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Azad Gajendra Kumar GK Laboratory of Chromatin Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal 462023, - - 2014
Yeast repressor activator protein (Rap1p) is involved in genomic stability and transcriptional regulation. We explored the function of Rap1p in yeast physiology using Rap1p truncation mutants. Our results revealed that the N-terminal truncation of Rap1p (Rap1ΔN) leads to hypersensitivity towards elevated temperature and cell-wall perturbing agents. Cell wall analysis showed ...
Rutz Sascha S Department of Immunology, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, - - 2014
T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells that produce the cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. The differentiation of TH17 cells is regulated by transcription factors such as RORγt, but post-translational mechanisms preventing the rampant production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A have received less attention. Here ...
Mack Natalie Ann NA a School of Life Sciences, Queens Medical Centre , University of Nottingham , - - 2014
Abstract Signalling via the Rho GTPases provides crucial regulation of numerous cell polarisation events, including apicobasal (AB) polarity, polarised cell migration, polarised cell division and neuronal polarity. Here we review the relationships between the Rho family GTPases and epithelial AB polarisation events, focusing on the three best-characterised members: Rho, Rac ...
Tsukamoto Masami M Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve Pathophysiology and Department of Sensory and Motor Systems, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan; Division of Diabetes, Metabolism & Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, - - 2014
A spontaneously immortalized adult Fischer rat Schwann cell line IFRS1 retains the characteristic features of normal Schwann cells, and can be a useful tool for the study of diabetic neuropathy. In the present study, we examined the effects of high glucose and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) on the viability and the protein ...
Lee Lap Man LM Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. - - 2014
Micropipette aspiration measures the mechanical properties of single cells. A traditional micropipette aspiration system requires a bulky infrastructure and has a low throughput and limited potential for automation. We have developed a simple microfluidic device which is able to trap and apply pressure to single cells in designated aspiration arrays. ...
Lunt Sophia Y SY Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2014
Metabolic regulation influences cell proliferation. The influence of pyruvate kinase isoforms on tumor cells has been extensively studied, but whether PKM2 is required for normal cell proliferation is unknown. We examine how PKM2 deletion affects proliferation and metabolism in nontransformed, nonimmortalized PKM2-expressing primary cells. We find that deletion of PKM2 ...
Bertolo Alessandro A Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland; Department of Health Sciences and Health Policy, University of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland; Tissue and Organ Mechanobiology, Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Cantonal Hospital of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland; Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, - - 2014
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are expected to have a fundamental role in future cell-based therapies because of their high proliferative ability, multilineage potential, and immunomodulatory properties. Autologous transplantations have the "elephant in the room" problem of wide donor variability, reflected by variability in MSC quality and characteristics, leading to uncertain ...
Fowler Daniel William DW Infection and Immunity Research Institute, St. George's University of - - 2014
γδ T cells are a subset of T lymphocyte that have been implicated in immunosurveillance against infections and tumours. In the peripheral blood of humans, the γδ T cell pool is predominantly made up of Vδ2 cells, which can detect both foreign and self metabolites of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. ...
Kiuchi Shizuka S Department of Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, - - 2014
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers with high metastatic potential and strong chemoresistance. Its intractable natures are attributed to high robustness in tumor cells for their survival. We demonstrate here that pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) with an epithelial phenotype upregulate cell surface expression of CD44 variant 9 ...
Renshaw Andrew A AA 1Department of Pathology, Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami, FL 2Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United - - 2014
Previous studies have reached conflicting results regarding whether tumour necrosis is a predictor of survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In addition, studies quantifying the extent of necrosis are limited.The aim of this study was to determine if quantifying tumour necrosis could improve its predictive value for survival in ...
Liu Xuehua X State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210004, P.R. - - 2014
MicroRNA-19b (miR‑19b) is part of the miR‑17‑92 cluster which is associated with cardiac development. It has previously been reported that the overexpression of miR‑19b increases proliferation, inhibits apoptosis and promotes differentiation of embryonic carcinoma cells (P19 cells). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of miR‑19b ...
Moore Thomas T School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, - - 2014
The behavior of actomyosin critically determines morphologically distinct patterns of contractility found at the interface between adherent cells. One such pattern is found at the apical region (zonula adherens) of cell-cell junctions in epithelia, where clusters of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin concentrate in a static pattern. Meanwhile, E-cadherin clusters throughout ...
Luo Z - - 2014
Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the most lethal tumors and is characterized by high invasiveness, frequent metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. The risk of metastatic MM is accompanied by disordered energy metabolism involving the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) process, which is largely carried out in mitochondrial complexes. Complex I is ...
Cheng Ningning N Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, Tongji University Medical School Cancer Institute, Shanghai 200433, - - 2014
The application of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is limited by drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to be involved in tumor development and metastasis, as well as chemotherapy resistance. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of ...
Ishihara Keisuke K Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115; and Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543 kishihar@fas.harvard.edu - - 2014
A major challenge in cell biology is to understand how nanometer-sized molecules can organize micrometer-sized cells in space and time. One solution in many animal cells is a radial array of microtubules called an aster, which is nucleated by a central organizing center and spans the entire cytoplasm. Frog (here ...
Lewis Alaron A AA Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington - - 2014
We previously identified Celsr3, an atypical cadherin, as essential for normal inhibitory circuit formation in the inner retina. Its absence during retinal development leads to increases in GABA receptor numbers on ON-bipolar cell terminals and consequent changes in retinal physiology, but does not cause obvious cell spacing or synaptic lamination ...
Shan Nianxi N Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, PR China; Institute of Medical Sciences, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, PR - - 2014
MiR-153 was reported to be dysregulated in some human cancers. However, the function and mechanism of miR-153 in lung cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-153 in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that miR-153 was significantly decreased in clinical NSCLC ...
Ortiz Angelica A Departments of Translational Molecular Pathology - - 2014
Loss of E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal cadherins, a hallmark of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, contributes to migration and dissemination of cancer cells. Expression of human cadherin-11 (Cad11), also known as osteoblast cadherin, in prostate cancer increases the migration of prostate cancer cells. How Cad11 mediates cell migration is unknown. Using ...
Ding Jianjun J Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, 125 Donghu Street, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei, - - 2014
We have reported that Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) can improve the chemosensitivity in U251 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms how LRIG1 improves the chemosensitivity remain unknown. In this study, we reported that LRIG1 can improve the chemosensitivity through the inhibition of B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and ...
Juengel Eva E Department of Urology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, - - 2014
Sequential application of target drugs is standard procedure after renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients develop resistance. To optimize the sequence, antitumour effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sorafenib on RCC cells with acquired resistance to the TKI sunitinib was evaluated. RCC cells were exposed ...
de Souza Paloma Silva PS Program of Hemato-Oncology Molecular, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, - - 2014
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is considered a multifactorial event that favors cancer cells become resistant to several chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous mechanisms contribute to MDR, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) activity that promotes drug efflux, overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) that contribute to evasion of apoptosis, and oncogenic pathway activation that ...
Bailey Richard G RG Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; Krebs Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2014
The nanoscale mechanical properties of live Staphylococcus aureus cells during different phases of growth were studied by atomic force microscopy. Indentation to different depths provided access to both local cell wall mechanical properties and whole-cell properties, including a component related to cell turgor pressure. Local cell wall properties were found ...
Lu Meng M Cell Engineering Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 169, Changle West Road, Xi'an, 710032, - - 2014
Overexpression of CD147/basigin in hepatic cells promotes the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether CD147 also expressed in liver non-parenchymal cells and associated with HCC development was unknown. The aim of the study was to explore time-dependent cell expression patterns of CD147 in a widely accepted N-diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital (DEN/PB)-induced HCC mouse ...
McElnea Elizabeth M - - 2014
Disease associated alterations in the phenotype of lamina cribrosa (LC) cells are implicated in changes occurring at the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma. Lipofuscin, the formation of which is driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is an intralysosomal, non-degradable, auto-fluorescent macromolecule which accumulates with age and can affect autophagy ...
Woo Seung-Hyun SH Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2014
The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel ...
Tan Gemma G Department of Anatomy and Developmental BiologyMonash University, Building 73, Clayton, Victoria 3800, AustraliaMurdoch Childrens Research InstituteThe Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052, AustraliaDepartment of PaediatricsThe Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia Department of Anatomy and Developmental BiologyMonash University, Building 73, Clayton, Victoria 3800, AustraliaMurdoch Childrens Research InstituteThe Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052, AustraliaDepartment of PaediatricsThe Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052, - - 2014
Diabetes can be managed by careful monitoring of blood glucose and timely delivery of exogenous insulin. However, even with fastidious compliance, people with diabetes can suffer from numerous complications including atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and kidney disease. This is because delivery of exogenous insulin coupled with glucose monitoring cannot provide the ...
Davis Hayley H Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2014
Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterized by the development of mixed-morphology colorectal tumors and is caused by a 40-kb genetic duplication that results in aberrant epithelial expression of the gene encoding mesenchymal bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, GREM1. Here we use HMPS tissue and a mouse model of the disease ...
Kanthilal Manisha M Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 ; Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology, & Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI - - 2014
The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of human adipose tissue is a heterogeneous population, with component cell types that may or may not contribute to its regenerative potential. Recent findings indicate that single-cell mechanical biomarkers are characteristic of cell type and can be used comparably to gene and protein expressions to ...
Lin Wea-Lung WL Department of Pathlogy, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, - - 2014
Morusin is a prenylated flavonoid that has been isolated from the root bark of the mulberry tree (Morus species, Moraceae), a Chinese traditional medicine. It has been synthesized by our laboratory from commercially available phloroglucinol, and has demonstrated to possess antitumor effects of cell lines including A549, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. ...
Class Bradley B National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2014
Cell viability assays are extensively used to determine cell health, evaluate growth conditions, and assess compound cytotoxicity. Most existing assays are endpoint assays, in which data are collected at one time point after termination of the experiment. The time point at which toxicity of a compound is evident, however, depends ...
Dong Chenbo C Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV, 26506, - - 2014
Toxicity of engineered nanomaterials is associated with their inherent properties, both physical and chemical. Recent studies have shown that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) promotes tumors and tumor-associated pathologies and lead to carcinogenesis in model in vivo systems. Here in we examined the potential of purified MWCNTs used at ...
Huang Jian-Wei JW Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, China, - - 2014
Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) plays an important role in the development of hormone-dependent cancers, but its roles in lung cancer remain elusive. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of ERRα on the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer A549 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of ERRα ...
Leavenworth Jianmei W JW 1] Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Department of Microbiology &Immunobiology, Division of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2014
Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and follicular regulatory T cells (TFR cells) regulate the quantity and quality of humoral immunity. Although both cell types express the costimulatory receptor ICOS and require the transcription factor Bcl-6 for their differentiation, the ICOS-dependent pathways that coordinate their responses are not well understood. ...
Trasino Steven E SE Weill Cornell Medical College, United - - 2014
We show that vitamin A (all-trans retinol) (VA) is required for both the maintenance of pancreatic β-cell and α-cell mass and for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in adult mice. Dietary VA deprivation (VAD) causes greatly decreased pancreatic VA levels, hyperglycemia, and reduced insulin secretion. Adult mice fed VAD diets display remodeling ...
Kumar Gautam Naveen N Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005,Uttar Prdesh, India; Molecular and Human Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, Uttar Pradesh, - - 2014
Malpighian tubules are the osmoregulatory and detoxifying organs of Drosophila and its proper development is critical for the survival of the organism. They are made up of two major cell types, the ectodermal principal cells and mesodermal stellate cells. The principal and stellate cells are structurally and physiologically distinct from ...
Chen Tunan T Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing 400038, P.R. - - 2014
Glioma‑initiating cells are a small population of cells that have the ability to undergo self‑renewal and initiate tumorigenesis. In the present study, the potential role of salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic, on the suppression of glioma cell growth was investigated. GL261 glioma cells were maintained in a stem‑cell‑like status [GL261 neurospheres ...
Nowak-Imialek M M Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Mariensee, - - 2014
Oct4 is a transcription factor essential for establishment and maintenance of pluripotency in mammalian stem cells. Oct4 expression was found in early embryos and germ cells throughout fetal development. In male mice, Oct4 expression is found in mitotically arrested prospermatogonia until birth. After onset of spermatogenesis, expression is maintained in ...
Corritore Elisa E 1 Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Pediatric Research Laboratory, Université Catholique de Louvain , B-1200, Brussels, Belgium - - 2014
Abstract β-Cell replacement therapy is a promising field of research that is currently evaluating new sources of cells for clinical use. Pancreatic epithelial cells are potent candidates for β-cell engineering, but their large-scale expansion has not been evidenced yet. Here we describe the efficient expansion and β-cell differentiation of purified ...
Wang Hai-Bing HB National Clinical Research Base of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310006, - - 2014
Aim:β, β-Dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS) is an anticancer compound extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DMAS on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and explored the mechanisms of its anti-cancer action.Methods:Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were tested. Cell viability was assessed using ...
Saxena Aditya A Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Most epithelial tubes arise as small buds and elongate by regulated morphogenetic processes including oriented cell division, cell rearrangements, and changes in cell shape. Through live analysis of Drosophila renal tubule morphogenesis we show that tissue elongation results from polarised cell intercalations around the tubule circumference, producing convergent-extension tissue movements. ...
Maeda Megumi M Department of Biofunctional Chemistry, Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Okayama 7008530, - - 2014
Asbestos exposure causes various tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To elucidate the immunological alteration in asbestos-related tumors, an asbestos-induced apoptosis-resistant subline (MT-2Rst) was established from a human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line (MT-2Org) by long-term exposure to asbestos chrysotile-B (CB). In this study, transforming growth factor-β1 ...
Curcio A G AG Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, - - 2014
Several factors may influence transgenic animal production efficiency, and among them gene construction and the cell type used are of great importance. For a long time, fetal fibroblasts were largely used in generation of transgenic cattle production by nuclear transfer, however adult cells are very useful for cloning once the ...
Löper Philipp P École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue de la Maladière 71b, 2002 Neuchâtel, Switzerland. - - 2014
Tandem solar cells constructed from a crystalline silicon (c-Si) bottom cell and a low-cost top cell offer a promising way to ensure long-term price reductions of photovoltaic modules. We present a four-terminal tandem solar cell consisting of a methyl ammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) top cell and a c-Si heterojunction bottom ...
Zhang Yan Y Department of Colorectal Surgery, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, P.R. - - 2014
S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) is an active compound that is derived from garlic and has been demonstrated to possess antitumor properties in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SAMC and determine the underlying mechanism of this effect on human colorectal carcinoma cells. The SW620 cells were cultured with ...
Leng Tian-Dong TD Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, - - 2014
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor with a dismal prognosis. Despite intensive study on tumor biology, the underlying mechanisms of the unlimited proliferation and progressive local invasion are still poorly understood, and no effective treatment has been developed for GBM patients. We determine the ...
Ogino Akiyoshi A Department of Neurological Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8610, - - 2014
Ribavirin (1-β-D-ribofuranosy-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) has been widely administered as an antiviral agent against RNA and DNA viruses. Ribavirin, in combination with interferon, has predominantly been applied in the treatment of the hepatitis C virus infection and its potential antitumor efficacy has recently become a point of interest. The aim of the present ...
Zhang Chengcheng Christine CC Molecular Tumor Pathology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, - - 2014
The HMGB1 protein has multiple functions in tumor biology and can act both as a transcription factor and as a cytokine. HMGB1 is released during cell death, and in our previous studies we demonstrated that HMGB1 induces a distinct, necrosis-like cell death in glioblastoma. In epithelial malignant tumors such as ...
Porterfield William B WB Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, - - 2014
Cellular communication drives diverse aspects of organismal biology ranging from immune function to memory formation. The mechanisms by which cells transact information in vivo, though, are not completely understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of tools for observing collections of cells in their native habitats. New optical ...
Cianfanelli Valentina V 1] Unit of Cell Stress and Survival, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Laboratory of Molecular Neuroembryology, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, 00143 Rome, - - 2014
Inhibition of a main regulator of cell metabolism, the protein kinase mTOR, induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways involved in the cross-talk between these two mTOR-dependent cell processes are largely unknown. Here we show that the scaffold protein AMBRA1, a member of the autophagy signalling network ...
Gonzales Silvia S Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, - - 2014
Extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) triggers biological responses in a wide variety of cells and tissues and activates signaling cascades that affect cell membrane potential and excitability. It has been demonstrated that compressive loading promotes ATP production and release by intervertebral disc (IVD) cells, while a high level of extracellular ATP accumulates ...
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