Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1013
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Brooks B M BM Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2006
To examine the association between calcium intake and dairy product consumption with overweight and obesity in young adults. The sample used in this study consisted of 1306 young adults, ages 19-38 years, who participated in the 1995-1996 young adult survey. Analysis was performed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for ethnicity-gender ...
Raum Elke - - 2007
The association between alcohol consumption and CRP was evaluated in a longitudinal study among 72 middle aged adults for whom 572 repeated measurements of CRP were obtained. Short- and long-term alcohol consumption were analyzed using moving windows of average alcohol consumption levels to establish a dose-response relationship. To control for ...
Song Won O - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Inadequate intake of calcium-rich foods among US adults and children is a public health concern. Fluid milk is one of the best calcium sources because of its bioavailability and its versatility as both a beverage and a complement to various solid foods. One of the foods commonly consumed with ...
Ognjanovic Simona - - 2006
The polymorphic gene NAT2 is a major determinant of N-acetyltransferase activity and, thus, may be responsible for differences in one's ability to bioactivate heterocyclic amines, a class of procarcinogens in cooked meat. An unusually marked geographic variation in enzyme activity has been described for NAT2. The present study re-examines the ...
Chang Kuang-Yi - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) is one of the most widely used postoperative analgesic methods. Many factors could affect the total analgesic consumption of IVPCA. This retrospective study investigated the relationship between patient characteristics and total morphine consumption during a 3-day course of postoperative IVPCA. METHODS: Patients receiving surgery under ...
Prakash K M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that environmental factors may be associated with essential tremor (ET). This study was carried out to evaluate the association of caffeine intake with ET. METHOD: In a case control study, patients diagnosed with ET and healthy controls underwent a standardized questionnaire interview to evaluate the ...
Mann Robert E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Research has shown a strong link between alcohol use and a variety of problems, including violence. Parker and colleagues have presented a selective disinhibition theory for the link between alcohol use and homicide (and other violence) that posits a causal relationship that is also influenced by other situational and ...
Oei Tian P S - - 2007
The effects of alcohol expectancies (AE) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in predicting alcohol consumption in Caucasians has been well studied. However, the role of AE and DRSE in Asian students is still not well understood. This study reported on this using Caucasian (n=98) and Asian (n=92) student samples. Participants ...
Gómez A - - 2006
We compare the diagnostic usefulness of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C) for detecting hazardous drinkers between the populations over and less than 65 years in primary care settings. To assess weekly alcohol intake an interview on quantity-frequency was administered to 602 ...
Anstey Kaarin J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the association between weekly alcohol consumption and brain atrophy in adults aged 60 to 64 years. METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 385 adults recruited through a community survey were analyzed. Automated segmentation and manual tracing methods were used to ...
Faye Babacar - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to examine the presence of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) among a convenience sample of non-toothbrushing subjects with Hansen's disease (leprosy). METHOD AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional sample of 102 non-toothbrushing subjects (20 to 77 years of age) was examined. The clinical parameter of ...
Belpoggi Fiorella - - 2006
Coca-Cola was invented in May 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia by a pharmacist who, by accident or design, mixed carbonated water with the syrup of sugar, phosphoric acid, caffeine, and other natural flavors to create what is known as "the world's favorite soft drink." Coca-Cola is currently sold in more than ...
Sommers Marilyn S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Because 40% of motor vehicle fatalities in the United States are alcohol-related, interventions delivered by trauma clinicians targeted to reduce drinking are of particular importance to public health. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of hospital-based brief intervention strategies to reduce alcohol consumption and other ...
Rehm Jürgen - - 2006
AIMS: To describe the volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking in the World Health Organization (WHO) European regions in 2002 and to estimate quantitatively the burden of disease attributable to alcohol in that year. METHODS: Secondary data analysis. Exposure data were taken from the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment, ...
Maraldi Cinzia - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the overall survival benefit of alcohol consumption and the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of light to moderate alcohol intake. Recent evidence suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of light to moderate alcohol consumption. We investigated the relationship of alcohol intake with all-cause mortality and cardiac events and ...
Mataix José - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess factors influencing the intake and plasma levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) in an adult population from southern Spain, in order to identify patterns of intake and groups at risk for deficiency. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried ...
Giancola Peter R - - 2007
The research literature on the relation between cognitive functioning and alcohol consumption is inconsistent and difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study was to test a causal model that might help reconcile some of these conflicts. The model specifies that aggressivity is an important intermediary mechanism underlying the relation ...
Meyer Christiane I - - 2006
Variation in melanin patterns among individuals, populations, and species is common in fishes of the genus Xiphophorus. In the variable platyfish, Xiphophorus variatus, variation in metabolic rate is associated with melanin coloration and the color morphs appear to be physiological specialists adapted to particular environmental conditions. This study investigates whether ...
Pavanello Marcella Batista - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To analyze cytologically the buccal mucosa of smoking and nonsmoking volunteers to determine what cellular changes are induced by cigarettes and alcohol consumption. STUDY DESIGN: In order to evaluate cellular changes induced by smoking and alcohol consumption, exfoliative cytology was used for the analysis of mucosal smears obtained from ...
Ende Gabriele - - 2006
The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumption of a group of social drinkers and the magnetic resonance spectroscopy signal of choline-containing compounds (Cho) in the frontal lobe. Two independent long echo (TE = 135 ms) (1)H MRSI studies, the first comprising ...
Linneberg A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one of the lifestyle factors associated with a westernized, urban, and affluent lifestyle contributing to the rise in atopic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and atopy (aeroallergen sensitization). METHODS: In 1982, a population-based ...
Choi Soonami S Center for Health Promotion, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, - - 2006
To conduct a retrospective study to determine the risk factors for development of metaplastic gastritis in Korean population. The database of 113449 subjects who underwent a gastroscopy for the purpose of a regular check-up at center for health promotion, Samsung medical center during 5 years was collected and retrospectively analyzed. ...
Jakobsen M U - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1-80 years. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SUBJECTS: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1-80 years were included. The participation was ...
Lorenz Joseph G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The etiology of alcoholism and alcohol abuse, like many other complex diseases, is heterogeneous and multifactorial. Numerous studies demonstrate a genetic contribution to variation in the expression of alcohol-related disorders in humans. Over the past decade, nonhuman primates have emerged as a valuable model for some aspects of human ...
Clausen T - - 2006
AIM: To describe body mass index (BMI) distribution according to patterns of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and sociodemographic factors of older persons in Botswana. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in 1998 as part of a national household survey of 1085 subjects aged 60 years and older. For the purpose ...
Ebbeling Cara B CB Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2006
The role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in promoting obesity is controversial. Observational data link SSB consumption with excessive weight gain; however, randomized, controlled trials are lacking and necessary to resolve the debate. We conducted a pilot study to examine the effect of decreasing SSB consumption on body weight. We randomly ...
Figler Mária M Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Pécs, H-7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 13, Hungary. - - 2006
To investigate the effect of a four-week consumption of a special Hungarian probiotic agent (Biofir) on the faecal microflora in human healthy subjects. The effect of Biofir with 10(6)/cm3 initial germs on the faecal microflora was studied in 120 healthy volunteers (71 females, 49 males). The traditional Russian type kefir ...
Berglund K - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to further investigate personality profiles in male type I alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 33), in relation to central serotonergic neurotransmission, history of excessive alcohol consumption and present use of tobacco. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by the prolactin (PRL) response to D-fenfluramine. By ...
Brown K H - - 2006
Chromosome set manipulation was used to produce rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with identical nuclear backgrounds, but different maternal backgrounds to determine mitochondrial effects on development rate and oxygen consumption. Significant differences in development rate and oxygen consumption were observed between groups from different females. Development rates ranged from a mean ...
Rousset Sylvie - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of a nutrition information program targeting protein consumption in elderly people. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Participants individually completed a questionnaire on food consumption and answered an attitude questionnaire (first survey period). Half of the participants (message group) participated in an ...
Roy Richard - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of thermal measurements by infrared camera thermometry. METHODS: Seventeen subjects underwent a 30-minute acclimatizing period in a controlled environment room. Thermal recordings were executed at the levels of C4 and L4. Fifteen recordings per segment were acquired in an ...
Long Joann D - - 2006
This pilot study tested the effects of an interactive nutrition education Web site on fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption in minority adolescents genetically at risk for Type 2 diabetes. A one-group nonexperimental pretest, posttest focus group design was used. Twenty-one sixth-grade to eighth-grade junior high adolescents who were minorities volunteered ...
Berggren Fredrik - - 2006
AIM: To analyse factors associated with alcohol consumption, and how these changed over the period 1988-97, a period during which Sweden entered the European Union. METHODS: Data were used from two waves (1988-89 and 1996-97) of the representative longitudinal micro-level ULF survey in Sweden to estimate a two-part model of ...
Haenle Mark M - - 2006
There is a current paucity of data on the health behaviour of non-selected populations in Central Europe. Data on health behaviour were collected as part of the EMIL study which investigated the prevalence of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis and other medical conditions in an urban German population. Participating in the ...
Averina Maria - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Little is known about association between markers of inflammation and alcohol consumption in Russian population where binge drinking pattern is prevalent. METHODS AND RESULTS: C-reactive protein was measured by a highly sensitive particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay (hsCRP) in 1963 men and 1734 women, aged 18-90 years, in a population-based cross-sectional ...
Hill Sandra A - - 2005
To test whether the extent of physical aging affected the reaction rate, Maillard reaction kinetics were studied in glassy model preservation systems subjected to two different thermal histories. The glass transition temperature and physical aging of the matrix were determined using differential scanning calorimetry, and the normalized heat capacities were ...
Thayer Julian F - - 2006
Alcoholism and heavy drinking are associated with a number of physiological, behavioral, affective, and cognitive problems. One such problem involves dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with alcoholics showing higher basal cortisol levels and reduced inhibitory feedback control. In addition, alcohol consumption is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV). ...
Haw Camilla - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Problems relating to alcohol use are very common among deliberate self-harm (DSH) patients, and alcohol abuse increases the risk of both DSH and suicide. In the UK, per capita consumption of alcohol has risen by 50% since 1970. The proportion of women (but not men) drinking in excess of ...
Wojtyniak Bogdan - - 2005
AIMS: To show the impact of rapid political and economic transitions on alcohol consumption and associated mortality in different socio-demographic segments of the Polish society, with particular focus on gender differences. Two causes of death associated with drinking (liver diseases and alcohol poisoning) are investigated. DESIGN: Mortality time series 1986-2002 ...
Cai Hui - - 2005
Random errors, from any source, will attenuate epidemiological risk estimates. Before we launched the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), a large population-based cohort study investigating the diet-cancer association among Chinese men, a dietary calibration study was conducted among 96 men aged 40-75 years (mean age 56.5 years), with biweekly 24-hour ...
Hewlett Paul - - 2006
A study of 376 young British adults showed that estimated daily caffeine consumption increased with age, and was associated with smoking and greater alcohol consumption. Non-consumers of caffeine avoided tea and coffee (even the de-caffeinated form). Level of caffeine consumption was not associated with impulsivity, sociability, extraversion or trait anxiety.
Mann Robert E - - 2005
AIMS: We test the hypotheses that cirrhosis mortality rates are positively associated with per capita alcohol consumption and negatively associated with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership rates. DESIGN: The impact of alcohol consumption levels and AA membership rates on cirrhosis mortality rates in Ontario from 1968 to 1989 were examined. Time-series ...
Kloek Gitte C - - 2006
This study investigates the impact of a 2-year community intervention on health-related behaviour among adults aged 18-65 years living in deprived neighbourhoods in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The intervention is evaluated in a community intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design in a longitudinal cohort survey (n=1926 and attrition rate: 31%) using ...
Neuner Bruno - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The concept of sense of coherence (SOC) measures the extent to which people are able to cope with stressful life events. Since excessive alcohol consumption may be, in part, the result of failed coping strategies, further investigations between hazardous alcohol consumption and SOC are necessary. METHODS: Survey in an ...
van Trijp M J C A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of arterial wave reflection, providing information on the workload of the heart. and is a possible marker for cardiovascular disease risk. The relation of alcohol consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is U-shaped with a protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption. The relation ...
Sabri S - - 2005
To determine the correlation between hypertension and income distribution among United Arab Emirates (UAE) population. Case-control study matched for age, sex, nationality and education. The survey included 500 hypertensive adults aged 20-65 years ascertained from Primay Health Care (PHC) Clinics along with a randomly selected sample of 500 control subjects ...
Friend Karen B KB Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Decision Sciences Institute, Providence, RI, USA. - - 2005
Individuals undergoing treatment for alcohol use disorders smoke at rates that exceed those reported in the general population, and most patients will continue to smoke after treatment completion. A growing body of research indicates that quitting smoking is associated with better alcoholism treatment outcomes. Studies that dichotomize participants into smokers ...
Barr Dana B - - 2006
A prospective birth cohort of 1022 participants was established in the Faroe Islands over a 21-month period during 1986-1987. We collected questionnaire data on potential persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentration predictors, such as duration of breastfeeding and blubber consumption. To assess the participants' exposure from in utero to 14 years ...
Ostermann Jan - - 2005
Using the first five waves of the US Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative survey of middle-aged persons in the USA conducted between 1992 and 2000, we assessed the association between alcohol consumption and separation and divorce (combined as divorced in the analysis) for 4589 married couples during up ...
Sakuta Hidenari - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A relationship between pulmonary dysfunction and cardiovascular mortality has been described. The mechanism responsible for the relationship remains largely unknown. METHODS: The association between airflow obstruction and selected cardiovascular risk factors including gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) and total homocysteine was analyzed cross-sectionally in 954 middle-aged men. Airflow obstruction was assessed ...
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