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Results 201 - 250 of 815
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Guttinger Robin - - 2008
AIM: A 1993 study of blood lead levels (BLLs) in pre-schoolers living in Fremantle showed 25% had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. This study compares the 1993 BLLs with a sample of contemporary Fremantle pre-schoolers. METHODS: Pre-schoolers (0-5 years) living in the Fremantle area were recruited from hospital and community settings ...
Bao Shan - - 2009
The objective of this study was to examine age-related differences in visual scanning as drivers performed three separate maneuvers (going straight across, making a left and right turn) at two median-divided highway intersections with different crash frequencies. An on-road study was conducted with 60 drivers in three age groups: younger ...
McGwin Gerald G Jr Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. - - 2008
To evaluate the impact of the Florida visual acuity licensing standard for drivers 80 years and older on fatal motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement. Motor vehicle collision fatality rates for all Florida residents and for drivers 80 years and older were compared before and after the visual acuity licensing standard ...
Kuo Yu-Ling - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The "Prone to Play" campaign was proposed and has been ongoing since 2001, but the causal and dosage effects of wakeful prone positioning on motor development are still unclear. The purpose of this longitudinal cohort study was to investigate the effects of prone wakeful positioning at 3 to 6 ...
Coklo Miran - - 2008
Traffic accidents represent a significant cause of death in Croatia, therefore being an important social and public-health problem. The aim of our study was to analyze the forensic characteristics of traffic accidents with fatally injured drivers in Southwestern Croatia. Study population included 277 fatally injured drivers, in a 10 year ...
Bernhoft Inger Marie IM Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. - - 2008
The objective of this article is to describe the long-term trends in injury accidents involving drink drivers and in drink driving convictions in Denmark. The article also identifies drink drivers' characteristics useful for targeted countermeasures. Accident-involved drink drivers have been divided into subgroups by age and gender. The database of ...
Tay Richard - - 2008
The safety effects of the ageing driving population have been a topic of research interests in health and transportation economics in recent years due to the ageing of the baby boomers. This study adds to the current knowledge by examining the marginal effects of changing the driver mix on injury ...
Langford Jim - - 2008
To assess whether different licensing policies were associated with different fatality levels, the fatality outcomes of older drivers in Victoria and New South Wales (NSW) were compared. In Victoria, there is no age-based assessment required for re-licensing, while in NSW, drivers aged 80 years and older are required to provide ...
Ahmad A - - 2008
The present study is undertaken to find out the relative glycemic tolerance of natural honey compared with simulated honey and D-glucose using oral glucose tolerance tested up to 180 min. Twenty-six healthy human subjects with mean age of 28.6 +/- 9.3 y were randomly divided into 3 groups, that is, ...
Molnar Lisa J - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this paper are to review the published research findings about the role of self-regulation in older driver safety and to report on an exploratory study to better understand the self-regulatory practices of older drivers as demonstrated through the avoidance of a number of specific driving situations ...
Ju Feng - - 2008
Flexibility is one of the key properties of coronary stents. The objective of this paper is to characterize the bending behaviour of stents through finite element analysis with repeated unit cell (RUC) models. General periodic boundary conditions for the RUC under the pure bending condition are formulated. It is found ...
Zilli Iole - - 2008
Yawning is related to sleep/wake transitions and time of day, probably reflecting the time course of sleepiness. As aging modifies sleep-wake and sleepiness rhythms, we suppose that yawning frequency and its time course vary as a function of age. Thirteen aged healthy subjects (77.15 +/- 4.09 years) and 12 young ...
Romano Eduardo - - 2008
Men have long held the lead in motor-vehicle crashes. However, recent research from a variety of countries indicates that women are closing the gap. The relative increase in females involved in crashes has been associated with an increase in crash exposure. But is it simply that there are more women ...
Lax Ruth F - - 2008
This essay deals with an unpopular topic: the indignities that increasingly plague people as they grow older and eventually become really old. Individual differences and the causes for same are indicated, as well as the variety of individual reactions. A brief clinical vignette is presented, in addition to a more ...
Hewig Johannes - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine the differences between participants scoring high versus low on a drive for thinness construct concerning their visual attention toward specific body parts. We hypothesized that participants scoring high on the drive for thinness subscale would show increased attention to body regions, which are important in the assessment ...
Horswill Mark S - - 2008
We investigated the hazard perception ability of older drivers. A sample of 118 older drivers (65 years and older) completed a video-based hazard perception test and an assessment battery designed to measure aspects of cognitive ability, vision, and simple reaction time that might plausibly be linked to hazard perception ability. ...
Cann Paul - - 2008
In May 2008 Help the Aged published its 3rd annual Spotlight Report. The report highlights the stark realities facing older people in the UK today and gives detailed statistical data on how the lives of some have improved but many are still being left behind.
Marczinski Cecile A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Binge drinking (heavy episodic alcohol use) is associated with high rates of impaired driving and myriad alcohol-related accidents. However, the underlying reasons for the heightened accident risk in this demographic group are not known. This research examined acute alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and subjective ratings of intoxication ...
Yamane Grover K - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between motor vehicle crash (MVC) driver death and high state maximum speed limits. METHODS: This study used a case-control design and assessed driver deaths from three major types of MVCs: non-collision; collision with motor vehicles in transit; and collision with stationary objects. The study period ...
Drake M A - - 2008
Cheddar cheese is a widely popular food in the United States. This product is produced in facilities across the United States and often marketed based on region of manufacture, implying that regional differences in flavor character of the cheese exist. This study was conducted to determine if regional differences in ...
Lafont Sylviane - - 2008
The complexity of driving activity has incited numerous developed countries to initiate evaluative procedures in elderly people, varying according to first evaluation age, frequency, and screening tools. The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge of the driving cessation process regarding factors associated with crash involvement. Driving cessation ...
Imai Satomi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of death for young people, but rates based on the general population do not account for differences in risk across groups as proportions of people driving vary. We examine disparities in MVC death rates for various demographic groups based on numbers ...
Lemieux Carolyne E - - 2008
This retrospective study examined population demographics associated with motor vehicle collision (MVC) fatalities over a 5-year period in the Hamilton-Wentworth Niagara region. Variables were drawn from the five factors proposed by Fierro (1) for investigating deaths caused by transportation: human, chemical, environmental, vehicular, and highway. Factors analyzed included age, gender, ...
Fell James C JC Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 11720 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3111, USA. - - 2008
This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate the existence and strength of two core laws and 14 expanded laws designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by youth aged 20 and younger. Our ...
Bhanderi Dinesh J - - 2008
Domestic accidents are worldwide public health problems. The consequences of a domestic accident may prove disastrous as it may result in disability and loss of productivity. In this context, the present study was carried out to characterize the occurrence of domestic accidents in a semi-urban community. To study the incidence ...
Fergusson David M - - 2008
The present study examined the associations driving under the influence of (a) cannabis and (b) alcohol, and motor vehicle collisions during, in a longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort (n=936). Participants reported significantly (p<.0001) greater rates of driving under the influence of cannabis than driving under the influence ...
Trowbridge Matthew J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Urban sprawl's association with increased automobile reliance and daily mileage is well established among adults. However, sprawl's specific impact on teen driving exposure is unknown. Teen driver fatality rates per mile driven are significantly higher than adults, making the identification of environmental influences on travel behavior particularly important in ...
Khiabani Hassan Z - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: According to the Norwegian Road Traffic Act, car drivers are not allowed to operate a vehicle with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above 0.2 g/kg. Depending on the size of the boat or ship, boat drivers/captains/first mates are not allowed to conduct the boat with a BAC above 0.8 ...
Winston Flaura Koplin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To identify and prioritize risk factors for passenger death. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort captured in 2 databases: US census of fatal crashes (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) and US-representative sample of police-reported crashes (National Automotive Sampling System Crash Data System). SETTING: Crashes in 50 states and the District of Columbia from ...
Tsai Virginia W - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for 15-to 20-year-olds. In 2004, nearly 8,000 15to 20-year-old drivers were killed in crashes. Epidemiologic studies repeatedly identify overrepresentation of young males in fatal crashes. Recent studies of young females and risk-taking behaviors (drug use, violent crime, risky sexual behavior) ...
Ramstedt Mats M Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, Sveaplan, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2008
To estimate the association between per capita alcohol consumption and fatal accidents in the United States and to compare the outcome with findings from Europe and Canada. Yearly data on fatal accidents by gender and age were analysed in relation to per capita alcohol consumption for 1950-2002 using the Box-Jenkins ...
Ishikura Tadao - - 2008
This study examined the effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on learning to putt in golf. Participants (19 men and 15 women) putted a golf ball, stopping the ball on a line at a distance of 3.5 m from the starting position, which included an uphill ...
Dorn Lisa - - 2008
The effects of age and experience on accident involvement for bus drivers were investigated, with special emphasis upon the first years of being an operator, using two methods. First, direct calculations between these variables were undertaken. Thereafter, a variant of the method of quasi-induced exposure (a ratio of culpable versus ...
Cox Daniel J - - 2008
This study investigated whether OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, Concerta) or extended-release mixed amphetamine salts (se-AMPH ER, Adderall XR) were associated with worsening of driving performance, or drug rebound, relative to placebo 16-17 hours post-ingestion. Nineteen male adolescent drivers aged 17-19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared on a virtual reality ...
Jonsson Bertil - - 2008
Families in the Western world have a car and several family members share the same car. In this study, 154 participants have adjusted a driver's seat three times. The primary objective was to study intrapersonal repeatability and intraclass correlation (ICC) on seat; length adjustment, backrest angle, seat front edge and ...
Ott B R BR Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. - - 2008
The goal of this study was to define the natural progression of driving impairment in persons who initially have very mild to mild dementia. We studied 128 older drivers, including 84 with early Alzheimer disease (AD) and 44 age-matched control subjects without cognitive impairment. Subjects underwent repeated assessments of their ...
Bhanderi Dinesh
<b>Context:</b> Domestic accidents are worldwide public health problems. The consequences of a domestic accident may prove disastrous as it may result in disability and loss of productivity. In this context, the present study was carried out to characterize the occurrence of domestic accidents in a semi-urban community. <b> Aims:</b> To ...
Donorfio Laura K M - - 2008
While much of the research on aging and driving has focused on sensory and motor changes, little is known about older drivers and the actual self-regulation adjustments they employ to continue driving safely. This research looks at how older drivers have made changes to driving patterns and behaviors that have ...
Peck Raymond C - - 2008
PROBLEM: The role of age (youth and driving inexperience) and alcohol as major risk factors in traffic crash causation has been firmly established by numerous studies over the past 50 years. Less well established is how the two variables interrelate to influence crash risk. Some investigations have hypothesized an interactive ...
Chan Yen-Ling - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to expand the current literature on word definitions by focusing on definitions of idioms provided by several age groups. Preadolescents, young adolescents, older adolescents, and adults wrote definitions for 10 frequently used idioms and also rated their familiarity with the idiomatic expressions. Participants' definitions ...
Langford Jim - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which older drivers pose a risk to other road users, relative to drivers of other ages, using Australian fatal crash data. METHOD: The principal data source was the Australian Transport Safety Bureau's National Fatalities Database, which has provided fatality numbers for the most recent ...
Simpson Ian D - - 2008
A frequent tenet of snakebite literature is what has been described as the "worldwide shortage of antisnake venom" (ASV) and the demand for greater production. Antisnake venom is the mainstay of snakebite management, and thus this principle of "shortage" can impact the view of policy makers when it comes to ...
Hasegawa Satoshi - - 2008
Subject performance in reading characters on mobile phone liquid crystal displays was researched by using (a) English sentences with 3 or 4 different sizes of characters on 2 types of displays with different resolutions (n=23; age=31.6+/-6.0 years), (b) Japanese characters in 3 different sizes and 2 types of font (n=98; ...
Ng Annie W Y - - 2008
PROBLEM: This paper addresses the effects of driver factors and sign design features on the comprehensibility of traffic signs. METHODS: A survey was designed to capture subjects' personal particulars, ratings on sign features, and comprehension scores, and then administered to 109 Hong Kong full driving license holders. RESULTS: Years with ...
Lai Ching-Huei - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors contributing to the mortality burden due to road traffic accidents (RTA) in Taiwan. DESIGN: We compared RTA years of life lost (YLL) rates of Taiwan with those of the surrounding region. We also investigated the risk factors described by the police in a Linked ...
Sagaspe Patricia - - 2008
Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove ...
Laapotti Sirkku - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. METHODS: Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and ...
Arreola-Rissa Carlos - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The effects of alcohol on mortality due to motor vehicle accidents was studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the first semester of 2003, a sample of 243 fatality victims of traffic-related accidents and their blood alcohol levels were analyzed in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The age-adjusted mortality rate ...
Keall Michael D - - 2008
This study was a population cohort study of all licensed passenger vehicles in New Zealand in the years 2005--2006. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect on road safety of sports utility vehicles (SUVs) compared to other passenger vehicle types. Statistical models were fitted to the population ...
Sagaspe Patricia - - 2007
To test the effects of coffee and napping on nocturnal driving in young and middle-aged participants. A cup of coffee (200 mg of caffeine), a placebo (decaffeinated coffee, 15 mg of caffeine), or a 30-minute nap were tested. Participants drove 125 highway miles between 18:00 and 19:30 and between 02:00 ...
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