRS study of ...
Durazzo Timothy C TC Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIND), San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cigarette smoking in adults is associated with abnormalities in brain neurobiology. Smoking-induced central nervous system oxidative stress (OxS) is a potential mechanism associated with these abnormalities. The goal of this study was to compare cognitively-normal elders on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of F2-isoprostane biomarkers of OxS. Elders with a lifetime ...
Lin Ai-Ling AL 1] Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA [2] Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, - - 2014
Caloric restriction (CR) prolongs lifespan and retards many detrimental effects of aging, but its effect on brain mitochondrial function and neuronal activity-especially in healthy aging-remains unexplored. Here we measured rates of neuronal glucose oxidation and glutamate-glutamine neurotransmitter cycling in young control, old control (i.e., healthy aging), and old CR rats ...
Hartley Sigan L SL 1 University of Wisconsin-Madison, Waisman Centre, 1500 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705, USA - - 2014
Nearly all adults with Down syndrome show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, including amyloid-β deposition, by their fifth decade of life. In the current study, we examined the association between brain amyloid-β deposition, assessed via in vivo assessments of neocortical Pittsburgh compound B, and scores on an extensive neuropsychological battery of ...
Nelson Katja - - 2014
Esthetic parameters in elder patients are essential in esthetic oral rehabilitation. To date, no study has quantified the amount and frequency of soft tissue display in the papilla area in patients over 50 years of age. Photographic examination of 42 fully dentate patients with a mean age of 59 years ...
Saleem Sadia S Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, - - 2014
Aging is a natural complex process that is regulated at genetic, cellular, molecular and systemic levels and leads to the development of a variety of changes including structural, chemical and genetic in the senescent brain. The major goal of the present study was to investigate the age associated cognitive dysfunction ...
Vaidya Amita A Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of - - 2014
Accumulation of genome rearrangements is a characteristic of aged tissues. Since genome rearrangements result from faulty repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we hypothesized that DNA DSB repair becomes less efficient with age. The Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway repairs a majority of DSBs in vertebrates. To examine age-associated ...
Herting Megan M MM Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine at USC/Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, - - 2014
It has been postulated that pubertal hormones may drive some neuroanatomical changes during adolescence, and may do so differently in girls and boys. Here, we use growth curve modeling to directly assess how sex hormones [testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2 )] relate to changes in subcortical brain volumes utilizing a ...
Krogsrud Stine K SK Department of Psychology, Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, - - 2014
The hippocampus supports several important cognitive functions known to undergo substantial development during childhood and adolescence, for example, encoding and consolidation of vivid personal memories. However, diverging developmental effects on hippocampal volume have been observed across studies. It is possible that the inconsistent findings may attribute to varying developmental processes ...
Sandu Anca-Larisa AL Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, Lilian Sutton Building, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, AB25 2ZD Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Brain morphology and cognitive ability change with age. Gray and white matter volumes decrease markedly by the 7th decade of life when cognitive decreases first become readily detectable. As a consequence, the shape complexity of the cortical mantle may also change. The purposes of this study are to examine changes ...
Autrey Michelle M MM Department of Psychology, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Georgia - - 2014
Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray and white matter over the adult lifespan. ...
Johnson Micah A MA Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, - - 2014
Although age-related differences in white matter have been well documented, the degree to which regional, tract-specific effects can be distinguished from global, brain-general effects is not yet clear. Similarly, the manner in which global and regional differences in white matter integrity contribute to age-related differences in cognition has not been ...
Rossou Ellen E Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
Purpose: To characterize the choroidal thickness of the papillomacular region in young healthy individuals using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Papillary and macular SD-OCT scans were obtained using an enhanced depth imaging mode. Digital retinography was used to assess any overlapping areas and to determine the papillomacular region. Spearman's ...
Fung Germaine G Department of Psychiatry, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, - - 2014
Background/Aims: The Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group has defined remission as 'a low-mild symptom intensity level, maintained for a minimum of 6 months, where such symptoms do not affect an individual's behaviour' [Andreasen et al.: Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:441-449]. Since brain morphology relates to symptomatology, treatment and illness progression, MRI ...
Springo Z Z University of Pecs, Medical School, Department of Pathophysiology and Gerontology and Szentagothai Research Centre, Pecs, - - 2014
Aging is associated with increased incidence of cerebrovascular disorders, but the age-dependent changes in local vasomotor mechanisms are not completely understood. Myogenic autoregulation of cerebral vessels in response to static changes in perfusion pressure protects the microcirculation from high pressure and volume. However, it was recently shown that aging impairs ...
Konar Arpita A Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, - - 2014
Neuropsin (NP) is a serine protease, implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory acquisition through cleavage of synaptic adhesion molecule, L1CAM. However, NP has not been explored during brain aging that entails drastic deterioration of plasticity and memory with selective regional vulnerability. Therefore, we have analysed the expression of NP and ...
Maillet David D Department of Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T5, - - 2014
Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. This reduction is thought to be due in part to age-related differences in encoding-related processes. In the current study, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies assessing age-related changes in the neural correlates of ...
Mürner-Lavanchy Ines I Division of Neuropediatrics, Development and Rehabilitation, Children's University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland; University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland; Centre for Cognition, Learning and Memory, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, - - 2014
Cortical gray matter thinning occurs during childhood due to pruning of inefficient synaptic connections and an increase in myelination. Preterms show alterations in brain structure, with prolonged maturation of the frontal lobes, smaller cortical volumes and reduced white matter volume. These findings give rise to the question if there is ...
Bulut Ozgur O Department of Forensic Anthropology, Turkish Police Forensic Laboratory, Golbasi, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address: - - 2014
320 Turkish adults (160 men, 160 women) who had undergone brain CT in the radiology clinic and showed no sign of maxillofacial pathology were analyzed in order to create a facial soft-tissue thickness database of the Turkish adult population. The soft-tissue thicknesses were measured at 31 landmarks, 10 midline and ...
Raz Naftali N Department of Psychology and Institute of Gerontology, Wayne State University, 87 E. Ferry St., 226 Knapp Building, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA, - - 2014
The hippocampus is one of the most age-sensitive brain regions, yet the mechanisms of hippocampal shrinkage remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to aging and differentially sensitive to vascular risk. Promoters of inflammation are frequently proposed as major contributors to brain aging and vascular disease ...
Yassa Hanan Dawood HD Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Salah Salem St., 62511 Beni Suef, Egypt. Electronic address: - - 2014
The optic nerve is a unique part of the central nervous system. It lacks neuronal cell bodies and consists of axons of the retinal ganglion cells together with the supporting neuroglial cells. In the present study, aging of the optic nerve was studied in female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3, 12, ...
Shaul Merav E ME Neuroscience and Aging laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Background: Senescent changes in brain microvascular circulation may cause or contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Such changes are promoted partly by aging, but also by chronic hypertension, a leading treatable cause of cognitive decline. Objectives: We aimed to non-invasively detect in vivo the senescent changes in brain microvascular circulation associated ...
Chou Po-Han PH Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City, - - 2014
Although recent studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls did not differ in the speed of age-related decline in cortical thickness and performances on cognitive tests, hemodynamic changes assessed by functional neuroimaging remain unclear. This study investigated age effects on regional brain cortical activity to determine whether ...
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