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Green, M.A.
Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January, 2006 are reviewed.
Guter, W.
This paper discusses common difficulties in measuring tunnel diodes and sets a special focus on devices consisting of tunnel diodes and solar cells, such as multijunction solar cells. The resulting theoretical current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of tunnel diodes and solar cells when measured via four-wire techniques are calculated and compared with ...
Green, M.A.
Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July, 2005 are reviewed.
Aicher, T.
The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, ...
Yu, H.M.
The transient behavior of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with dry gases fed in is investigated in this paper. Periodical ramp sweeps were applied to the fuel cell. When dry gases are fed into the fuel cell, the drying out effect of the polymer electrolyte is measured during ...
Dimroth, F.
Today's most efficient technology for the generation of electricity from solar radiation is the use of multi-junction solar cells made of III-V compound semiconductors. Efficiencies up to 39 % have already been reported under concentrated sunlight. These solar cells have initially been developed for powering satellites in space and are ...
Schmich, E. .
This paper suggests epitaxy of silicon for emitter formation by high temperature CVD as an alternative to conventional processing for standard silicon wafer solar cells. Epitaxy could provide an alternative method to create an adjustable emitter shape at a short deposition time. Results of solar cells of phosphorous-doped epitaxial layers ...
Clayton Michael - - 2006
Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an ...
Horrey William J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The performance costs associated with cell phone use while driving were assessed meta-analytically using standardized measures of effect size along five dimensions. BACKGROUND: There have been many studies on the impact of cell phone use on driving, showing some mixed findings. METHODS: Twenty-three studies (contributing 47 analysis entries) met ...
Strayer David L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to determine the relative impairment associated with conversing on a cellular telephone while driving. BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that the relative risk of being in a traffic accident while using a cell phone is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a ...
Rosenbloom Tova - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Through spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the ...
Coughlin Mark F - - 2006
Here we report the rheological properties of cultured hsFLNa (filamin-A)-expressing (FIL+) and hsFLNa-deficient (FIL-) melanoma cells. Using magnetic twisting cytometry over a wide range of probing frequencies, and targeting either cortical or deeper cytoskeletal structures, we found that differences in stiffness of FIL+ versus FIL- cells were remarkably small. When ...
Abrams, Neal Mathew
<p> Solar energy conversion is dominated by expensive solid-state photovoltaic cells. As low-cost cells continue to develop, the dye sensitized solar cell has generated considerable interest as an efficient alternative. Although already moderately efficient, this cell offers numerous areas for improvement, both electronically and optically. Solar conversion efficiencies have been ...
Gur Ilan - - 2005
We introduce an ultrathin donor-acceptor solar cell composed entirely of inorganic nanocrystals spin-cast from solution. These devices are stable in air, and post-fabrication processing allows for power conversion efficiencies approaching 3% in initial tests. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for stable, low-cost power generation.
Nanu Marian - - 2005
The present study is focused on low-cost preparation of thin film TiO2/CuInS2 nanocomposite three-dimensional (3D) solar cells. With the aid of a simple spray deposition method, we have been able to obtain 3D solar cells, with a remarkable energy conversion efficiency of 5%. The new 3D solar cell design has ...
van Anken Eelco - - 2005
Homeostasis of the protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is maintained via several parallel unfolded protein response pathways that are remarkably conserved from yeast to man. Together, these pathways are integrated into a complex circuitry that can be modulated in various ways, not only to cope with various ...
Shao Zongping - - 2005
High energy efficiency and energy density, together with rapid refuelling capability, render fuel cells highly attractive for portable power generation. Accordingly, polymer-electrolyte direct-methanol fuel cells are of increasing interest as possible alternatives to Li ion batteries. However, such fuel cells face several design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels ...
Kumar, R Anil
Photovoltaic (PV) conversion of solar energy appears to be one of the most promising ways of meeting the increasing energy demand. In space, photovoltaic power source is the only safe alternative. Conventional silicon solar cell technologies have seen several improvements and off late GaAs/Ge and multijunction solar cells are developed ...
Pivrikas A - - 2005
Bimolecular charge carrier recombination has been clarified in bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on a blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene using the time-of-flight method. We show how bimolecular recombination influences the charge carrier transport, how it limits the efficiency of low-mobility solar cells, and how to estimate the bimolecular recombination ...
Löffler, J.
This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses, the front TCO plays an important ...
Huizinga Jan D - - 2005
Santiago Ramon y Cajal observed a special cell type that appeared to function as endstructures of the intrinsic nervous system in several organs. These cells were structurally and functionally further characterized in the gut musculature and named interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In recent years, interstitial cells have been identified ...
Zhan Zhongliang - - 2005
There are substantial barriers to the introduction of hydrogen fuel cells for transportation, including the high cost of fuel-cell systems, the current lack of a hydrogen infrastructure, and the relatively low fuel efficiency when using hydrogen produced from hydrocarbons. Here, we describe a solid oxide fuel cell that combines a ...
Föger K - - 2005
Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to ...
Yao, Guoxiao
This thesis work demonstrates the feasibility to fabricate high-efficiency&#13;crystalline silicon solar cells by using metal stencil printing technique to replace&#13;screen printing or electroless plating techniques for implementing crystalline silicon&#13;solar cell front metallization. The developed laser-cut stainless steel stencils&#13;successfully challenge two of the cell performance limitations associated with&#13;commercial screen printing technology: ...
Joanna PRAZMOWSKA
Quantum well solar cell with GaAs wells and Al<sub><em>x</em></sub>Ga<sub>1&ndash;<em>x</em></sub>As barriers was optimized. Particular emphasis was placed on enhancing the efficiency. Open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor have been also optimized. Many simulations of various structures were carried out. The conversion efficiency exceeding 27% was obtained. The algorithm of structures ...
Panyakeow, Somsak
Aim to achieve a minimum of 30 % conversion efficiency solar cells using Quantum Dot Molecule (QDM) structure QDM. Solar Cells are simpler to fabricate than tandem (Multijunction) solar cells. The QDM solar cells have very high efficiency (60 % in theoretical calculation) solar energy conversion. Achieve QDMs with high ...
Huisman, C.L.
The synthesis and characterization of nanostructured heterojunction solar cells based on inverse opal TiO2 films is discussed. Photonic films with thicknesses of 0.9 and 3.7 mm are deposited using self-organization of latex spheres with diams. of 400 and 100 nm. The voids between the spheres are filled with a TiO2 ...
Linnekoski, J.
1st European Fuel Cell Technology and Applications Conference (EFC2005). Rome 14 - 16 Dec. 2005. Book of Abstracts, 192
Pepe, G.
1st European Fuel Cell Technology and Applications Conference (EFC2005). Rome 14 - 16 Dec. 2005. Book of Abstracts, 31
Green, M.A.
Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since June, 2004 are reviewed.
Green, M.A.
Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January, 2005 are reviewed.
Riesen, S. van
AlGaAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells with a high aluminium content tend to degrade. The degradation mechanism has been examined and appropriate accelerated ageing procedures have been established. They effectively test the ruggedness of the device against oxidation. Changing the window layer material to (Al(ind x)Ga(ind 1-x))(ind 0.51)In(ind 0.49)P with x = ...
Curioso Walter H - - 2005
With more clinical trials involving evaluations of new drugs or vaccines, monitoring for early detection of adverse events is essential. The overall goal of this study was to develop an interactive-computer system using cell phones for real-time collection and transmission of adverse events related to metronidazole administration among female sex ...
Mynark Richard G - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in Renshaw cell activity from supine to standing and determine the relationship between these changes and changes in the soleus H-reflex. Ten young subjects were tested using an indirect measure of Renshaw cell activity. Twelve test and twelve conditioned H-reflexes were ...
Tsukaya Hirokazu - - 2004
We report a novel feature of leaf variegation. As is often the case in tropical forest floor herbs, Schismatoglottis calyptrata leaves feature structural variegation. Examination of leaf anatomy in S. calyptrata revealed a novel feature of structural variegation, which was generated by variation in the spatial arrangement of the adaxial-most ...
Seo Dong-Chul - - 2004
With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291 ...
Demirdöven Nurettin - - 2004
We compare the energy efficiency of hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as well as conventional internal combustion engines. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. We conclude that priority should ...
Cho, Hyoung Yeon
The fuel economy of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) is affected by various factors such as the fuel cell efficiency, the regenerative energy capturing, the power control strategy, the vehicle driving patterns, the degree of hybridization between fuel cells and energy storage systems, and so on. In this thesis, a new ...
Adamchuk N I - - 2004
Properties of mesophyll cells and photosynthetic membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Pisum sativum (L.) plants grown in a horizontal clinostat and in control conditions were compared. Obtained data have show that under clinorotation conditions seedlings have experienced the following cell morphology changes structural chloroplast rearrangement in palisade cells, ...
Christian Bachmaier,Marcus Raitner
We introduce a new data structure called symlist based on an idea of Tarjan [17]. A symlist is a doubly linked list without any directional information encoded into its cells. In a symlist the two pointers in each cell have no fixed meaning like previous or next in standard lists.
Mullen, Robert L.
Background of the invention: Cellular materials can be made to combine high strength to weight ratio, elastic resilience and energy absorbing properties. They are attractive for lightweight structures, packaging and insulating purposes. Nature provides an abundance of examples in wood, leaves, cork, bone and many other organically built structures that ...
Blakers, A.
A new technique has been devised for the manufacture of thin (<60µm) highly efficient single crystalline solar cells. Novel methods of encapsulating these Sliver® solar cells have also been devised. Narrow grooves are formed through a 1-2mm thick wafer. Device processing (diffusion, oxidation, deposition) is performed on the wafer, so ...
Wolfs, Peter J. Central ...
Recent advances in low voltage electronics make possible the development of maximum power tracking converters for single high performance solar cells. Application areas include vehicle arrays where curvature of the array may be significant or where dappled lighting by roadside vegetation or structures produces highly irregular and rapidly changing illumination. ...
Nanu, M.
A new approach to the '3D solar-cell concept' is reported. Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition is employed to infiltrate CuInS2 into the pores of nanostructured TiO2. In this way it is possible to obtain a nanometer-scale interpenetrating network between n-type TiO2 and p-type CuInS2. Cells created this way show photovoltaic ...
Isenberg, J.
The principles of a recently introduced measurement technique for power losses in solar cells, illuminated lock-in thermography (ILT), are reviewed. The main advantage of ILT over dark lock-in Thermography (DLT) is measurement under realistic operational conditions of solar cells. The main focus of this paper is to demonstrate the wide ...
Yuan, Jinliang
Due to potential benefits of high energy conversion efficiency and low noise/pollution, fuel cells have attracted many application areas. In general, fuel cells can be applied on-board ships as emergency power supply, electric energy generation, power output for propulsion or where appropriate, a combination of these uses. In this paper, ...
Strayer David L - - 2004
Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., driving-only) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was ...
Takamatsu Shinji - - 2004
Over the past two decades, sugar chain structures of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced in healthy people, three types of trophoblastic disease, and some types of cell lines have been analyzed. The abnormal biantennary structure of hCG is a good marker for the diagnosis of malignant choriocarcinoma. In spite of ...
Rakauskas Michael E - - 2004
PROBLEM: The prevalence of automobile drivers talking on cell phones is growing, but the effect of that behavior on driving performance is unclear. Also unclear is the relationship between the difficulty level of a phone conversation and the resulting distraction. METHOD: This study used a driving simulator to determine the ...
Panettieri Reynold A RA - - 2004
Structural cells such as airway smooth muscle, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts play important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although considerable research effort has focused on the effects of steroids on leukocyte function and airway inflammation, few studies have investigated the effects of steroids on structural ...
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