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Liu Y Y Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan, - - 2013
A series of benzothiazole derivatives were screened for immunosuppressive activity; of these compounds BD750 was found to be the most effective immunosuppressant. The purpose of the current study was to determine the immunosuppressive activity of BD750 on T cell proliferation and its potential mode of action. T cell proliferation, CD25 ...
Saridomichelakis M N - - 2013
A seven-year-old, entire male, American Staffordshire bull terrier was diagnosed with chronic solar dermatitis and basal cell carcinoma, based on physical examination, cutaneous cytology and histopathology. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells did not express p53. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of canine basal cell ...
Denham Mark - - 2012
The floor plate is one of the major organizers of the developing nervous system through its secretion of sonic hedgehog (Shh). Although the floor plate is located within the neural tube, the derivation of the floor plate during development is still debatable and some studies suggest that floor plate cells ...
Li Man-Song - - 2012
There is great interest in the development of potentiator drugs to increase the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cystic fibrosis. We tested the ability of several anions to potentiate CFTR activity by a novel mechanism. Patch clamp recordings were used to investigate the ability of ...
Alfaro-Cervello Clara - - 2012
Two neurogenic regions have been described in the adult brain, the lateral ventricle subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus subgranular zone. It has been suggested that neural stem cells also line the central canal of the adult spinal cord. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining, we describe here ...
Ishii Mamoru M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, - - 2012
Cranial neural crest cells give rise to ectomesenchymal derivatives such as cranial bones, cartilage, smooth muscle, dentin, as well as melanocytes, corneal endothelial cells, and neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that although multipotent stem-like cells may exist during the course of cranial ...
Im Hee-Jeong HJ Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2012
The natural phytoestrogen resveratrol (RSV) may have therapeutic potential for arthritic conditions. RSV is chondroprotective for articular cartilage in rabbit models for arthritis, but its biological effects on human articular cartilage and chondrosarcoma cells are unknown. Effects of RSV on human articular cartilage homeostasis were studied by assessing production of ...
di Summa Pietro G PG Regenerative Biomedicine Group, Blond McIndoe Research Laboratories, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United - - 2013
Since the first reports of induction of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) into neuronal and glial cell phenotypes, expectations have increased regarding their use in tissue engineering applications for nerve repair. Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is a basic feature of survival, differentiation, and migration of Schwann cells (SC) during ...
Pieters Tim - - 2012
Classic derivation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells from blastocysts is inefficient, strain-dependent, and requires expert skills. Over recent years, several major improvements have greatly increased the success rate for deriving mouse ES cell lines. The first improvement was the establishment of a user-friendly and reproducible medium-alternating protocol that allows ...
Scopes D I C - - 2012
Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation into synaptotoxic, prefibrillar oligomers is a major pathogenic event underlying the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pharmacological and neuroprotective properties of a novel Aβ aggregation inhibitor, SEN1269, were investigated on aggregation and cell viability and in test systems relevant to synaptic function and memory, using both ...
Chew Ting Gang TG Mammalian Development Laboratory, Institute of Medical Biology, A-STAR, Singapore. - - 2012
Positioning of the cleavage plane is regulated to ensure proper animal development. Most animal cells rely on the astral microtubules to position the mitotic spindle, which in turn specifies the cleavage plane. The mouse zygote lacks discernible astral microtubules but still divides symmetrically. Here, we demonstrate a cloud-like accumulation of ...
Bose Raj - - 2012
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant with recognized neurotoxic effects, particularly to the developing nervous system. In the present study we show that nanomolar concentrations of MeHg can induce long-lasting effects in neural stem cells (NSCs). We investigated short-term direct and long-term inherited effects of exposure to MeHg (2.5 nM ...
Saha Shambaditya - - 2012
In fission yeast cells cortical nodes containing the protein Blt1p and several kinases appear early in G2, mature into cytokinetic nodes by adding anillin Mid1p, myosin-II, formin Cdc12p, and other proteins, and condense into a contractile ring by movements that depend on actin and myosin-II. Previous studies concluded that cells ...
Klincumhom Nuttha - - 2012
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be used as models of neuronal differentiation for the investigation of mammalian neurogenesis, pharmacological testing, and development of cell-based therapies. Recently, mouse iPS cell lines have been generated by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated transgenesis (SB-iPS). In this study, ...
Dolan E B EB Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, Biomechanics Research Centre (BMEC), National University of Ireland, Galway, - - 2012
Severe heat-shock to bone cells caused during orthopaedic procedures can result in thermal damage, leading to cell death and initiating bone resorption. By contrast, mild heat-shock has been proposed to induce bone regeneration. In this study, bone cells are exposed to heat-shock for short durations occurring during surgical cutting. Cellular ...
Nakayama Yoshitaka - - 2012
A key molecule of sensing machineries essential for survival upon hypo-osmotic shock is the mechanosensitive channel. The bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS functions directly for this purpose by releasing cytoplasmic solutes out of the cell, whereas plant MscS homologues are found to function in chloroplast organization. Here we show that the ...
Okayama Hiroto - - 2012
Cdc6 is the AAA+ ATPase that assembles pre-replicative complexes on replication origins in eukaryotic chromosomes. Recently the same Cdc6 protein was found to exert two more functions in mammalian cells to promote cell proliferation and survival: ATP-dependent activation of p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound Cdk2-cyclin A/E complexes and obstruction of apoptosome assembly ...
Nishiyama Chihiro - - 2012
Cell migration is fundamental to organogenesis. During development, the enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) that give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS) migrate and colonize the entire length of the gut, which undergoes substantial growth and morphological rearrangement. How ENCCs adapt to such changes during migration, however, is not ...
Zhang Yueping - - 2012
The input synapses of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) have been extensively studied and much has been learned about their dynamics, plasticity and functionality. In contrast there is limited information available about PC output synapses. This study uses dual cell recording methods to investigate synaptic dynamics and plasticity at individual PC ...
Xia Xue - - 2012
The intricate, and often polarized, ingrowth walls of transfer cells (TCs) amplify their plasma membrane surface areas to confer a transport function of supporting high rates of nutrient exchange across apo-/symplasmic interfaces. The TC ingrowth wall comprises a uniform wall layer on which wall ingrowths are deposited. Signals and signal ...
Halder Georg - - 2012
The physical and mechanical properties of the cellular microenvironment regulate cell shape and can strongly influence cell fate. How mechanical cues are sensed and transduced to regulate gene expression has long remained elusive. Recently, cues from the extracellular matrix, cell adhesion sites, cell shape and the actomyosin cytoskeleton were found ...
Song Xiaodong - - 2012
Abstract Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophylls carotenoid, possesses significant anticancer effects. However, to date, the molecular mechanism of anticancer remains unclear. In the present research, we studied the anticancer mechanism of AST, including the changes in cell ultrastructure, such as the mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgi complex, and cytoskeleton, the ...
Koncz Gábor - - 2012
Activated T cells secrete Fas ligand (FasL)-containing vesicles (secreted vesicles) that induce death of target cells. We provide evidence that secreted vesicles from culture supernatants (Csup) of various origins are able to generate both Fas-dependent apoptotic and Fas-independent, nonapoptotic cell death. In the absence of Fas, the nonapoptotic, Fas-independent pathway ...
Soh Siowling - - 2012
A tomography approach is used to reconstruct 3D cell shapes and, simultaneously, the shapes/positions of the nuclei within these cells. Subjecting the cells to well-defined microconfinements of various diameters allow for relating the steady-state shapes of cells to their static-mechanical properties. The observed shapes show striking regularities between different cell ...
Mistrík P P UCL Ear Institute, 332 Gray’s Inn Road, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2012
The lateral membrane of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells contains prestin, a protein which can act as a fast voltage-driven actuator responsible for electromotility and enhanced sensitivity to sound. The protein belongs to the SLC26 family of transporters whose members are characterised as able to exchange halides for SO(4)(2-) or ...
Raeisi Elham - - 2012
This study investigated whether molecules spontaneously transported inside cells, like glucose derivatives, can also be used as electropermeabilization markers. Uptake of a fluorescent deoxyglucose derivative (2-NBDG) by normal and electropermeabilized cells in culture was analyzed. 2-NBDG was added to DC-3F cell suspensions and cells, exposed or not to eight square-wave ...
Pham Anh H AH Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, - - 2012
Many pathological states involve dysregulation of mitochondrial fusion, fission, or transport. These dynamic events are usually studied in cells lines because of the challenges in tracking mitochondria in tissues. To investigate mitochondrial dynamics in tissues and disease models, we generated two mouse lines with photo-activatable mitochondria (PhAM). In the PhAM(floxed) ...
Bae Eun-Jin - - 2012
Aims: Abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates is one of the key pathological features of many neurodegenerative movement disorders and dementias. These pathological aggregates propagate into larger brain regions as the disease progresses, with the associated clinical symptoms becoming increasingly severe and complex. However, the factors that induce α-synuclein aggregation and ...
Krausova M - - 2012
Intestinal homeostasis is a complex and tightly regulated process governed by a variety of signalling pathways that balance cell proliferation and differentiation. As revealed by extensive use of defined mouse models, perturbations within the signalling circuitry trigger initial expansion of premalignant cells. In this review, we attempt to summarise recent advances in ...
Lapray Damien D Medical Research Council Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. - - 2012
A large variety of GABAergic interneurons control information processing in the hippocampal circuits governing the formation of neuronal representations. Whether distinct hippocampal interneuron types contribute differentially to information processing during behavior is not known. We employed a new technique for recording and labeling interneurons and pyramidal cells in drug-free, freely ...
Evans Peter J - - 2012
Factors limiting the hypothermic preservation of hepatocytes on gelatin gels at 10°C were investigated. Following 4days of preservation, uniform morphological changes started to appear. The cells exhibited halos that increased in size. The particulate matter of the cell was confined to the central region. Cell viability was reduced from day ...
Gaspar Diana - - 2012
Anticancer peptides are polycationic amphiphiles capable of preferentially killing a wide spectrum of cancer cells relative to noncancerous cells. Their primary mode of action is an interaction with the cell membrane and subsequent activation of lytic effects; however, the exact mechanism responsible for this mode of action remains controversial. Using ...
Nones Jader - - 2012
The neural crest (NC) corresponds to a collection of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors endowed with both neural and mesenchymal potentials. The derivatives of the NC at trunk level include neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system in addition to melanocytes, smooth muscle cells and some endocrine cells. Environmental ...
Leshem Yehoram - - 2012
Double fertilization of the egg cell and the central cell by two sperm cells, resulting in the formation of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively, is a defining characteristic of flowering plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana female gametophytic mutant glauce (glc) can exhibit embryo development without any endosperm. Here, we show ...
Murooka Thomas T TT The Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, - - 2012
After host entry through mucosal surfaces, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates to lymphoid tissues to establish a generalized infection of the immune system. The mechanisms by which this virus spreads among permissive target cells locally during the early stages of transmission and systemically during subsequent dissemination are not known. In ...
Wu Chih-Yu - - 2012
A new continuous cell line, NTU-SE, was established from the pupal tissues of an economically important pest, the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). This cell line contains four major morphologic types: round, polymorphic, spindle-shaped, and comma-shaped cells. The population doubling time of this new line in TNM-FH medium supplemented ...
El Maarouf Abderrahman - - 2012
In vertebrates, polysialic acid (PSA) is typically added to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in the Golgi by PST or STX polysialyltransferase. PSA promotes plasticity, and its enhanced expression by viral delivery of the PST or STX gene has been shown to promote cellular processes that are useful for ...
Weng Mo M Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2012
A dynamic balance between stem cell maintenance and differentiation paces generation of post-mitotic progeny during normal development and maintenance of homeostasis. Recent studies show that Notch plays a key role in regulating the identity of neuroepithelial stem cells, which generate terminally differentiated neurons that populate the adult optic lobe via ...
Dupin Elisabeth - - 2012
A wide array of neural and non-neural cell types arises from the neural crest during vertebrate embryogenesis. The neural crest forms transiently in the dorsal neural primordium to yield migratory cells that will invade nearly all tissues and later, differentiate into bones and cartilages, vascular smooth muscle cells, connective tissues, ...
Wang Peng-Yuan - - 2012
This study aimed to investigate the effects of submicron grooved topography and surface cell affinity on the attachment, proliferation and collagen synthesis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cells. Two grooved polystyrene (PS) surfaces (equal groove/ridge width of 800 nm) with a groove depth of 100 or 700 nm were fabricated and modified ...
Pérez-Garnés Manuel - - 2012
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are of great interest for regenerative purposes since they are believed to aid axonal growth. With the view set on the strategies to achieve reconnection between neuronal structures, it is of great importance to characterize the behaviour of these cells on long thread-like structures that may ...
Bengleil Mudafara - - 2012
Abstract Context: Arsenic, a toxic metal with major health concerns, elicits up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in rat hepatoma FGC4 cells, together with evidence of detachment of viable cells from the growth substratum. Objective: To determine if this cell detachment was linked to anoikis, and the impact of ...
Xie Huirong - - 2012
Endocannabinoid signaling plays key roles in multiple female reproductive events. Previous studies have shown an interesting phenomenon, that mice with either silenced or elevated endocannabinoid signaling via Cnr1 encoding CB(1) show similar defects in several pregnancy events, including preimplantation embryo development. To unravel the downstream signaling of this phenomenon, microarray ...
Chao Ming-Wei - - 2012
Several alkylanilines with structures more complex than toluidines have been associated epidemiologically with human cancer. Their mechanism of action remains largely undetermined, and there is no reported evidence that it replicates that of multicyclic aromatic amines even though the principal metabolic pathways of P450-mediated hydroxylation and phase II conjugation are ...
Bronner Marianne E - - 2012
The neural crest is a stem cell population, unique to vertebrates, that gives rise to a vast array of derivatives, ranging from peripheral ganglia to the facial skeleton. This population is induced in the early embryo at the border of the neural plate, which will form the central nervous system ...
Dong Xiaoyun - - 2012
The functional significance of decreased RAP1GAP protein expression in human tumors is unclear. To identify targets of RAP1GAP downregulation in the thyroid gland, RAP1 and RAP2 protein expression in human thyroid cells and in primary thyroid tumors were analyzed. RAP1GAP and RAP2 were co-expressed in normal thyroid follicular cells. Intriguingly, ...
Kelliher Timothy T Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2012
Evidence from confocal microscopic reconstruction of maize anther development in fertile, mac1 (excess germ cells), and msca1 (no germ cells) flowers indicates that the male germ line is multiclonal and uses the MAC1 protein to organize the somatic niche. Furthermore, we identified redox status as a determinant of germ cell ...
Ausbacher Dominik - - 2012
We have recently discovered that small antimicrobial β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives (Mw<500) also display activity against cancer cells. To explore their drug potential, we have presently investigated the mechanisms of action of two derivatives BAA-1 (IC(50) 8.1μg/ml) and BAA-2 (IC(50) 3.8μg/ml) on Ramos human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Studies using annexin-V-FITC/PI staining ...
Kelsey Jessica S - - 2012
The ampA gene has a role in cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells overexpressing AmpA show an increase in cell migration, forming large plaques on bacterial lawns. A second-site suppressor of this ampA-overexpressing phenotype identified a previously uncharacterized gene, ndm, which is described here. The Ndm protein is predicted to ...
Freitas-Ribeiro Gláucia M - - 2012
The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the ...
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