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Results 251 - 300 of 975
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Dishaw Laura V - - 2011
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and ...
Bird Terry H - - 2011
The α-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum centenum, has a complex life cycle that allows adaptation to different environments. Transitions between vegetative swim cell and swarmer cell types depend on whether the organism is growing in liquid surroundings or on a solid substrate. Moreover, starvation can induce vegetative cells to differentiate into quiescent cysts. ...
Oraldi M - - 2011
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes are involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by metabolizing both endogenous and exogenous reactive aldehydes. They modulate several cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, survival as well as cellular response to oxidative stress. We previously reported that ALDH3A1 expression is inversely correlated with the activation of PPAR (Peroxisome ...
Tury Anna - - 2011
Mounting evidence indicates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family, including p57(Kip2) and p27(Kip1), control not only cell cycle exit but also corticogenesis. Nevertheless, distinct activities of p57(Kip2) remain poorly defined. Using in vivo and culture approaches, we show p57(Kip2) overexpression at E14.5-15.5 elicits precursor cell cycle exit, ...
Debinski Waldemar - - 2011
Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) plays an important role in maintenance/progression of various cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, we used both shRNA and siRNA to examine the effect of fra-1 knockdown in GBM cells over-expressing Fra-1. Furthermore, we analyzed both the expression of JunB and its knockdown, a ...
Lam Philip Y - - 2011
Exposure to paraquat (PQ; N,N'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridium), a potent herbicide, can lead to neuronal cell death and increased risk of Parkinson's disease because of oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of (-)schisandrin B [(-)Sch B, a potent enantiomer of schisandrin B] on PQ-induced cell injury in differentiated pheochromocytoma cells ...
Haenisch Britta - - 2011
Impairment of agmatine homeostasis is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in malignant solid tumors. The present study aimed at analyzing the relevance of agmatine homeostasis in pathophysiology of human leukemia. Proliferation of the human leukemia cells HMC-1 and HL-60 was determined in the absence or presence of agmatine. ...
Khan Saad - - 2011
In the present study, curcumin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-amyloid properties, inhibited proteasomal activity and induced the accumulation of HSPs in the frog model system, Xenopus laevis. Treatment of A6 kidney epithelial cells with curcumin enhanced ubiquitinated protein levels and inhibited chymotrypsin-like activity. Furthermore, exposure of cells ...
Leach Michelle D MD School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United - - 2011
Posttranslational modifications of proteins play critical roles in the control of cellular differentiation, development, and environmental adaptation. In particular, the covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-like modifier, SUMO, to target proteins (sumoylation) regulates cell cycle progression, transcription, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and stress responses. Here we combine proteomic, molecular, and cellular approaches ...
Nafati Mehdi - - 2011
The size of tomato fruit results from the combination of cell number and cell size, which are respectively determined by the cell division and cell expansion processes. As fruit growth is mainly sustained by cell expansion, the development of fleshy pericarp tissue is characterized by numerous rounds of endoreduplication inducing ...
Copsel Sabrina - - 2011
Increased intracellular cAMP concentration plays a well established role in leukemic cell maturation. We previously reported that U937 cells stimulated by H2 receptor agonists, despite a robust increase in cAMP, fail to mature because of rapid H2 receptor desensitization and phosphodiesterase (PDE) activation. Here we show that intracellular cAMP levels ...
Chevalier Christian - - 2011
Endoreduplication is the major source of endopolyploidy in higher plants. The process of endoreduplication results from the ability of cells to modify their classical cell cycle into a partial cell cycle where DNA synthesis occurs independently from mitosis. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of the phenomenon in eukaryotic cells, the physiological ...
Hart Courtenay - - 2011
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types in vitro including osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Here we apply a metabolic labeling approach to characterize changes in cellular glycoprotein expression during hMSC differentiation and to identify glycoprotein markers unique to differentiated ...
Kuwayama Hidekazu - - 2011
Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2) are small lipophilic signal molecules that control both cell differentiation and chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. In this study, we examined the effects of four amide derivatives of DIF-1 on stalk cell differentiation and chemotaxis. The DIF derivatives differentially affected ...
Yasuda Tomoharu - - 2011
In immune cells, the positive role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in cell cycle progression and survival is well established; however, it is unclear whether ERK signaling plays a role in cell differentiation. Here, we report that ERKs are essential for the differentiation of B cells into ...
Maurer Margarita - - 2011
Triazoloacridone C-1305, a new topoisomerase II inhibitor, exhibits potent cytostatic activity toward various tumours under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Interestingly, mouse cells lacking poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 are much more sensitive to C-1305 than their normal counterparts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the functional status of ...
Lam Philip Y - - 2011
Exposure to paraquat (PQ; N,N'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridium), a potent herbicide, can lead to neuronal cell death and increased risk of Parkinson's disease because of oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of (-)schisandrin B [(-)Sch B, a potent enantiomer of schisandrin B] on PQ-induced cell injury in differentiated pheochromocytoma cells ...
Li Xin - - 2011
The human IL-3 receptor is composed of both α and β subunits. In early studies, we showed that the level of IL-3Rβ expression was lower in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than healthy donors and patients in complete remission by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). With the differentiation ...
Wong Chin Piow - - 2011
Five new limonoids, ceramicines E-I (1-5), have been isolated from the bark of Chisocheton ceramicus. The structures and relative stereochemistry of them were fully elucidated based on 1D- and 2D-NMR data. Ceramicines E-I (1-5) exhibited moderate cell growth inhibitory activities on a range of cell lines (HL-60, A549, MCF7, and ...
Wang Tiejun - - 2011
MED 19 is a subunit of the mediator complex, which is a coactivator of RNA polymerase II and also interacts with the downstream coding region of many genes. However, the role of MED19 in osteosarcoma is unknown. In the present study, we applied lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-triggered RNA interference ...
Kim Jae-Ryoung - - 2011
Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) with a highly conductive poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) layer as an anode and that were modified with the addition of some organic solvents such as sorbitol (So), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylformamide (DMF), and ethylene glycol (EG) were fabricated without the use of transparent conducting ...
Gonçalves Pedro - - 2011
Our aim was to investigate the effect of several dietary polyphenols on uptake of (14)C-butyrate ((14)C-BT) by Caco-2 cells and try to correlate this effect with the modulation of the anticarcinogenic effect of BT in these cells. Acutely, uptake of (14)C-BT (10 μM) was decreased by resveratrol, quercetin, myricetin, and ...
Matsuo Kosuke - - 2011
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation. To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO) mice. In addition, we reconstituted ...
Yang Ji - - 2011
T(H)17 cells have been implicated in a growing list of inflammatory disorders. Antagonism of T(H)17 cells can be used for the treatment of inflammatory injury. Currently, very little is known about the natural compound controlling the differentiation of T(H)17 cells. Here, we showed that Baicalin, a compound isolated from a ...
Mélida Hugo - - 2011
Cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, such as dichlobenil (DCB), have become a valuable tool for the analysis of structural and compositional plasticity of plant cell walls. By stepwise increasing the concentration of DCB in the culture medium, we obtained maize cells able to cope with DCB through the acquisition of a modified ...
Kostyak John C - - 2011
Endomitosis is a form of mitosis in which both karyokinesis and cytokinesis are interrupted and is a hallmark of megakaryocyte differentiation. Very little is known about how such a dramatic alteration of the cell cycle in a physiological setting is achieved. Thrombopoietin-induced signaling is essential for induction of endomitosis. Here ...
Chesnokova Vera - - 2011
Although pituitary adenomas are usually benign, unique trophic mechanisms restraining cell proliferation are unclear. As GH-secreting adenomas are associated with p53/p21-dependent senescence, we tested mechanisms constraining non-functioning pituitary adenoma growth. Thirty six gonadotroph-derived non-functioning pituitary adenomas all exhibited DNA damage, but undetectable p21 expression. However, these adenomas all expressed p16, ...
Quintana Anita M - - 2011
The c-Myb transcription factor is a critical regulator of proliferation and stem cell differentiation, and mutated alleles of c-Myb are oncogenic, but little is known about changes in c-Myb activity during the cell cycle. To map the association of c-Myb with specific target genes during the cell cycle, we developed ...
Rajan Saravanan - - 2011
Current methods of measuring transcription in high-throughput have led to significant improvements in our knowledge of transcriptional regulation and Systems Biology. However, endpoint measurements obtained from methods that pool populations of cells are not amenable to studying time-dependent processes that show cell heterogeneity. Here we describe a high-throughput platform for ...
Ahsan Md Shahidul - - 2010
J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Objectives:  The deposition of perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is enhanced within oral carcinoma in situ (CIS) foci, while it dynamically switches from CIS foci to the stromal space in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because α-dystroglycan and integrin β1 have been identified as two of ...
Ziegler Christian G - - 2010
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is classically seen as an inactive reservoir for the production of dehydroepiandrosterone. Steroid sulfatase is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to dehydroepiandrosterone, which can then be further metabolized to other steroid hormones. Recent studies, however, indicate that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate can mediate biological effects without ...
Lee Sang Y - - 2010
HFE is a protein that impacts cellular iron uptake. HFE gene variants are identified as risk factors or modifiers for multiple diseases. Using HFE stably transfected human neuroblastoma cells we found that cells carrying the C282Y HFE variant do not differentiate when exposed to retinoic acid. Therefore we hypothesized HFE ...
Otsu Keishi - - 2010
During tooth development, inner enamel epithelial (IEE) cells differentiate into enamel-secreting ameloblasts, a polarized and elongated cellular population. The molecular underpinnings of this morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation, however, are not well understood. Here, we show that Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) regulates ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. In mouse incisor organ ...
Chan Chi-Lung - - 2010
Antiquitin (ALDH7) is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily which oxidizes various aldehydes to form the corresponding carboxylic acids. Human antiquitin (ALDH7A1) is believed to play a role in detoxification, osmoregulation and more specifically, in lysine metabolism in which alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde is identified as the specific, physiological substrate of ...
Xing Yanghui - - 2010
Mechanical loading is an important factor regulating cartilage metabolism maintained by chondrocytes. However, some of its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we employed a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 to investigate roles of P2Y(2) and GRK2 in chondrocyte mechanotransduction. We first confirmed the expression of chondrocyte markers in ...
Xing Yanghui - - 2011
Mechanical loading is an important factor regulating cartilage metabolism maintained by chondrocytes. However, some of its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we employed a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 to investigate roles of P2Y(2) and GRK2 in chondrocyte mechanotransduction. We first confirmed the expression of chondrocyte markers in ...
Rotureau Brice - - 2010
African trypanosomes are flagellated protozoan parasites responsible for sleeping sickness and transmitted by tsetse flies. The accomplishment of their parasite cycle requires adaptation to highly diverse environments. These transitions take place in a strictly defined order and are accompanied by spectacular morphological modifications in cell size, shape and positioning of ...
Pérez-Núñez Daniel - - 2011
Bacteria display a variety of shapes, which have biological relevance. In most eubacteria, cell shape is maintained by the tough peptidoglycan (PG) layer of the cell wall, the sacculus. The organization of PG synthesis machineries, orchestrated by different cytoskeletal elements, determines the specific shapes of sacculi. In rod-shaped bacteria, the ...
Li Cheng - - 2010
Oxygen concentration has been shown to be crucial in the proliferation and differentiation of various types of cells, while the impact of oxygen tension on the lineage commitment of epithelial cells remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the differentiation of corneal limbal epithelium using ...
Jang Wonhee - - 2011
Much remains to be understood about how a group of cells break symmetry and differentiate into distinct cell types. The simple eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum is an excellent model system for studying questions such as cell type differentiation. Dictyostelium cells grow as single cells. When the cells starve, they aggregate to ...
Chen Tian - - 2010
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plasticizers in daily-life products. In this study we evaluated the influence of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of DEHP, on the neurodevelopment in vitro. After neuronotypic PC12 cells were exposed to MEHP (0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250μM), the effects of which on ...
Barros Francisco W A - - 2011
Four derivatives of an α,β-amyrin mixture were synthesized by acylation with appropriate anhydrides. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by means of IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR. The compounds were screened for cytotoxic activity using four human tumor cell lines (HL-60, MDAMB-435, SF-295 and HCT-8) and normal peripheral ...
Gao Zhen - - 2011
Histone modifications play an important role in transcriptional regulation and are intimately involved in important biological and disease processes. Despite their functional significance, whether and how extracellular signals modulate histone modifications are not well defined. Using mono-ubiquitination of histone H2B as a model system, we have previously shown that mono-ubiquitination ...
Terao Mineko - - 2011
Retinoids are promising agents for the treatment/prevention of breast carcinoma. We examined the role of microRNAs in mediating the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which suppresses the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive (ERα(+)) breast carcinoma cells, such as MCF-7, but not estrogen receptor-negative cells, such as MDA-MB-231. We found that pro-oncogenic ...
Towle Murray J - - 2011
Eribulin (E7389), a mechanistically unique microtubule inhibitor in phase III clinical trials for cancer, exhibits superior efficacy in vivo relative to the more potent compound ER-076349, a fact not explained by different pharmacokinetic properties. A cell-based pharmacodynamic explanation was suggested by observations that mitotic blockade induced by eribulin, but not ...
Goldman Aaron - - 2011
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition, where normal squamous epithelium is replaced by intestinal epithelium. BE is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). However, the BE cell of origin is not clear. We hypothesize that BE tissue originates from esophageal squamous cells, which can differentiate ...
Woods Ignatoski Kathleen M - - 2010
Hypoparathyroidism is the most frequent permanent complication of thyroid surgery. Our hypothesis is that human precursor cells in culture can be differentiated into parathyroid cells and used to reconstitute function. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a stable model to study differentiation into parathyroid-like cells. In prior work, the BG01-hESC ...
Schittler D - - 2010
Mesenchymal stem cells can give rise to bone and other tissue cells, but their differentiation still escapes full control. In this paper we address this issue by mathematical modeling. We present a model for a genetic switch determining the cell fate of progenitor cells which can differentiate into osteoblasts (bone ...
Dikmen MiriƟ - - 2010
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the major yellow pigment isolated from the turmeric (Curcuma longa), has received much attention due to several biological properties. Curcumin exhibits a variety of pharmacological effects including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious activities. In the present study, the effects of curcumin on apoptosis in the acute promyelocytic human leukemia ...
Lu Xiao-feng - - 2010
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) possess anti-cancer action both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we detected cell viability with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell membrane permeability with propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence dyeing, and calculated cell membrane fluidity change as fluorescence anisotropy. Fatty acid content in ...
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