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Morrisey Michael A - - 2005
After teenage males, elderly individuals have the highest per capita motor vehicle fatality rate in the United States. Surprisingly, there has been only limited work examining the effect of state motor vehicle laws on older driver fatalities. This paper uses state-level data from the 1985-2000 Fatality Analysis Reporting System to ...
Blows Stephanie - - 2005
Risky driving is an important cause of motor vehicle injury, but there is a lack of good epidemiological data in this field, particularly data comparing risky driving in younger drivers to those of other age groups. We examined the relationship between risky driving habits, prior traffic convictions and motor vehicle ...
Baccarelli A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The Seveso, Italy accident of 1976 exposed a large population to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or simply dioxin). The accident resulted, mostly among children, in one of the largest ever-reported outbreaks of chloracne, the typical skin disorder due to halogenated-hydrocarbon compounds. OBJECTIVES: Approximately 20 years after the accident, we conducted an ...
Yannis George - - 2005
This paper reports a study of the combined effect of driver age and engine size on accident severity and at-fault risk of young riders of two-wheelers. Data from the national accident database of Greece are used to calculate accident severity and relative fault risk rates. The induced exposure technique is ...
Villa José G - - 2005
In this study we examined the effects of intermittent hypoxia exposure (IHE) in a group of professional cyclists (n = 6; age 26 +/- 1 yr) competing in the 2001 Vuelta a España. After each daily stage, treated subjects received four 5-min bouts of normobaric IHE (mean O2 concentration of ...
Wood J M - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving performance. It also examined whether changes in driver safety were related to specific clinical disease markers or an individual's self rating of driving ability. METHODS: The driving performance of 25 patients with idiopathic PD ...
Gazda Stefanie K - - 2005
Individual role specialization during group hunting is extremely rare in mammals. Observations on two groups of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida revealed distinctive behavioural roles during group feeding. In each group, one individual was consistently the 'driver', herding the fishes in a circle toward the remaining 'barrier' ...
Caird Jeff K - - 2005
A modified version of the flicker technique to induce change blindness was used to examine the effects of time constraints on decision-making accuracy at intersections on a total of 62 young (18-25 years), middle-aged (26-64 years), young-old (65-73 years), and old-old (74+ years) drivers. Thirty-six intersection photographs were manipulated so ...
Augenstein J - - 2005
This study investigates injury occurrence for belted occupants as a function of age. An analysis of NASS/CDS 1997-2003 data was conducted to determine crash involvement rates and injury rates for front seat occupants versus mean occupant age. In frontal and near-side crashes, the average age of MAIS 3+ belted front ...
Watson Diane E - - 2005
Canadians have expressed concern that access to a family physician (FP) has declined precipitously. Yet FP-topopulation ratios remained relatively stable over the last decade, and there were perceptions of physician surpluses, at least in urban centres, 10 years ago. We evaluated whether demographic changes among patients and FPs, and in ...
Kent Richard - - 2005
This study describes the fatal crash experiences of older drivers. Data from two U.S. databases (NASS-CDS and FARS) were used. Several crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics were compared across age groups, including vehicle type, crash direction (PDOF), severity (DeltaV), and injured body region. A sub-set of 97 fatally injured drivers ...
- - 2004
Motorcycles are the most dangerous type of motor vehicle to drive. These vehicles are involved in fatal crashes at a rate of 35.0 per 100 million miles of travel, compared with a rate of 1.7 per 100 million miles of travel for passenger cars. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ...
Langford Jim - - 2004
Most licensing jurisdictions in Australia maintain mandatory assessment programs targeting older drivers, whereby a driver reaching a specified age is required to prove his or her fitness to drive through medical assessment and/or on-road testing. Previous studies both in Australia and elsewhere have consistently failed to demonstrate that age-based mandatory ...
Hofer R - - 2004
In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year 2000, was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March 2003. The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries (payments) ...
Gieroba Zbigniew J - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To test the safety of the head-up tilt test (HUT) in older adults. DESIGN: Direct observation and measurements. SETTING: Tests performed in a quiet room with dim lighting in a laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand ninety-six subjects aged 60 to 74; 873 aged 75 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure ...
Begg Dorothy J - - 2004
This study sought to identify adolescent risk factors that predicted persistent risky driving behaviours among young adults. It was part of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort (474 males and 459 females). The potential predictors were self-reported data obtained at ages 15, 18, 21 years (academic qualifications, personality, mental ...
Bellebaum Christian - - 2004
Age-related impairments in associative learning have been found in studies using classical conditioning of motor responses. However, it is as yet unclear whether conditioning of fear responses is similarly affected by aging. K. S. La Bar et al. (2004) aimed to address this issue by studying age effects on fear ...
Mundil Roland - - 2004
The age and timing of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction have been difficult to determine because zircon populations from the type sections are typically affected by pervasive lead loss and contamination by indistinguishable older xenocrysts. Zircons from nine ash beds within the Shangsi and Meishan sections (China), pretreated by annealing followed ...
Puell María C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: To evaluate mesopic contrast sensitivity in conditions of glare and no glare in a vehicle driver population, and to explore the effects of age, habitual spectacle correction, photopic visual acuity and driving exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 297 drivers stratified by age into six groups. The ...
Hennessy Dwight A - - 2004
The present study examined the influence of driver age and vengeance on mild aggression among drivers with at least 5 years experience. Mild aggression decreased with age among low vengeance drivers and changed little across age groups among moderately vengeful drivers. However, mild driver aggression actually increased with age among ...
Barrett P R - - 2004
Epidemiological findings point to very low blood alcohol levels heightening the risk of sleep-related fatal road crashes. This was further assessed using a full sized interactive car simulator. Twenty, sleep restricted, healthy young men underwent a 2 h simulated afternoon monotonous drive, having previously consumed nil alcohol or 3 units ...
- - 2004
The impetus for amending the Age 60 Rule compels the review of recent scientific literature pertinent to pilot age and performance. The Rule has been the subject of extensive debate among policymakers and the aviation community. The aviation medical community is in a position to continue research and discussion that ...
Berg Hans-Yngve - - 2004
A new law came into force in Sweden on 1 September 1993, which makes instructor-assisted driving practice possible at the age of 16 years instead of the previous 17 years and 6 months. When the age limit was reduced, the possibility that this would lead to more road-traffic accidents (RTA) ...
Eisenberg Daniel - - 2004
PURPOSE: This paper investigates the relationship between precipitation and traffic crashes in the US during the period 1975-2000. Traffic crashes represent the leading cause of death and injury for young adults in the US, and the ninth leading cause of death for the overall population. Prior studies have found that ...
Laapotti Sirkku - - 2004
The motorcar accident pattern of culpable young (18-25 years old) and middle-aged (35-55 years old) male and female drivers was studied in Finland. The aim was to see whether the difference in accident patterns between males and females has remained constant or whether it has changed over a 16-year period. ...
Grabowski David C DC Lister Hill Center for Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA. - - 2004
Little is known about how state-level driver licensure laws, such as in-person renewal, vision tests, road tests, and the frequency of license renewal relate to the older driver traffic fatality rate. To determine whether state driver's license renewal policies are associated with the fatality rate among elderly drivers. Retrospective, longitudinal ...
Salem Ingrid - - 2004
The Austrian Value Questionnaire was developed on the basis of the Lexical Approach to account for specific facets of values in Austrian culture. It comprises 54 items, constituting five scales, Intellectualism, Harmony, Religiosity, Materialism, and Conservatism, and 13 subscales. To assess construct validity, hypotheses on human values were derived from ...
Eskesen S T - - 2004
GT and AG, located at the 5' and 3' ends of introns, are important for correct splicing. It is anticipated that natural selection decreases frequency of AG and GT near the 5' and 3' ends of exons, preventing appearance of cryptic splicing sites. The data presented in this article support ...
Dellinger Ann M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the risk of death or nonfatal injury drivers aged >/=65 pose to themselves and to other road users as compared with drivers in younger age groups. METHODS: Crash-related deaths and injuries were separated into two categories: those occurring among the drivers ...
Owsley Cynthia - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Older drivers (licensed drivers aged 60 years and older) have among the highest rates of motor vehicle collision involvement per mile driven of all age groups. Educational programs that promote safe driving strategies among seniors are a popular approach for addressing this problem, but their safety benefit has yet ...
Ulfarsson Gudmundur F - - 2004
This research explores differences in injury severity between male and female drivers in single and two-vehicle accidents involving passenger cars, pickups, sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. Separate multivariate multinomial logit models of injury severity are estimated for male and female drivers. The models predict the probability of four injury severity ...
Keall Michael D - - 2004
It is a well-established phenomenon that, notwithstanding their overall good crash record, older drivers have a higher than average rate of involvement in injury crashes when the rate is calculated by dividing crash numbers by distance driven. It has been hypothesised that at least some of this higher crash rate ...
Baker Angela - - 2004
Dissatisfaction with shiftwork has been shown to increase with age and work experience. The objective was to determine if differences in preferred paid work time existed between shiftworkers with different lengths of shiftwork experience and age-matched non-shiftworkers (controls). A questionnaire was used to determine how controls and shiftworkers with different ...
Braver E R - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: With more older drivers on the road, public concern has been expressed about their impact on traffic safety. This study revisited the question of driver age in relation to the risks of older drivers and others sharing the road with them, including pedestrians, passengers in the same vehicle, and ...
Monterde i Bort Hector - - 2004
This study tests whether the original factorial structure of a recklessness questionnaire can be maintained for the current Spanish population of older drivers. Our recent interest in dedicating special attention to senior citizen mobility (Monterde, 2001), is due to the impending increase of the aging population in Western countries; this ...
Muzammil Mohammad - - 2004
The effect of organismic variable age on human cognitive performance was studied under the impact of vibration in different automobile driving environments, namely city streets, rural roads and highways. Reaction time was measured in milliseconds through a human response measurement system specifically designed for the purpose. Results of the study ...
Campagne Aurelie - - 2004
During long and monotonous driving at night, most drivers progressively show signs of visual fatigue and loss of vigilance. Their capacity to maintain adequate driving performance usually is affected and varies with the age of the driver. The main question is to know, on one hand, if occurrence of fatigue ...
Biffl Walter L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Despite harsh legislation, driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) is exceedingly common, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) account for significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. Legal sanctions can keep offenders off the road (protecting other drivers and pedestrians) and ensure compliance with treatment programs (reducing recidivism). However, ...
Stutts Jane - - 2004
In the U.S. as well as other countries, the number of motorcyclists killed in traffic crashes has risen sharply over the past five years, due in part to the increased popularity of motorcycling among older riders. This paper examines trends in motorcyclist casualties and vehicle registrations from 1990-2002, based on ...
Dambrink Jan H A - - 2003
Three otherwise healthy private pilots were licensed with the restriction to fly "as or with safety pilot" because of a left bundle branch block (LBBB). Whether a pilot with this conduction disturbance is allowed to fly unrestricted depends on invasive diagnostic procedures. Above age 40, cardiovascular risk in subjects with ...
Pokharel Sajal S - - 2003
Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car ...
Lam Lawrence T - - 2003
This exploratory study aimed to investigate factors associated with car crash injury among young drivers aged <25 years with different license status. Of special interest were the differences in risk patterns among different license holders of different age groups. Data utilised in this study were obtained from the New South ...
Murray Asa - - 2003
The following study compares rates of licence holders and rates of car accidents in two age cohorts born in Sweden in 1972 and 1977, respectively. The research material consists of all accidents with injury which these young people have been involved in as car drivers at age 16-21. The periods ...
Rochlitz I - - 2003
Between March 2000 and February 2001, six veterinary practices in Cambridgeshire collected data on 117 owned cats which they had examined after a road accident. For one week every month during the same year, the practices distributed questionnaires to the owners of cats which had been examined for reasons other ...
McKnight A James - - 2003
The per-mile accident rate of 16-year-old novices is approximately 10 times that of adults, a difference that has been attributed to the immaturity of youth and the errors of inexperience. Research separating the two influences shows that, over the first few years, the effects of experience greatly exceed those of ...
Scuffham P - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of accident and emergency (A&E) attendances, admissions to hospital, and the associated costs as a result of unintentional falls in older people. DESIGN: Analysis of national databases for cost of illness. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1999, cost to the National Health Service (NHS) and Personal ...
Philip P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors of performance decrement in automobile drivers. METHODS: 114 drivers (age <30 years, n=57; age > or =30 years, n=57) who stopped at a rest stop area on a freeway were recruited for the study. They filled out a questionnaire on their journey, sleep/wake patterns and ...
Mayhew Daniel R - - 2003
As a group, young drivers have crash rates that far exceed those of older, experienced drivers. But even among teenagers there are age-related differences; crash rates decline consistently and dramatically with each yearly increase in age. A more precise understanding of how crash rates decline within the teenage group might ...
Rice T M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association of nighttime driving and the carrying of passengers with the rate of motor vehicle crashes that resulted in severe or fatal injury to young drivers in California before the implementation of a graduated licensing system. METHOD: Passenger vehicle drivers aged 16 or 17 involved ...
Lee Hoe C - - 2003
To validate a laboratory-based driving simulator in measuring on-road driving performance, 129 older adult drivers were assessed with both the simulator and an on-road test. The driving performance of the participants was gauged by appropriate and reliable age-specific assessment criteria, which were found to be negatively correlated with age. Using ...
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