Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 813
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Barwood Martin J - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The loss of the conscious control of respiration on whole body cold water immersion (CWI) can result in the aspiration of water and drowning. Repeated CWI reduces the respiratory drive evoked by CWI and should prolong breath-hold time on CWI (BHmax(CWI)). Psychological skills training (PST) can also increase BHmax(CWI) ...
Shovlin Claire L - - 2007
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) causes chronic nasal and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Prothrombotic agents are commonly used for severe haemorrhage. Thrombotic risks have not been defined. In order to identify prothrombotic variables in HHT patients, and assess their potential functional significance, a pilot ELISA-based study comparing plasma proteins in healthy individuals with ...
Beirness Douglas J - - 2007
Despite substantial decreases in the magnitude of the alcohol-crash problem over the past 25 years, many Canadians continue to drive under the influence of alcohol, causing thousands of serious injuries and deaths every year. Data from the 2004 Canadian Addiction Survey (CAS) were used to determine the prevalence of self-reported ...
Lindroos Ola - - 2008
Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal ...
Lough Glynis C - - 2007
As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California's South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, ...
Benjamin Amos L - - 2007
The aim of this study was to assess the rate of seatbelt use by drivers and front-seat passengers in Port Moresby, 12 years after the seatbelt legislation in 1993. Before the legislation, the rate of seatbelt usage was only 13.3% for drivers and 11.4% for front-seat passengers. Use of seatbelts ...
Marshall Shawn C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Methods to study driving patterns and exposure of older drivers have typically relied on surveys or driving diaries. Electronic data logging devices may offer a reliable, alternative method of measuring driving exposure, and global positioning system (GPS) technology may be able to provide further information about driving patterns. OBJECTIVES: ...
Centeno Christopher J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Clinical and cadaveric studies have implicated that sub-failure cervical instability likely occurs in a subset of whiplash injury patients. Cadaveric studies have suggested that female specimens suffer from more ligamentous stretch injury than males when exposed to simulated rear end crash vectors. However, these findings have never been tested ...
Desapriya E - - 2007
In June of 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences in Japan. Most notably, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving was lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml. The rationale for the new lower BAC ...
Braitman Keli A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Older drivers are overinvolved in intersection crashes compared with younger drivers, but the reasons are not clearly understood. The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that lead to older drivers' intersection crashes. METHOD: Study participants were composed of two groups of older drivers -- ages ...
Bell Erica - - 2007
The potential of a transdisciplinary research method--Quali-Quantitative Analysis (QQA)--for delivering better evidence for healthy aging is explored. Illustrative reviews from the literature on healthy aging are summarized, as are papers on methodology by Charles Ragin and colleagues. The evidence needs for healthy aging are explored, particularly in relation to the ...
Freund Barbara - - 2008
PURPOSE: To assess to what extent specific cognitive functions contribute to pedal errors among older drivers. METHODS: 180 subjects aged 65 and older completed a 30 min driving evaluation on a simulator as well as three cognitive tests, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), the Clock Drawing Test, and Trailmaking Part ...
Tomei Gianfranco - - 2007
The aim of this study is to evaluate if the occupational exposure to urban stressor could cause alterations in dopamine (DA) plasma levels and related diseases in traffic police officers compared to a control group. After excluding subjects with principal confounding factors, 306 traffic police officers (139 female and 167 ...
Engström Inger - - 2008
Studies have shown that the effect of passengers on accident propensity among young drivers is ambiguous--in some cases positive and some negative. In Sweden, various kinds of information are compiled in registers, including a national accident database and exposure data collected in a national investigation of the driving habits of ...
Lafont Sylviane - - 2008
BACKGROUND: One of the concerns in road safety is the threat older drivers may pose to other road users. Using the rate of lost life years, the present study provides a public health approach to quantify this potential threat. METHODS: A total of 1570686 motorised vehicle drivers or motorcycle riders ...
Bortolotti Federica - - 2007
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a marker of chronic alcohol abuse, which has recently been introduced to evaluate the physical fitness for obtaining a driving license. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of elevated CDT levels in subjects stopped while driving under the influence of alcohol ...
Zambon Francesco - - 2008
To assess the short and long term effects of the demerit points system on seat belt use, we set a region-wide cross-sectional observational study 3 months before, and 3 and 15 months after the introduction of the scheme (July 2003) in the Veneto Region, Italy. We analysed differences in seat ...
Baker Joseph - - 2007
Demographic studies indicate a remarkable aging trend in North America. An accurate profile of the decline in physical and cognitive capabilities over time is essential to our understanding of the aging process. This study examined the maintenance of skilled performance across the careers of 96 professional golfers. Data were collected ...
D'Amico Anthony V - - 2007
PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the timing of fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was influenced by the administration of androgen suppression therapy (AST). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort comprised 1,372 men who were enrolled onto three randomized trials between February 1995 and June 2001. In the three trials, the men were ...
Rivara Frederick P - - 2007
To determine the drinking and driving habits reported in people aged 21-34 years. Random digit dialing survey. Seattle and Spokane, Washington; Portland, Oregon. 917 individuals aged 21-34 years, who had a valid driver's license, who had consumed at least one alcoholic drink in the last year and who lived in ...
Pointer Jonathan S - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate the current level of recollection of the vehicle number plate viewing distance in a group of motorists. Knowledge of this distance is required to self-check compliance with the UK legal minimum driving vision standard. METHODS: A cohort of 480 motorists aged > or =17 years attending optometric ...
Harada Hajime - - 2007
The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of cerebral activity in the prefrontal region between young adults and elderly subjects during driving. The procedure of the experiment was explained to the subjects and informed consent was obtained. Fourteen young male adults (21.6+/-0.76 yrs), seven elderly males (69.9+/-4.91 ...
Papadodima Stavroula A - - 2008
Alcohol is one of the main causes of traffic accidents worldwide. Its use decreases significantly the driving ability of an individual increasing in this way the possibilities of their involvement in motor-vehicle accidents. The above possibilities are increased when a psychoactive substance has been taken in combination with alcohol due ...
Kaplan Sigal - - 2007
Over the past few decades, several countries enacted the reduction of the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit, often alongside the administrative license revocation or suspension, to battle drinking-and-driving behavior. Several researchers investigated the effectiveness of these policies by applying different analysis procedures, while assuming population homogeneity in responding to ...
Gorrie C A - - 2007
Given the expected increase in the older population and driving in this age group, concerns have been raised about the safety of older drivers. People over 65 years are over-represented in motor vehicle fatalities when calculated by distance driven. They are also at risk of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's ...
Laflamme L - - 2007
The objective of the study was to assess the independent contribution of individual, car and circumstantial features in severe and fatal car crashes involving young drivers. A prospective longitudinal, register-based cohort study was conducted at national level (in Sweden), in which people born in the years 1970-1972 (n = 334070) ...
Frisch Larry - - 2007
Texas has more fatal crashes involving unlicensed drivers under age 15 than does any other US state. Numbers and rates of such crashes are also above the national mean in many southern and Southwest states. Data on fatal passenger vehicle crashes from 1999 through 2004 were obtained from the online ...
Szeto Grace P Y - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) affect workers in many occupations including drivers of large vehicles. Urban bus drivers have been found to have high prevalence rates of back problems in overseas studies. Hong Kong is a densely populated city and has a large number of double-deck buses that constitute a ...
Treno Andrew J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A number of studies using cross-sectional data have demonstrated that the availability of alcohol, measured by the number and types of alcohol outlets, is directly related to numerous measures associated with drinking and driving. The current study contributes the first observation of relationships over time between alcohol outlet densities ...
Miele Vincent J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Although numerous prestigious medical organizations have called for its abolishment, participation in the sport of boxing has reached an all-time high among both men and women, and its elimination is unlikely in the near future. Physicians should strive to increase boxing safety by improving the rules of competition, which ...
Yan Xuedong - - 2007
Because the driver's gap-acceptance maneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior, it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety and operation. Previous studies have mainly focused on the driver's gap acceptance decision itself but did not pay attention to the maneuver process and driving behaviors. Using a driving ...
Nyberg Anders - - 2007
PROBLEM: Young male novice drivers are overrepresented in injury motor-vehicle crashes compared to females in the same category. This difference in crash involvement is often assumed to include factors such as overestimation, risk acceptance, and sensation seeking, but it can also be related to acquisition of knowledge, skills, insight, and ...
Adler Paul M - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate if the use of different target types or the RAF rule affected the measurement of near point of convergence (NPC). METHODS: The subjects comprised three groups: (1) 20 children aged 6-9 years (2) 17 children aged 11-13 years (3) 14 adults aged 20-30 ...
Nor Anuar A - - 2007
Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been extensively studied recently to improve sludge settling and behaviour in activated sludge systems. The main advantage is that aerobic granular sludge (AGS) can settle very fast in a reactor or clarifier because AGS is compact and has strong structure. It also has good ...
Eby David W - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study reported here was to develop and pilot test a comprehensive battery of assessment instruments for older drivers that would be inexpensive and easy to administer so that it could be used in longitudinal studies. METHOD: The resulting battery was developed by selecting a set ...
Viljoen Jodi L - - 2007
Currently, there is considerable variability and ambiguity in legal standards pertaining to juveniles' comprehension of Miranda rights and their adjudicative competence. This study investigated rates of impairment under various proposed legal standards. One hundred and fifty-two young defendants aged 11-17 were assessed with Grisso's Miranda Instruments and the Fitness Interview ...
Biederman Joseph - - 2007
BACKGROUND: It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the ...
Houston David J - - 2007
PROBLEM: The trend in state mandatory motorcycle helmet laws is away from universal coverage to partial coverage statutes that require only young riders to wear a helmet. Among partial coverage states substantial variation exists in this age requirement. How effective are motorcycle helmet laws at reducing young motorcyclist fatalities? METHOD: ...
Unsworth Carolyn A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The number and proportion of drivers among people entering later life continues to rise. More information on patterns of driving for older adults is required to improve service provision and traffic planning. OBJECTIVES: To map the changes in driving status for a sample of drivers aged 65 years or ...
Celik Mustafa - - 2007
One hundred sixty-four adult male volunteers (29 controls [Group 1] and 135 combi drivers) enrolled in the study. The combi drivers were divided into three groups as nonusers of either Maras powder or cigarette (Group 2), smokers (Group 3), and users of Maras powder (Group 4). Blood lead levels (BLLs) ...
Reimer Bryan - - 2007
PROBLEM: Age and gender are frequently controlled for in studies of driving performance, but the effects of time of day or circadian cycles on performance are often not considered. Previous research on time of day effects of simulated driving is contradictory and provides little guidance for understanding the impact of ...
Strebl F - - 2007
Starting shortly after the Chernobyl accident, samples of roe deer and wild boar from two comparatively highly contaminated Austrian forest stands have been regularly analysed for (137)Cs. Until 1995 average (137)Cs concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq kg(-1) in both roe deer and wild boar. Long-term and seasonal trends are similar in ...
Bédard Michel - - 2007
Cannabis is known to have detrimental effects on human performance and may also affect driving adversely. However, studies designed to examine this issue have provided equivocal findings. We set up this study to further determine the effect of cannabis on driving. We used a cross-sectional, case-control design with drivers aged ...
Bingham C R - - 2007
This study identified casualty crash types for which teen drivers experience excess risk relative to adults. Michigan State Police crash records were used to examine casualty crashes in two statewide populations of drivers who experienced at least one crash from 1989-1996 (pre-graduated driver licensing in Michigan): teens (ages 16-19) and ...
Schwebel David C - - 2007
Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. In this study, a sample of 101 ...
Augenstein J J William Lehman Injury Research Center, Miami, Florida, - - 2007
This study applies NASS/CDS, GES and FARS data to examine occupant exposure plus injury and fatality rates for belted occupants in frontal crashes by seating position, age and gender. The NASS data was used to examine the distributions by crash severity. The GES data showed that when two elderly occupants ...
Farmer Simon F - - 2007
In adults, motoneurone pools of synergistic muscles that act around a common joint share a common presynaptic drive. Common drive can be revealed by both time domain and frequency domain analysis of EMG signals. Analysis in the frequency domain reveals significant coherence in the range 1-45 Hz, with maximal coherence ...
Burgard Daniel A - - 2006
This study reports the largest data set of on-road, fuel-based mass emissions of ammonia and sulfur dioxide from vehicles of known make, model year, and fuel type. Ammonia is the first pollutant observed for which the emissions decrease with increasing fleet age from 10 to 20 years. The fixed nitrogen ...
Gras M Eugenia - - 2007
A number of epidemiological studies have reported drivers who use a mobile phone while driving have an elevated risk of being involved in a crash. This is particularly concerning as a survey of drivers in the Spanish region of Catalunya found that approximately 87% own mobile phones. The present study ...
Rosenbloom Tova - - 2006
The main objective of the present study was to explore the yielding behavior of Israeli drivers. A series of observations were carried out at a busy crosswalk during rush hour to determine the association between demographic factors, i.e., the sex and age of both pedestrians and drivers and the rate ...
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