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Results 201 - 250 of 9718
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Xu Jing - - 2012
Four new sesquiterpenes, myrrhterpenoids K-N (1-4) have been isolated from the resin of Commiphora myrrha. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1 and 4 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.
Sarkar Anjali A AA Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, - - 2012
Hectd1 mutant mouse embryos exhibit the neural tube defect exencephaly associated with abnormal cranial mesenchyme. Cellular rearrangements in cranial mesenchyme are essential during neurulation for elevation of the neural folds. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the abnormal behavior of Hectd1 mutant cranial mesenchyme. We demonstrate that Hectd1 is ...
Ball Kerri A - - 2012
The mitochondrial respiratory chain has been reported to play a role in the stabilization of HIF-1α when mammalian cells experience hypoxia, most likely through the generation of free radicals. Although previous studies have suggested the involvement of superoxide catalyzed by complex III more recent studies raise the possibility that nitric ...
Kar Rekha R Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, - - 2012
Gap junctions (GJ) and hemichannels (HC) formed from the protein subunits called connexins are transmembrane conduits for the exchange of small molecules and ions. Connexins and another group of HC-forming proteins, pannexins comprise the two families of transmembrane proteins ubiquitously distributed in vertebrates. Most cell types express more than one ...
Szőke István - - 2012
Abstract Purpose: The primary objective of this paper was to investigate the distribution of radiation doses and the related biological responses in cells of a central airway bifurcation of the human lung of a hypothetical worker of the New Mexico uranium mines during approximately 12 hours of exposure to short-lived ...
Akinci Ersin E Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, - - 2012
Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), Ngn3 (neurogenin 3) and MafA (v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A) have been reported to bring about the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells to beta (β) cells in vivo. We have investigated the mechanism of this process using a standard in vitro model ...
Rapa Elizabeth - - 2012
Alveolar (ARMS) and Embryonal (ERMS) rhabdomyosarcoma differ in their response to current treatments. The ARMS subtype has a less favourable prognosis and often presents with widespread metastases, while the less metastatic ERMS has a 5 year survival rate of more than 80 %. In this study we investigate gene expression differences that ...
Bourouina Nadia - - 2012
Liquid colloids, in the form of droplets grafted with specific biomolecules, are emerging as potential biomimetic systems. Here we show for the first time the possibility of forming hybrid conjugates between an advanced living cell model, the T cell of the Jurkat cell line, and a specifically grafted droplet. Using ...
Iwai Takashi - - 2012
Rhotekin is a downstream signal of Rho and is expressed in the central nervous system. However, the physiological role of rhotekin in the development of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons is unknown. In this study, we knocked down the expression of rhotekin protein with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in ...
Fong Chii Shyang CS Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
Polarized cortical cues are known to guide spindle movements to dictate division axis and cleavage site during asymmetric cell division. In a recent issue of Nature Cell Biology, Kiyomitsu and Cheeseman (2012) report two novel spindle-intrinsic signals that regulate spindle orientation and position in symmetrically dividing human cells.
Westerberg Lisa S - - 2012
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is a key cytoskeletal regulator of hematopoietic cells. Although WASP-knockout (WKO) mice have aberrant B-cell cytoskeletal responses, B-cell development is relatively normal. We hypothesized that N-WASP, a ubiquitously expressed homolog of WASP, may serve some redundant functions with WASP in B cells. In the present ...
Pfannes Eva K B - - 2012
Many essential functions in eukaryotic cells like phagocytosis, division, and motility rely on the dynamical properties of the actin cytoskeleton. A central player in the actin system is the Arp2/3 complex. Its activity is controlled by members of the WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family. In this work, we investigated the ...
Markova Olga - - 2012
During morphogenesis tissues significantly remodel by coordinated cell migrations and cell rearrangements. Central to this problem are cell shape changes that are driven by distinct cytoskeletal reorganization responsible for force generation. Calcium is a versatile and universal messenger that is implicated in the regulation of embryonic development. Although calcium transients ...
Woolner Sarah S Faculty of Life Sciences, Michael Smith Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. - - 2012
Orientation of cell division is a vital aspect of tissue morphogenesis and growth. Asymmetric divisions generate cell fate diversity and epithelial stratification, whereas symmetric divisions contribute to tissue growth, spreading, and elongation. Here, we describe a mechanism for positioning the spindle in symmetric cell divisions of an embryonic epithelium. We ...
Lambaerts Kathleen - - 2012
Epiboly, the spreading and the thinning of the blastoderm to cover the yolk cell and close the blastopore in fish embryos, is central to the process of gastrulation. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control this coordinated cell movement. By a combination of knockdown ...
Chiara Francesca - - 2012
Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells play a crucial role in the formation of the cerebral cortex, yet the molecules that control their development are largely unknown. Here, we show that Ebf transcription factors are expressed in forebrain signalling centres-the septum, cortical hem and the pallial-subpallial boundary-known to generate CR cells. We identified ...
Westermann Benedikt - - 2012
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles. Frequent cycles of fusion and fission adapt the morphology of the mitochondrial compartment to the metabolic needs of the cell. Mitochondrial fusion is particularly important in respiratory active cells. It allows the spreading of metabolites, enzymes, and mitochondrial gene products throughout the entire mitochondrial compartment. ...
Liu Qingjun - - 2012
Vesicular exocytosis plays an important role in many physiological processes. The dense-core vesicles release of chromaffin cells is a suitable model for the presynaptic process in neurosecretory cells. In this study, light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was introduced as a label-free recording method for vesicle release by the local extracellular acidification. ...
Qin Xian-Yang - - 2012
The carcinogenic activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is responsible for stimulating growth in estrogen-dependent breast cancer tissues, cell lines and rodent studies. However, it is not fully understood how this compound promotes mammary carcinogenesis. In our study, we examined the effect of BPA on cellular proliferation and senescence in human ...
Doan Lisa - - 2012
Chlorhexidine is recommended by several anesthesiology societies for antisepsis before regional anesthesia, but there is concern it may be neurotoxic. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine in human neuronal and rat Schwann cells. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and rat RSC96 Schwann cells were incubated with serial dilutions of 2% ...
Gebbie R C - - 2012
A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthaired cat was examined because of lethargy, inappetance and weight loss. No clinically significant haematological or biochemical abnormalities were detected, but an abdominal mass was palpated. Abdominal examination using ultrasonography revealed soft tissue masses in the cranial abdomen, involving the spleen, as well as the ...
Hao Hongbo - - 2012
Genes associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19) was identified as a tumor suppressor protein associated with apoptosis and growth inhibition. Here, we report that the expression levels of GRIM-19 are significantly attenuated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with deteriorating differentiation states, hepatic capsule invasion and microvascular invasion, suggesting the potential ...
Awasthi Niranjan - - 2012
Gemcitabine has limited clinical benefits for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in PDAC. We investigated the effects of NVP-BEZ235, a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, in combination with gemcitabine and endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP) in experimental ...
Sager Ross - - 2012
Cell death is a biological process that occurs during differentiation and maturation of certain cell types, during senescence, or as part of a defense mechanism against microbial pathogens. Intercellular coordination is thought to be necessary to restrict the spread of death signals, although little is known about how cell death ...
Li Yikun - - 2012
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is the rate-limiting factor for cap-dependent translation initiation, which is known to regulate oncogenesis. Elevated eIF4E and its negative impact on prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been reported previously. However, its potential as a therapeutic target and role in regulation ...
Roque Telma - - 2012
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(waf1/cip) mediates the p53-dependent G1/S checkpoint, which is generally considered to be a critical requirement to maintain genomic stability after DNA damage. We used staggered 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine/5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine double-labeling in vivo to investigate the cell cycle progression and the role of p21(waf1/cip) in the DNA damage response of ...
Feng Xuezhu - - 2012
Unlike mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are closely related to the inner cell mass, human ESCs appear to be more closely related to the later primitive ectoderm. For example, human ESCs and primitive ectoderm share a common epithelial morphology, growth factor requirements, and the potential to differentiate to all ...
Cheung Wing - - 2012
Efficient delivery of large intact vectors into mammalian cells remains problematical. Here we evaluate delivery by bacterial invasion of two large BACs of more than 150 kb in size into various cells. First, we determined the effect of several drugs on bacterial delivery of a small plasmid into different cell ...
Kwintkiewicz Jakub - - 2012
Metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3) is a constituent of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) protein complex that regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure and can facilitate cohesin loading onto DNA. The biological function of MTA3 within the NuRD complex is unknown. Herein, we show that MTA3 was expressed highly ...
Gu Gongping - - 2012
MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) plays important roles in cell growth and tumor invasion via mediating cleavage of MMP2/gelatinase A and a variety of substrates including type I collagen. BST-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is a membrane tetherin whose expression dramatically reduces the release of a broad range ...
Medrano Jose V - - 2012
Our understanding of human germ cell development is limited in large part due to inaccessibility of early human development to molecular genetic analysis. Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to differentiate to cells of all three embryonic germ layers, as well ...
Colanesi Sarah S Developmental Biology Programme, Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, - - 2012
Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish and investigate the effects of a ...
Illingworth Joseph J JJ Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2012
Results from live-cell microscopy suggest that the behaviour of isolated components of the T-cell activation machinery in vitro does not represent the reality inside cells. Understanding the cellular-scale dynamics of microcluster migration can only be accomplished by in situ observation. Developments in 'super-resolution' microscopy have permitted investigators to move beyond ...
Roti Roti Elon C EC REI Division, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, - - 2012
Doxorubicin (DXR) is a frontline chemotherapy agent implicated in unintended ovarian failure in female cancer survivors. The fertility preservation techniques currently available for cancer patients are often time and cost prohibitive and do not necessarily preserve endocrine function. There are no drug-based ovary protection therapies clinically available. This study provides ...
Fahrmayr C C Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, - - 2012
The coordinate activity of hepatic uptake transporters [e.g. organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)], drug-metabolizing enzymes [e.g. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1)] and efflux pumps (e.g. MRP2) is a crucial determinant of drug disposition. However, limited data are available on transport of drugs (e.g. ezetimibe, etoposide) and their glucuronidated metabolites by human ...
Qiu Ni N Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410078, - - 2012
Mutations and/or deletions of Pkd1 in mouse models resulted in attenuation of osteoblast function and defective bone formation; however, the function of PKD1 in human osteoblast and bone remains uncertain. In the current study, we used lentivirus-mediated shRNA technology to stably knock down PKD1 in the human osteoblastic MG-63 cell ...
Ha Yun Jung - - 2012
Previously, we demonstrated that the p190 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (p190RhoGEF) was induced following CD40 stimulation of B cells. In this study, we examined whether p190RhoGEF and a downstream effector molecule RhoA are required for B cell differentiation. Expression of p190RhoGEF positively correlated with the expression of surface markers ...
Gire David H DH Neuroscience Program, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado, Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2012
Within the olfactory system, information flow from the periphery onto output mitral cells (MCs) of the olfactory bulb (OB) has been thought to be mediated by direct synaptic inputs from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Here, we performed patch-clamp measurements in rat and mouse OB slices to investigate mechanisms of OSN ...
Wu Yilin - - 2012
Flagellated bacteria can swim across moist surfaces within a thin layer of fluid, a means for surface colonization known as swarming. This fluid spreads with the swarm, but how it does so is unclear. We used micron-sized air bubbles to study the motion of this fluid within swarms of Escherichia ...
Thérond Pascal P - - 2012
Secretion of the Hedgehog morphogen induces different cell fates over the short and long ranges during developmental patterning. Mature Hedgehog carries hydrophobic palmitic acid and cholesterol modifications essential for its correct spread. The long-range activity of Hedgehog raises questions about how a dually lipidated protein can spread in the hydrophilic ...
Kapoor Sonia - - 2012
Cell motility is an essential aspect of metastatic spread of cancer. Microtubule-targeted agents exhibit anti-metastatic properties, the underlying mechanism of which remains understudied. In this study, we have investigated the role of microtubule dynamics in migration of cancer cells using indanocine, a synthetic small molecule inhibitor of tubulin. We found ...
Yang Wei - - 2012
Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, ...
Dando Robin - - 2012
Our previous studies have shown that a specially designed, so-called synchronization modulation electric field can entrain active transporter Na/K pumps in the cell membrane. This approach was previously developed in a study of single cells using a voltage clamp to monitor the pump currents. We are now expanding our study ...
Baptista Sofia - - 2012
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug of abuse that causes severe brain damage. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, particularly regarding the impact of METH on hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is known to be neuroprotective under several pathological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect ...
Sun Ziyi - - 2012
Connexin channels mediate electrical synaptic transmission when assembled as cell-to-cell pores at gap junctions and can mediate transmembrane currents when expressed in plasma membranes as hemichannels. They are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina where in electrical synapses they are critical for transmission of visual signals. While the roles of ...
Zeni Olga - - 2012
In this study, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were exposed, as a model of neuron-like cells, to 1950 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation with a signal used by the 3G wireless technology of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to assess possible adverse effects. RF exposure for 24 h at a specific absorption rate ...
Luo Xinjing - - 2012
The cytoprotective role of extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 has been demonstrated in various cell types, including neuronal cells; however, few studies have investigated the actual role of Hsp72 in the survival of Schwann cells (SCs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exogenous Hsp72 on Schwann ...
Sumegi Mate - - 2012
Recently developed pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches, with their own advantages and disadvantages, have become indispensable tools in modern neuroscience. Here, we employed a previously described knock-in mouse line (GABA(A)Rγ2(77I)lox) in which the γ2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) was mutated to become zolpidem insensitive (γ2(77I)) and used viral vectors ...
Wu Yuni Y Key Laboratory of Developmental Diseases in Childhood, Department of Hematology, Affiliated Children’s Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, China. - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) in combination with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 cells. The HL-60 cells were treated with 300 µg/mL TMP, 0.5 µM As2O3, and 300 µg/mL TMP combined with 0.5 µM As2O3, respectively. The ...
Saunders Timothy E TE Department of Computational and Systems Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, - - 2012
Chemical gradients can generate pattern formation in biological systems. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a cortical gradient of pom1p (a DYRK-type protein kinase) functions to position sites of cytokinesis and cell polarity and to control cell length. Here, using quantitative imaging, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and mathematical modeling, we study ...
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