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Nakagawa Shinichi S RNA Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan, - - 2015
In situ hybridization is a powerful method of examining the spatial distribution of RNA molecules at the subcellular level and serves as a basic technique in the fields of cell and developmental biology. In this technique, target RNAs are fixed in cells using formaldehyde and then hybridized to complementary probes ...
Hirose Tetsuro T Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15 Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0815, Japan, - - 2015
A wide variety of noncoding RNAs are thought to play fundamental and regulatory functions in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their primary functions have yet to be elucidated. Here, we describe a method for the rapid and efficient elimination of specific nuclear noncoding RNAs in mammalian cells using chemically modified ...
Dickinson Daniel J DJ Program in Cancer Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, - - 2015
The discovery of polarized epithelial tissue in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum establishes this classical model organism as a novel system for the study of epithelial polarity and morphogenesis. D. discoideum grows as single cells and is easily maintained in cell culture. Starvation of the cells triggers a multicellular developmental ...
Mancini Stéphane J C SJ Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, INSERM U1104, CNRS UMR7280, case 906, Aix-Marseille Université, UM2, 13288, Marseille cedex 09, - - 2015
Galectin-1 (GAL1) is a pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) ligand that induces pre-BCR clustering and leads to efficient pre-B cell proliferation and differentiation in the bone marrow. To study pre-BCR-GAL1 interactions and its functional consequence on the early steps of the B cell development, we combine structural nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ...
Arnoys Eric J EJ Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, - - 2015
A large number of observations on the nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of galectin-3 have been reported, correlating the presence or absence of the protein in a particular compartment of the cell to various parameters such as source of the cells under study, specific cell type, culture conditions, proliferation status of ...
Kragler Friedrich F Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476, Golm/Potsdam, Germany, - - 2015
Pressure microinjection can be used to introduce fluorescent dyes and labeled macromolecules into single cells. The method allows measuring transport activity of macromolecules such as proteins and RNA molecules within and between cells. Routinely, plant mesophyll cells are injected with fluorescent dextran molecules of specific sizes to measure an increase ...
Ostrup Olga O Department of Tumor Biology, Oslo University Hospital RH, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
When a cell is reprogrammed to a new phenotype, the nucleolus undergoes more or less dramatic modulations, which can be used as a marker for the occurrence of the reprogramming. This phenomenon is most pronounced when differentiated cells are reprogrammed to totipotency when they are submitted to cloning by somatic ...
Dahl John Arne JA Institute of Clinical Medicine, Division of diagnostics and intervention, Department of Microbiology, Oslo university hospital, Rikshospitalet, NO-0027, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method for mapping protein-DNA interactions in vivo. Genomic localization of histone modifications, transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins can be revealed by ChIP. However, conventional ChIP protocols require the use of large numbers of cells, which prevents the application of ChIP to rare cell ...
Re Richard N RN Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA, - - 2015
Many extracellular signaling proteins act within their cells of synthesis and/or in target cells after internalization. This type of action is called intracrine and it plays a role in diverse biological processes. The mechanisms of intracrine intracellular action are becoming clear thanks to the application of modern techniques of molecular ...
Bidarimath Mallikarjun M Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, 18 Stuart Street, Kingston, ON, Canada, K7L - - 2015
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is an excellent and perhaps the only platform to isolate homogeneous cell populations from specific microscopic regions of heterogeneous tissue section, under direct microscopic visualization. The basic operations of the LCM system are based on (a) microscopic visualization of phenotypically identified cells of interest, (b) selective ...
Mariotti Francesca R FR Department of Experimental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Via Ardeatina 306, 00142, Roma, - - 2015
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, whose morphology can vary from an elongated and interconnected network to fragmented units. In recent years, outstanding discoveries have linked mitochondrial morphology to the regulation of an increasing number of biological processes, such as biosynthetic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, calcium buffering, and cell ...
Long Kevin K EMD Millipore, 28820 Single Oak Drive, Temecula, CA, 92590, USA, - - 2015
Autophagy, a highly regulated homeostatic degradative process, allows cells to reallocate nutrients from less important to more essential processes under extreme conditions of starvation. Autophagy also prevents the buildup of damaged proteins and organelles that cause chronic tissue damage and disease. Although a topic of great interest with involvement of ...
Katholnig Karl K Institute for Medical Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Vienna, 1090, - - 2015
The isolation of nuclei from eukaryotic cells is essential for studying the composition and the dynamic changes of the nuclear proteome to gain insight into the mechanisms of gene expression and cell signalling. Primary cells are particularly challenging for standard nuclear isolation protocols due to low protein content, sample degradation, ...
Li Zhou Fang ZF Department of Biology, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd., Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P.R. China, - - 2015
The nucleolus was one of the first subcellular organelles to be isolated from the cell. The advent of modern proteomic techniques has resulted in the identification of thousands of proteins in this organelle, and live cell imaging technology has allowed the study of the dynamics of these proteins. However, the ...
Kang Mijeong M Department of Chemistry, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Daejeon, 305-701, - - 2015
Intracellular delivery of exogenous materials is an essential technique required for many fundamental biological researches and medical treatments. As our understanding of cell structure and function has been improved and diverse therapeutic agents with a subcellular site of action have been continuously developed, there is a demand to enhance the ...
Sebestyén Magdolna G MG Arrowhead Research Corporation, Arrowhead Madison, Inc., 465 Science Drive, Madison, WI, 53711, - - 2015
The discoveries of RNA interference (RNAi) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have provided the opportunity to treat diseases in a fundamentally new way: by co-opting a natural process to inhibit gene expression at the mRNA level. Given that siRNAs must interact with the cells' natural RNAi machinery in order to ...
Thiel William H WH Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 5202 MERF, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA, 52242, - - 2015
After a decade of work to address cellular uptake, the principal obstacle to RNAi-based therapeutics, there is now well-deserved, renewed optimism about RNAi-based drugs. Phase I and II studies have shown safe, strong, and durable-gene knockdown (80-90 %, lasting for a month after a single injection) and/or clinical benefit in ...
Petrini Stefania S Research Laboratories, Bambino Gesu' Pediatric Hospital IRCCS, P.zza S. Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy, - - 2015
S-glutathionylation is a mechanism of signal transduction by which cells respond effectively and reversibly to redox inputs. The glutathionylation regulates most cellular pathways. It is involved in oxidative cellular response to insult by modulating the transcription factor Nrf2 and inducing the expression of antioxidant genes (ARE); it contributes to cell ...
Huebner Alyssa R AR Department of Biomedicine and Center for Interactions of Proteins in Epithelial Transport, Aarhus University, Aarhus, - - 2015
Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, ...
Paulose Jiffin K JK Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 202 Patterson Drive, Lexington, KY, 40506, - - 2015
Recent attention on the early development of circadian rhythms has yielded several avenues of potential study regarding molecular and physiological rhythms in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their derivatives. While general guidelines of experimental design are-as always-applicable, there are certain idiosyncrasies with respect to experiments involving circadian rhythms that will ...
Pampaloni Francesco F Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Str. 15, Frankfurt am Main, D-60438, Germany, - - 2015
We provide a detailed protocol for a three-dimensional long-term live imaging of cellular spheroids with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy. The protocol allows the recording of all phases of spheroid formation in three dimensions, including cell proliferation, aggregation, and compaction. We employ the human hepatic cell line HepaRG transfected with the ...
Viotti Manuel M Genentech Incorporated, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2014
Despite the importance of the gut and its accessory organs, our understanding of early endoderm development is still incomplete. Traditionally, endoderm has been difficult to study because of its small size and relative fragility. However, recent advances in live cell imaging technologies have dramatically expanded our understanding of this tissue, ...
Marconett Crystal N CN Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America ; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
Cell-type specific gene regulation is key to gaining a full understanding of how the distinct phenotypes of differentiated cells are achieved and maintained. Here we examined how changes in transcriptional activation during alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) differentiation determine phenotype. We performed transcriptomic profiling using in vitro differentiation of human and ...
Wecksler Aaron T AT Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, - - 2014
Sorafenib (Nexavar(®)) is currently the only FDA-approved small molecule targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The use of structural analogues and derivatives of sorafenib has enabled the elucidation of critical targets and mechanism(s) of cell death for human cancer lines. We previously performed a structure-activity relationship study on a series ...
Luchinat E E Magnetic Resonance Center - CERM, University of Florence, Via Luigi Sacconi 6, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy. - - 2014
An integrated approach which combines in-cell NMR spectroscopy with optical and X-ray fluorescence microscopy was developed to describe the intracellular maturation state of human Cu,Zn-SOD1. Microscopy data show a correlation between the intracellular levels of SOD1 and the content of zinc, corresponding to zinc binding to SOD1 observed by in-cell ...
Aleynova O A OA Laboratory of Biotechnology, Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690022, - - 2014
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring plant stilbene that exhibits a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. Although the beneficial effects of trans-resveratrol to human health and plant protection against fungal pathogens are well-established, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating stilbene biosynthesis in plant cells. It has ...
Roopan Selvaraj Mohana SM Chemistry Research Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632 014, India, - - 2014
In this paper, we have established for the first time, the terrific efficiency of aqueous extract of agricultural waste dried peel of sugar apple (Annona squamosa) in the rapid synthesis of stable SnO2 nanoparticles. In topical years, the deployment of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel ...
Siddiqui Sahabjada - - 2014
BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the prevalent diseases in ageing populations. Due to side effects of many chemotherapeutic agents, there is always a need to search for herbal products to treat the disorder. Punica granatum (PG) represent a potent fruit-bearing medicinal herb which exerted valuable anti-osteoporotic activities. The present study was ...
Liang Yong Y Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Lab of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, - - 2014
We report a novel activity-based and Cu-free click chemistry (CC) mediated methodology for glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) quantification using species-unspecific isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SUID ICP-MS), in which dibenzylcyclooctyne-modified 2-chloroacetamide (DBCO-ChAcA) was designed and synthesized, meanwhile, as a navigator towards GSTO1 for subsequent N3-DOTA-Eu-tagging via Cu-free ...
Brightwell Sara S MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh BioQuarter, 5 Little France Drive, Edinburgh, EH16 4UU, - - 2014
Generation of iPSCs is inefficient and the molecular mechanisms underlying reprogramming are not well understood. While several studies have demonstrated that reprogramming is not entirely a random process and contains predictable stepwise changes, varying degrees of cellular heterogeneity that arise in different reprogramming systems can obscure the process. Among several ...
Cao Meng - - 2014
Missing in metastasis (MIM, also MTSS1) is a member of the inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (I-BAR) family that senses and stabilizes negative membrane protrusions. Abnormal expression of MIM has been frequently associated with a subset of human cancers and may play different roles in different stages of tumor progression. Overexpression of MIM-I-BAR ...
Fan Gaofeng - - 2014
Although DNA encodes the molecular instructions that underlie control of cell function, it is the proteins that are primarily responsible for implementing those instructions. Therefore, quantitative analyses of the proteome would be expected to yield insights into important candidates for the detection and treatment of disease. We present an iTRAQ ...
Stratz Simone - - 2014
Individual bacteria of an isogenic population can differ significantly in their phenotypic characteristics. This cellular heterogeneity is thought to increase the adaptivity to environmental changes on a population level. Analytical methods for single-bacteria analyses are essential to reveal the different factors that may contribute to this cellular heterogeneity, among them ...
Cvekl Aleš A Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA ales.cvekl@einstein.yu.edu - - 2014
The ocular lens is a model system for understanding important aspects of embryonic development, such as cell specification and the spatiotemporally controlled formation of a three-dimensional structure. The lens, which is characterized by transparency, refraction and elasticity, is composed of a bulk mass of fiber cells attached to a sheet ...
Chen Xu X 1] Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria [2] Department of Plant Systems Biology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Ghent University, B-9052 Gent, Belgium [3] Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, B-9052 Gent, - - 2014
The prominent and evolutionarily ancient role of the plant hormone auxin is the regulation of cell expansion. Cell expansion requires ordered arrangement of the cytoskeleton but molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation by signalling molecules including auxin are unknown. Here we show in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana that in elongating ...
Paulitschke Verena V Dept. of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, - - 2014
To shed light on the multistep process of squamous cell carcinoma development and the underlying pathologic mechanisms, we performed comparative proteome analysis of keratinocytes, keratinocytes stimulated with Il-1beta and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Fractionation of the cells into supernatant, nucleus and cytoplasm was followed by protein separation, proteolytic digest and ...
Cordeiro Rosemeyre A RA Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Polo II, Rua Sílvio Lima, 3030-790, Coimbra, - - 2014
This manuscript reports the synthesis of a new cationic block copolymer based on poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] and poly(β-amino ester) from different polymerization strategies. For the first time, it is proposed a triblock copolymer based only on cationic segments, aiming a high biocompatibility, enhanced buffering capacity and stimuli-responsive character in a single ...
Marciniak Anja A 1] Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Research Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. [2] Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. [3] German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Dresden, - - 2014
Studies on the cellular function of the pancreas are typically performed in vitro on its isolated functional units, the endocrine islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acini. However, these approaches are hampered by preparation-induced changes of cell physiology and the lack of an intact surrounding. We present here a detailed ...
Ritchie Kieran K Departments of Paediatrics and Biochemistry, Children's Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, Victoria Research Laboratories, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, ON N6C 2V5, - - 2014
Mutations in the alpha-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) gene cause a spectrum of abnormalities including intellectual disability, developmental delay, seizures, and microcephaly. The ATRX protein is highly enriched at heterochromatic repetitive sequences adjacent to the centromere, and ATRX depletion results in chromosome congression, segregation, and cohesion defects. Here, we show ...
Lyons David A DA Centre for Neuroregeneration, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United - - 2014
The zebrafish is a premier vertebrate model system that offers many experimental advantages for in vivo imaging and genetic studies. This review provides an overview of glial cell types in the central and peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We highlight some recent work that exploited the strengths of the zebrafish ...
Zhang Xuejiao X Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 3, 14195, Berlin, - - 2014
A novel adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and pH dual-responsive degradable nanogel (NG) system are developed based on the complexation of 1,2-diols in dendritic polyglycerol (dPG), and boronic acids, which are conjugated with dPG as the macromolecular cross-linker. The NG is formed by a mild and surfactant-free inverse nanoprecipitation method. An anticancer drug, ...
Manfrini Marco M Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, - - 2014
Biomaterials employed for the bone regeneration can be assayed for specific features such as osteoconductivity and gene expression. In this study, the composite HA/collagen/chondroitin-sulfate biomaterial was investigated using an engineered human cell line, named Saos-eGFP. This cell line, a green fluorescent engineered human osteoblast-like cell, was employed as a cellular ...
Vanajothi Ramar R Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University , Karaikudi, Tamilnadu , - - 2014
Abstract Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in India and was reported to possess various pharmacological activities including its anti-proliferative effects. In this study, the bioactive compound of ethanolic extract of L. acutangula (LA) was isolated using bioassay-guided approach. Five major fractions were collected and evaluated ...
Burger R R Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Ireland. - - 2014
In this work we present a centrifugal microfluidic system enabling highly efficient collective trapping and alignment of particles such as microbeads and cells, their multi-colour fluorescent detection and subsequent manipulation by optical tweezers. We demonstrate array-based capture and imaging followed by "cherry-picking" of individual particles, first for fluorescently labelled polystyrene ...
Yao Peina P Department of chemical engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, P. R. - - 2014
Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied with Clostridium acetobutylicum as the microorganism in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation system (CCCF). The experiment lasting for 192 hours was carried out with fermentation integrated with situ pervaporation. In the entire process, the cell growth profile appeared two phases, meaning the logarithmic phase during ...
Sampson Kathleen E KE - - 2014
Membrane transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1 gene), MRP2, and BCRP impact drug absorption and disposition and can also mediate drug-drug interactions leading to safety/toxicity concerns in the clinic. Challenges arise with interpreting cell-based transporter assays when substrates or inhibitors impact more than one actively expressed transporter and when endogenous or residual ...
Novo Luis - - 2014
The applicability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in future therapies depends on the availability of safe and efficient carrier systems. Ideally, siRNA delivery requires a system that is stable in the circulation, but upon specific uptake into target cells can rapidly release its cargo into the cytoplasm. Previously, we evaluated ...
Bui Long M G LM Research Centre for Infectious Disease, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, - - 2014
An undetermined feature of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is its persistence then relapse of disease. This has been explained by its switch to alternative lifestyles; mainly as biofilm or Small Colony Variants (SCVs). Studying the native characteristics of SCVs has been problematic due to their reversion to the parental lifestyle. We ...
Hsu T-H TH 1] Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC [2] Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, - - 2014
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has emerged as a key regulator of complex biological processes, such as embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell fate decision and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that the deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is frequently observed and leads to abnormal cell growth in human breast cancer cells. In ...
Qiu Xiaolong X Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Irvine, 3107 Natural Sciences II, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. - - 2014
Tumors tissues house a diverse array of cell types, requiring powerful cell-based analysis methods to characterize cellular heterogeneity and identify rare cells. Tumor tissue is dissociated into single cells by treatment with proteolytic enzymes, followed by mechanical disruption using vortexing or pipetting. These procedures can be incomplete and require significant ...
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