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Lu Dah-Yuu - - 2012
Resistin is originally reported as an adipose tissue-specific hormone and is thought to represent a link between obesity and insulin-resistant diabetes. Adipokines exert energy -regulation and has been reported to have neuroprotective effect like leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin. However, the role of resistin in neuroprotective effect has not been explored. ...
Furukawa Ryohei - - 2012
In larvae of the starfish, Asterina pectinifera, mesenchyme cells operate in the defense system through various behaviors. We have investigated mesenchyme cell dynamics during the immune response by identifying ApDOCK, a new member of the DOCK180 superfamily protein. In 4-day-old bipinnaria larvae processed for morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of ApDOCK, injection ...
Nguyen Thanh D - - 2012
Methods for probing mechanical responses of mammalian cells to electrical excitations can improve our understanding of cellular physiology and function. The electrical response of neuronal cells to applied voltages has been studied in detail, but less is known about their mechanical response to electrical excitations. Studies using atomic force microscopes ...
Jenson Lacey J - - 2012
The goal of this research was to induce neuron-like properties in Sf21 cells, an insect ovarian cell line, which could lead to a new high-throughput insecticide screening method and a way to mass produce insect neuronal material for basic research. This study applied differentiation agents to produce viable neuron-like cells. ...
Popow-Wo┼║niak Agnieszka - - 2012
The dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton is regulated by a large number of actin-binding proteins. Among them, the interaction of ADF/cofilin with monomeric and filamentous actin is very important, since it severs actin filaments. It also positively influences actin treadmilling. The activity of ADF/cofilin is reversibly regulated by phosphorylation and ...
Mojic Marija - - 2012
We have examined the influence of the nitric oxide (NO)-modified anti-inflammatory drug (S,R)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxasole acetic acid (VGX-1027) named GIT-27NO or the NO-modified antiviral drug saquinavir (Saq) named Saq-NO on two colon cancer cell lines, mouse CT26CL25 and human HCT116. The effects of the drugs on cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and metastatic ...
Tymchenko Nina - - 2012
The mechanical properties and responses of cells to external stimuli (including drugs) are closely connected to important phenomena such as cell spreading, motility, activity, and potentially even differentiation. Here, reversible changes in the viscoelastic properties of surface-attached fibroblasts were induced by the cytoskeleton-perturbing agent cytochalasin D, and studied in real-time ...
Yakimovich Artur - - 2012
Viruses spread between cells, tissues, and organisms by cell-free and cell-cell transmissions. Both mechanisms enhance disease development, but it is difficult to distinguish between them. Here, we analyzed the transmission mode of human adenovirus (HAdV) in monolayers of epithelial cells by wet laboratory experimentation and a computer simulation. Using live-cell ...
Krasteva G - - 2012
Specialized epithelial cells of the respiratory tract have been termed "solitary chemosensory cells" based upon the expression of components of the canonical sweet, umami and bitter taste transduction pathway, or "brush cells" based upon their characteristic morphological feature, i.e. an apical, brush-like tuft of rigid, villin containing microvilli. Cells defined ...
Nishiyama Jun - - 2012
Cerebellar Purkinje cells, which convey the only output from the cerebellar cortex, play an essential role in cerebellar functions, such as motor coordination and motor learning. To understand how Purkinje cells develop and function in the mature cerebellum, an efficient method for molecularly perturbing them is needed. Here we demonstrate ...
Xu Z-Y - - 2012
Despite remarkable progress in diagnosis and treatment, malignant glioma, a highly lethal cancer of the central nervous system, remains incurable. Although glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) represent a relatively small fraction of the cells in malignant glioma, they can proliferate and self renew extensively, being crucial for tumor recurrence. Cancer treatment ...
Zhang Wen-Jun - - 2012
The roles of the interactions between nervous, endocrine, and immune systems have been well established in human health and diseases. At present, little is known about the cellular bases for neural-endocrine-immune networks in the gastrointestinal mucosa. In the current study, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum autopsies from 15 ...
Green Rebecca A - - 2012
Cytokinesis, the final step in cell division, partitions the contents of a single cell into two. In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs through cortical remodeling orchestrated by the anaphase spindle. Cytokinesis relies on a tight interplay between signaling and cellular mechanics and has attracted the attention of both biologists and physicists ...
Solnica-Krezel Lila - - 2012
Gastrulation is a fundamental phase of animal embryogenesis during which germ layers are specified, rearranged, and shaped into a body plan with organ rudiments. Gastrulation involves four evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements, each of which results in a specific morphologic transformation. During emboly, mesodermal and endodermal cells become internalized beneath the ...
Li Xiao-Yu - - 2012
The cytotoxicity of alkylmethylimidazolium-based ionic liquids on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH), and acridine orange staining in the present study. Mitochondrial depolarization, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caspase-3 activity were also determined. The results showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity ...
Zachar Peter C - - 2012
A highly sensitive oxygen (O(2)) sensing mechanism is critical for the survival of all vertebrate species. In fish, this requirement is fullfilled by the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of the gill. NECs are neurotransmitter-containing chemosensory cells that are diffusely distributed within a thin epithelial layer of the filaments and respiratory lamellae ...
Koethe Susanne - - 2012
Transmission of measles virus (MV) to T cells by its early CD150(+) target cells is considered to be crucial for viral dissemination within the hematopoietic compartment. Using cocultures involving monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, we now show that T cells acquire MV most efficiently from cis-infected DCs rather ...
Fishwick Katherine J - - 2012
The neural crest is a population of migratory cells that follows specific pathways during development, eventually differentiating to form parts of the face, heart, and peripheral nervous system, the latter of which includes contributions from placodal cells derived from the ectoderm. Stationary, premigratory neural crest cells acquire the capacity to ...
Jagielska Anna A Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Myelination and its regenerative counterpart remyelination represent one of the most complex cell-cell interactions in the central nervous system (CNS). The biochemical regulation of axon myelination via the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) has been characterized extensively. However, most biochemical analysis has been conducted in vitro ...
Male Keith B - - 2012
Three water dispersable graphene derivatives, graphene oxide (GO), sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO), and sulfonated graphene (SG) were prepared and probed for their plausible cytotoxicity by non-invasive electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). With Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells adhered on gold microelectrodes as an active interface, it is feasible to monitor ...
Li Shuping - - 2012
Angiogenin (ANG), also known as ribonuclease (RNASE) 5, is a member of the vertebrate-specific, secreted RNASE superfamily. ANG was originally identified as a tumor angiogenic factor, but its biological activity has been extended from inducing angiogenesis to stimulating cell proliferation and more recently, to promoting cell survival. Under growth conditions, ...
Shen Tao - - 2012
Cell division cycle 25 A (Cdc25A), a dual-specificity protein phosphatase, is one of the most crucial cell cycle regulators, which removes the inhibitory phosphorylation in cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), such as CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6, and positively regulates the activities of CDKs that lead to cell cycle progression. In addition, Cdc25A ...
Salani Sabrina S Department of Neurological Sciences, Dino Ferrari Centre, University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. - - 2012
Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness likely associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. At present, no cures or efficacious treatments are available for these diseases, but cell transplantation could be a potential therapeutic strategy. Transplantation of myoblasts using ...
Rouaux Caroline C Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Recent discoveries in nuclear reprogramming have challenged the dogma that the identity of terminally differentiated cells cannot be changed. The identification of molecular mechanisms that reprogram differentiated cells to a new identity carries profound implications for regenerative medicine across organ systems. The central nervous system (CNS) has historically been considered ...
Kurahashi Masaaki M Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, - - 2012
An obstacle to understanding motor pathologies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is that the physiology of some of the cellular components of the gut wall is not understood. Morphologists identified fibroblast-like cells in the tunica muscularis many years ago, but little is known about these interstitial cells because of inadequate ...
Martell Amber L AL Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, KCBD 4124, 900 E 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2012
Unraveling the mechanisms underlying oscillatory behavior is critical for understanding normal and pathological brain processes. Here we used electrophysiology in mouse neocortical slices and principles of nonlinear dynamics to demonstrate how an increase in the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) conductance can create a nonlinear whole-cell current-voltage (I-V) relationship which leads ...
Chamniansawat Siriporn - - 2012
The localization of estrogen (E2) has been clearly shown in hippocampus, called local hippocampal E2. It enhanced neuronal synaptic plasticity and protected neuron form cerebral ischemia, similar to those effects of exogenous E2. However, the interactive function of hippocampal and exogenous E2 on synaptic plasticity activation and neuroprotection is still ...
Bertram Bettina - - 2012
Cells of the central nervous system are notoriously difficult to transfect. This is not only true for neurons and glial cells but also for dividing neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs). About ten years ago a major advance was provided by introduction of the nucleofection technology that allowed for transfection ...
Krasteva G - - 2012
AIM: The airway epithelial surface is constantly exposed to inhaled environmental factors and pathogens. Bitter "tasting" bacterial products such as quorum sensing molecules (QSM) can be detected by solitary chemosensory cells of the upper respiratory tract. Recently, we have shown that tracheal brush cells are cholinergic chemosensory cells affecting the ...
Friis Ulla G - - 2012
A major rate-limiting step in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is the release of active renin from endocrine cells (juxtaglomerular (JG) cells) in the media layer of the afferent glomerular arterioles. The number and distribution of JG cells vary with age and the physiological level of stimulation; fetal life and chronic stimulation ...
Kowalczyk Tomasz - - 2012
In this study we extended our earlier in vitro findings concerning the discovery of a novel type of theta-related cells, which we have termed gating cells. There were two main objectives of our present investigations. The first was to determine the distribution of theta gating cells in the separated CA1 ...
Li Yan Y The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912, USA. - - 2012
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and oculocutaneous telangiectasias. The gene mutated in this disease, ATM (A-T, mutated), encodes a 370-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase. ATM not only mediates cellular response to DNA damage but also acts as an activator of Akt in response to insulin. ...
Valdivia J - - 2012
Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, with a worldwide distribution and high prevalence in small ruminant populations. This disease causes significant economic losses in small ruminants through reduced meat, wool, and milk production. C. pseudotuberculosis can also affect horses, domestic and wild large ruminants, ...
Shoshi A - - 2012
Adhesion and spreading of cells strongly depend on the properties of the underlying surface, which has significant consequences in long-term cell behavior adaption. This relationship is important for the understanding of both biological functions and their bioactivity in disease-related applications. Employing our magnetic lab-on-a-chip system, we present magnetoresistive-based real-time and ...
Visan Anke - - 2012
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) represent an attractive cellular system for in vitro studies in developmental biology as well as toxicology because of their potential to differentiate into all fetal cell lineages. The present study aims to establish an in vitro system for developmental neurotoxicity testing employing mESCs. We developed ...
Saito Daisuke - - 2012
The autonomic nervous system, which includes the sympathetic neurons and adrenal medulla, originates from the neural crest. Combining avian blood vessel-specific gene manipulation and mouse genetics, we addressed a long-standing question of how neural crest cells (NCCs) generate sympathetic and medullary lineages during embryogenesis. We found that the dorsal aorta ...
Veenman Leo - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Previously, several important roles for glutamate have been described for the biology of primary brain tumors. For example, glutamate has been suggested to promote glioma cell proliferation by the activation of the 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors. In the present study, we determined the potential regulatory roles ...
Chen Peng - - 2012
Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important for products used in our daily lives, such as the masses of titanium dioxide nanoparticle agglomerates (TiO(2) NPs) used in the pharmaceutical industry, for cosmetic products, or for pigments. Meanwhile, a serious lack of detailed information concerning the interaction between the nanomaterials and cells limits ...
Kordowich Simon - - 2012
Pax4 belongs to the paired-box family of transcription factors. The analysis of loss- and gain-of-function mutant animals revealed that this factor plays a crucial role in the endocrine pancreas. Indeed, Pax4 is required for the genesis of insulin-producing beta-cells. Remarkably, the sole misexpression of Pax4 in glucagon-expressing cells is able ...
Kopecká Marie - - 2012
The unique long-neck yeast Fellomyces fuzhouensis has F-actin cables and cortical patches. Here, we describe a new F-actin structure present in fungi, a perinuclear F-actin collar ring around the cell nucleus. This F-actin structure can be visualized by fluorescent microscopic imaging of rhodamine-phalloidin-stained F-actin in cells treated with the mitotic ...
Wang Ze-Jun ZJ Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, - - 2012
Cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) are present in glomeruli of the main olfactory bulb. The functions of CB1Rs and their endogenous activators, endocannabinoids, for glomerular signaling are unknown. Glomeruli contain at least three types of neurons: periglomerular (PG), external tufted (ET), and short-axon (SA) cells. PG cells form inhibitory GABAergic dendrodendritic synapses ...
Ceccarelli Gabriele - - 2012
Whole body vibration (WBV) is a very widespread mechanical stimulus used in physical therapy, rehabilitation and fitness centres. It has been demonstrated that vibration induces improvements in muscular strength and performance and increases bone density. We investigated the effects of low-amplitude, high frequency vibration (HFV) at the cellular and tissue ...
Ruan Ye Chun - - 2012
Extracellular ATP is essential for the function of the epididymis and spermatozoa, but ATP release in the epididymis remains uncharacterized. We investigated here whether epithelial cells release ATP into the lumen of the epididymis, and we examined the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl(-) and ...
Shaw Michael James - - 2012
The initial attachment of cells to biomaterials is an important indicator of longer-term cell-substrate biocompatibility. In order to study and quantify this interaction we have developed a protocol for measuring temporal changes in the 3D morphology of mammalian cells seeded onto different substrates using fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy and ...
Albillos Almudena - - 2012
Chromaffin cells have been widely used to study neurosecretion since they exhibit similar calcium dependence of several exocytotic steps as synaptic terminals do, but having the enormous advantage of being neither as small or fast as neurons, nor as slow as endocrine cells. In the present study, secretion associated to ...
Davoli Teresa - - 2012
Human cancers with a subtetraploid karyotype are thought to originate from tetraploid precursors, but the cause of tetraploidization is unknown. We previously documented endoreduplication in mouse cells with persistent telomere dysfunction or genome-wide DNA damage. We now report that endoreduplication and mitotic failure occur during telomere crisis in human fibroblasts ...
Vitolo M I - - 2013
Loss of PTEN tumor suppressor enhances metastatic risk in breast cancer, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. We report that homozygous deletion of PTEN in mammary epithelial cells induces tubulin-based microtentacles (McTNs) that facilitate cell reattachment and homotypic aggregation. Treatment with contractility-modulating drugs showed that McTNs in PTEN(-/-) cells ...
Hidalgo Magdalena - - 2012
Cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival are influenced by the availability of oxygen. The effect of hypoxia on embryonic cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms to maintain cellular viability are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that hypoxia during Xenopus embryogenesis rapidly leads to a significant developmental delay ...
Hsu Li-Wen - - 2012
Chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been investigated as paracellular permeation enhancers for facilitating the oral bioavailability of hydrophilic macromolecules. As is well known, CS can transiently open the tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, thus enhancing the paracellular permeability. However, the signaling mechanism that is related to the effect ...
Tien An-Chi - - 2012
Expansion of astrocyte populations in the central nervous system is characteristic of evolutionarily more complex organisms. However, regulation of mammalian astrocyte precursor proliferation during development remains poorly understood. Here, we used Aldh1L1-GFP to identify two morphologically distinct types of proliferative astrocyte precursors: radial glia (RG) in the ventricular zone and ...
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