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Husar, Attila P.
This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack ...
Kothandaraman, R
A fuel cell is an electrochemical power source with advantages of both the combustion engine and the battery. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell will run as long as it is provided fuel; and like a battery, fuel cells convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. As an electrochemical ...
Li Gang - - 2009
A novel class of organic D-pi-A dyes employing a N,N,N',N'-tetraphenylbenzidine (TPD) unit as donor was designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells, which achieved a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (eta) of 5.63% in preliminary tests as compared to 6.42% for N3 dye under the same experimental conditions.
Chang Chih-Wei - - 2009
Myoglobin (Mb), reconstituted zinc protoporphyrin-apomyoglobin (ZnMb), and eosin-modified ZnMb (EoZnMb) were used as photosensitizers to functionalize TiO2 nanocrystalline films for bio-sensitized solar-cell (BSSC) applications. For the Mb-sensitized SC, the poor cell performance was due to a reduction Fe(III) --> Fe(II) that produces a photocurrent density of the device smaller than ...
Thavasi Velmurugan - - 2009
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a membrane protein found in the archae Halobacterium salinarum. Here, we studied wild type bR and especially the triple mutant bR, 3Glu [E9Q/E194Q/E204Q], in combination with wide gap semiconductor TiO2 for their suitability as efficient light harvester in solar cell. Our differential scanning calorimetry data show thermal ...
Nakamura, Jun-ichi  
We report here efficient air-stable p-n heterojunction organic solar cells with a structure consisting of an n-type insoluble perylene pigment penetrated by a p-type-conjugated polymer, where the interfacial area for photocurrent generation increases. The solar cells are easily produced by infiltrating a soluble-conjugated polymer intentionally into an opening among insoluble ...
Foss Robert D - - 2009
On December 1, 2006, North Carolina began prohibiting use of any mobile communication device by drivers younger than 18. The current study examined the effects of the law on teenage drivers' cell phone use. Teenage drivers were observed at high schools in North Carolina 1-2 months before and approximately 5 ...
El-Emawy, Mohamed
Sunlight is the largest energy source available on earth. Under clear conditions there is approximately 1,000 watts per directly incident square meter, which reaches the earth everyday. Solar cells are devices that can be used to collect such abundant form of energy and convert it into electrical energy for daily ...
Etcheverry, David Jared
The Ruttan Cu-Zn mine produced approximately 30 million tons of fine-grained tailings over 30 years. Since the closure of the mine in 2002, the tailings have been systematically dewatered through trenches which drain into Ruttan Lake and into the open pit and underground mine workings. This study evaluated the evolution ...
Soderstrom, Thomas
The micromorph solar cell (stack of amorphous and microcrystalline cells) concept is the key for achieving high efficiency stabilized thin film silicon solar cells. We introduce a device structure that allows a better control of the light in-coupling into the two subcell components. It is based on an asymmetric intermediate ...
Adrian POCOVNICU
Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What ...
Jin, Hui
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Vol.93 Nr.2, 289 - 294
Brinza, M.
The applicability of the very high frequency (VHF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique to the fabrication of solar cells in an n–i–p configuration at 100 °C substrate temperature is being investigated. Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon cells are made with the absorber layers grown in conditions close to the amorphous-to-microcrystalline ...
O. Kunz
Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass obtained by solid-phase crystallization (SPC) of PECVD-deposited a-Si precursor diodes are capable of producing large-area devices with respectable photovoltaic efficiency. This has not yet been shown for equivalent devices made from evaporated Si precursor diodes (“EVA” solar cells). We demonstrate that there are ...
Koeppe Robert - - 2009
To provide truly transparent solar cells for power window applications, both semiconductor and electrode materials have to have a very low absorption over as much of the visible spectrum as possible. We present some promising visible transparent semiconductor combinations, namely zinc-phthalocyanine or zinc-naphthalocyanine together with soluble fullerenes in conjunction with ...
Orlowske Lori L - - 2009
In the present experiment we investigated the percentage of drivers who use cell phones while driving in a small city in central New York. We expected that the rates of cell phone use would be comparable to national levels, and that the percentage of cell phone use would be higher ...
Ishigami Yoko - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Although it is becoming more and more accepted that driving while talking on a cell phone can be hazardous, most jurisdictions are making handheld phone use illegal while allowing hands-free phone use. METHODS: The scientific literature exploring the effects of these two types of cell phone use on driving ...
Mishra Amaresh - - 2009
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design and technological aspects of metal-free organic dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special attention has been paid to ...
Makker Kartikeya - - 2009
Over the past decade, the use of mobile phones has increased significantly. However, with every technological development comes some element of health concern, and cell phones are no exception. Recently, various studies have highlighted the negative effects of cell phone exposure on human health, and concerns about possible hazards related ...
Johnston Amal J AJ Department of Biology; Plant Biotechnology; ETH Zurich; Zurich, - - 2009
The Retinoblastoma (pRb) pathway has been implicated as a convergent regulatory unit in the control of cell cycle and disease. We have shown that a crosstalk between RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR), the Arabidopsis homologue of pRb, and the genes encoding proteins of the chromatin complexes involved in DNA or histone methylation, ...
Catchpole K R - - 2008
The scattering from metal nanoparticles near their localized plasmon resonance is a promising way of increasing the light absorption in thin-film solar cells. Enhancements in photocurrent have been observed for a wide range of semiconductors and solar cell configurations. We review experimental and theoretical progress that has been made in ...
Vaudrey, Alexandre
The aim of this paper consists in a new thermodynamical description of the fuel cell, using the finite time thermodynamics. Starting from the comparison beetween a reversible fuel cell and a Carnot heat engine driven by a perfect chemical reaction, we remind that – contrary to a common opinion – ...
Lu Shanfu - - 2008
In recent decades, fuel cell technology has been undergoing revolutionary developments, with fundamental progress being the replacement of electrolyte solutions with polymer electrolytes, making the device more compact in size and higher in power density. Nowadays, acidic polymer electrolytes, typically Nafion, are widely used. Despite great success, fuel cells based ...
Cook Brian N - - 2009
Interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) is a member of the Tec kinase family and is involved with T-cell activation and proliferation. Due to its critical role in acting as a modulator of T-cells, ITK inhibitors could provide a novel route to anti-inflammatory therapy. This work describes the discovery of ITK ...
Andersson, Viktor
Optical modelling of one folded tandem solar cell and four types of stacked tandem solar cells has been performed, using the finite element method and the transfer matrix method for the folded cell and the stacked cells, respectively. The results are analysed by comparing upper limits for short circuit currents ...
Drews Frank A - - 2008
This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In ...
Cooper Joel M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Our research examined the effects of practice on cell-phone-related driver distraction. BACKGROUND: The driving literature is ambiguous as to whether practice can reduce driver distraction from concurrent cell phone conversation. METHODS: Drivers reporting either high or low real-world cell phone usage were selected to participate in four 90-min simulated ...
Yu Kehan - - 2009
The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high ...
Kim Changsoon - - 2008
We propose a lateral-tandem organic photovoltaic system consisting of a dispersive-focusing element and continuously-tuned, series-connected sub-cells. The proposed system overcomes the efficiency limitation of organic photovoltaic devices by spectral re-distribution of incoming solar photons and their delivery to the wavelength-matched, resonant sub-cells. By numerical simulations, we demonstrate that optical resonance ...
Devert, Alexandre
This paper introduces an approach based on Artificial Embryogeny for truss design to address the problem of finding the best truss structure for a given loading. In this setup, the basic idea is to optimize the size and length of beams in a truss through the actions of a set ...
Gorce, Jean-Marie
The European regulatory authorities are about to change the laws that deal with the proscription of cell phone silencers, towards the acceptance of intelligent systems. This technical report describes a cell phone silencer concept based on the idea of changing the access control parameters on the channel BCCH and develops ...
de Jong, Marnie
The Army's Communications and Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) Fuel Cell Team, located in Fort Belvoir, VA and Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD, is actively investigating fuel cell power sources from milliwatt to kilowatt levels to fit the Army's power needs. Currently, many smaller fuel cell programs in progress ...
Venkatagiri Chellappan, Mirunalini, 1984-
With the increased usage of electrical equipment for various applications, the demand for quality power apart from continuous power availability has increased and hence requires the development of appropriate power conditioning system. A major factor during development of these systems is the requirement that they remain environment-friendly. This cannot be ...
Fortmann, C.M.
In order to optimize the amorphous silicon solar cell structure for improved stabilized performance it is necessary to understand a great number of material parameters as they exist in the solar cell under operating conditions. Towards the goal of using the solar cells themselves for quantitative defect analysis, the authors ...
Wyrsch, Nicolas
For space applications, solar cells should be optimized for highest power density rather than for highest efficiency. In this context, relatively low efficiency thin-film solar cell may well surpass multi-junction III-V based solar cells if they can be made thin enough. In thin-film solar cells the power density is mostly ...
Overholtzer Michael - - 2008
For decades, authors have described unusual cell structures, referred to as cell-in-cell structures, in which whole cells are found in the cytoplasm of other cells. One well-characterized process that results in the transient appearance of such structures is the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis. However, many other types of ...
DeRoche, Peter Michael
A microjet-based reactant delivery method was implemented in a prototype PEM fuel cell. A commercially available fuel cell was procured that utilizes a conventional reactant delivery method. The prototype was designed with an identical active area so that number of variables leading to differences in performance between the two fuel ...
Bein, Alexander L.
Large, expensive satellites have had failures or degraded missions due to solar cells that had not been tested in the space environment. To address these issues, a solar cell testing CubeSat prototype has been developed as part of the Space Systems Academic Group CubeSat program. This prototype provides a dedicated ...
Waldmann Herman H Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK. - - 2008
Studies focused on the goal of eliciting transplant tolerance led Herman Waldmann to rejuvenate discarded ideas of 'suppressor T cells'. Such cells are now known to exist.
Liang X F - - 2009
In an attempt to take full advantage of near-infrared part of the solar spectrum, Gd(2)(MoO(4))(3):Er(3+) nanophosphors have been proposed as potential luminescent materials to enhance the response of the silicon solar-cell. Upon excitation with low-energy near-infrared photons, intense upconverted emissions at 545, 665, 800, and 980 nm, for which energies ...
Wu Jihuai - - 2008
Using poly(N-methyl-4-vinyl-pyridine iodide), N-methyl-pyridine iodide and iodine, a solid polymer electrolyte with conductivity of 6.41 mS/cm is prepared. On the basis of a solid polymer electrolyte, a conducting graphite layer, a KI block layer, and a vacuum assembling technique, we achieve an all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with total photoelectric conversion ...
Viggiani Licia - - 2008
We explored the possibility of differentiating Italian wines produced in different regions by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Ten commercial red Aglianico wines were selected from different areas of the Basilicata region in the south of Italy. Some important components of these wines were identified by the assignments ...
Bradley, Thomas Heenan
Fuel cell powered aircraft have been of long term interest to the aviation community because of their potential for improved performance and environmental compatibility. Only recently have improvements in the technological readiness of fuel cell powerplants enabled the first aviation applications of fuel cell technology. Based on the results of ...
Gunawardena, Duminda Anuradh
Finding new energy sources has been a major quest in the 21st century. The challenge is not simply to find alternatives for traditional energy sources like crude oil and coal to generate power on a large scale but also to produce power to energize micro and nano scale devices. For ...
Guo Qijie - - 2008
The creation of a suitable inorganic colloidal nanocrystal ink for use in a scalable coating process is a key step in the development of low-cost solar cells. Here, we present a facile solution synthesis of chalcopyrite CuInSe 2 nanocrystals and demonstrate that inks based on these nanocrystals can be used ...
Tominaka Satoshi - - 2008
This paper proposes a novel design for a microfuel cell as an on-chip power source and demonstrates its fabrication and operation to prove the concept. Its simple design is important from the viewpoints of fabrication (e.g., replication), integration, and compatibility with other microdevices. In testing, the prototype cell was able ...
Currie Michael J - - 2008
The cost of photovoltaic power can be reduced with organic solar concentrators. These are planar waveguides with a thin-film organic coating on the face and inorganic solar cells attached to the edges. Light is absorbed by the coating and reemitted into waveguide modes for collection by the solar cells. We ...
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