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Si Han H CCRIFX, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2015
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) patients do not develop cancer despite a significant accumulation of DNA damage in their cells. We have recently reported that HGPS cells are refractory to experimental oncogenic transformation and we identified the bromodomain-containing 4 protein (BRD4) as a mediator of the transformation resistance. ChIP-sequencing experiments revealed ...
Nakagawa Shinichi S RNA Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan, - - 2015
In situ hybridization is a powerful method of examining the spatial distribution of RNA molecules at the subcellular level and serves as a basic technique in the fields of cell and developmental biology. In this technique, target RNAs are fixed in cells using formaldehyde and then hybridized to complementary probes ...
Hirose Tetsuro T Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15 Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0815, Japan, - - 2015
A wide variety of noncoding RNAs are thought to play fundamental and regulatory functions in the mammalian cell nucleus, although their primary functions have yet to be elucidated. Here, we describe a method for the rapid and efficient elimination of specific nuclear noncoding RNAs in mammalian cells using chemically modified ...
Dickinson Daniel J DJ Program in Cancer Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, - - 2015
The discovery of polarized epithelial tissue in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum establishes this classical model organism as a novel system for the study of epithelial polarity and morphogenesis. D. discoideum grows as single cells and is easily maintained in cell culture. Starvation of the cells triggers a multicellular developmental ...
Mancini Stéphane J C SJ Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, INSERM U1104, CNRS UMR7280, case 906, Aix-Marseille Université, UM2, 13288, Marseille cedex 09, - - 2015
Galectin-1 (GAL1) is a pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) ligand that induces pre-BCR clustering and leads to efficient pre-B cell proliferation and differentiation in the bone marrow. To study pre-BCR-GAL1 interactions and its functional consequence on the early steps of the B cell development, we combine structural nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ...
Arnoys Eric J EJ Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, - - 2015
A large number of observations on the nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of galectin-3 have been reported, correlating the presence or absence of the protein in a particular compartment of the cell to various parameters such as source of the cells under study, specific cell type, culture conditions, proliferation status of ...
Kragler Friedrich F Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476, Golm/Potsdam, Germany, - - 2015
Pressure microinjection can be used to introduce fluorescent dyes and labeled macromolecules into single cells. The method allows measuring transport activity of macromolecules such as proteins and RNA molecules within and between cells. Routinely, plant mesophyll cells are injected with fluorescent dextran molecules of specific sizes to measure an increase ...
Ostrup Olga O Department of Tumor Biology, Oslo University Hospital RH, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
When a cell is reprogrammed to a new phenotype, the nucleolus undergoes more or less dramatic modulations, which can be used as a marker for the occurrence of the reprogramming. This phenomenon is most pronounced when differentiated cells are reprogrammed to totipotency when they are submitted to cloning by somatic ...
Dahl John Arne JA Institute of Clinical Medicine, Division of diagnostics and intervention, Department of Microbiology, Oslo university hospital, Rikshospitalet, NO-0027, Oslo, Norway, - - 2015
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method for mapping protein-DNA interactions in vivo. Genomic localization of histone modifications, transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins can be revealed by ChIP. However, conventional ChIP protocols require the use of large numbers of cells, which prevents the application of ChIP to rare cell ...
Re Richard N RN Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA, - - 2015
Many extracellular signaling proteins act within their cells of synthesis and/or in target cells after internalization. This type of action is called intracrine and it plays a role in diverse biological processes. The mechanisms of intracrine intracellular action are becoming clear thanks to the application of modern techniques of molecular ...
Bidarimath Mallikarjun M Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Botterell Hall, 18 Stuart Street, Kingston, ON, Canada, K7L - - 2015
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is an excellent and perhaps the only platform to isolate homogeneous cell populations from specific microscopic regions of heterogeneous tissue section, under direct microscopic visualization. The basic operations of the LCM system are based on (a) microscopic visualization of phenotypically identified cells of interest, (b) selective ...
Mariotti Francesca R FR Department of Experimental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Via Ardeatina 306, 00142, Roma, - - 2015
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, whose morphology can vary from an elongated and interconnected network to fragmented units. In recent years, outstanding discoveries have linked mitochondrial morphology to the regulation of an increasing number of biological processes, such as biosynthetic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, calcium buffering, and cell ...
Long Kevin K EMD Millipore, 28820 Single Oak Drive, Temecula, CA, 92590, USA, - - 2015
Autophagy, a highly regulated homeostatic degradative process, allows cells to reallocate nutrients from less important to more essential processes under extreme conditions of starvation. Autophagy also prevents the buildup of damaged proteins and organelles that cause chronic tissue damage and disease. Although a topic of great interest with involvement of ...
Katholnig Karl K Institute for Medical Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Vienna, 1090, - - 2015
The isolation of nuclei from eukaryotic cells is essential for studying the composition and the dynamic changes of the nuclear proteome to gain insight into the mechanisms of gene expression and cell signalling. Primary cells are particularly challenging for standard nuclear isolation protocols due to low protein content, sample degradation, ...
Li Zhou Fang ZF Department of Biology, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd., Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P.R. China, - - 2015
The nucleolus was one of the first subcellular organelles to be isolated from the cell. The advent of modern proteomic techniques has resulted in the identification of thousands of proteins in this organelle, and live cell imaging technology has allowed the study of the dynamics of these proteins. However, the ...
Kang Mijeong M Department of Chemistry, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro (373-1 Guseong-dong), Daejeon, 305-701, - - 2015
Intracellular delivery of exogenous materials is an essential technique required for many fundamental biological researches and medical treatments. As our understanding of cell structure and function has been improved and diverse therapeutic agents with a subcellular site of action have been continuously developed, there is a demand to enhance the ...
Sebestyén Magdolna G MG Arrowhead Research Corporation, Arrowhead Madison, Inc., 465 Science Drive, Madison, WI, 53711, - - 2015
The discoveries of RNA interference (RNAi) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have provided the opportunity to treat diseases in a fundamentally new way: by co-opting a natural process to inhibit gene expression at the mRNA level. Given that siRNAs must interact with the cells' natural RNAi machinery in order to ...
Thiel William H WH Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 5202 MERF, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA, 52242, - - 2015
After a decade of work to address cellular uptake, the principal obstacle to RNAi-based therapeutics, there is now well-deserved, renewed optimism about RNAi-based drugs. Phase I and II studies have shown safe, strong, and durable-gene knockdown (80-90 %, lasting for a month after a single injection) and/or clinical benefit in ...
Petrini Stefania S Research Laboratories, Bambino Gesu' Pediatric Hospital IRCCS, P.zza S. Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy, - - 2015
S-glutathionylation is a mechanism of signal transduction by which cells respond effectively and reversibly to redox inputs. The glutathionylation regulates most cellular pathways. It is involved in oxidative cellular response to insult by modulating the transcription factor Nrf2 and inducing the expression of antioxidant genes (ARE); it contributes to cell ...
Huebner Alyssa R AR Department of Biomedicine and Center for Interactions of Proteins in Epithelial Transport, Aarhus University, Aarhus, - - 2015
Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, ...
Paulose Jiffin K JK Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, 202 Patterson Drive, Lexington, KY, 40506, - - 2015
Recent attention on the early development of circadian rhythms has yielded several avenues of potential study regarding molecular and physiological rhythms in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their derivatives. While general guidelines of experimental design are-as always-applicable, there are certain idiosyncrasies with respect to experiments involving circadian rhythms that will ...
Pampaloni Francesco F Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Str. 15, Frankfurt am Main, D-60438, Germany, - - 2015
We provide a detailed protocol for a three-dimensional long-term live imaging of cellular spheroids with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy. The protocol allows the recording of all phases of spheroid formation in three dimensions, including cell proliferation, aggregation, and compaction. We employ the human hepatic cell line HepaRG transfected with the ...
Pegg David E DE Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK, - - 2015
Cryopreservation is the use of very low temperatures to preserve structurally intact living cells and tissues. Unprotected freezing is normally lethal and this chapter seeks to analyze some of the mechanisms involved and to show how cooling can be used to produce stable conditions that preserve life. The biological effects ...
López-Sánchez Noelia N Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, IC-CSIC, Cajal Institute, Av. Doctor Arce 37, Madrid, 28002, - - 2015
The use of flow cytometryflow cytometry in vertebratevertebrate nervous tissuesnervous tissues is hampered by the morphologicalmorphological complexity and high level of interconnectivity intrinsic to their cellular constituents. Here we describe a simplified procedure for the identification and quantitative analysis of neural cells by flow cytometry based on the isolationisolation and ...
Kawarasaki Yasuaki Y Biomolecular Engineering Laboratory, Graduate School of Integrated Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Japan, - - 2015
Yeast's extracellular expression provides a cost-efficient means of producing recombinant proteins of academic or commercial interests. However, depending on the protein to be expressed, the production occasionally results in a poor yield, which is frequently accompanied with a deteriorated growth of the host. Here we describe our simple approach, high ...
Muñoz Juan José JJ Center of Cytometry and Fluorescence Microscopy, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain. - - 2014
The thymus represents an epithelial microenvironment specialized in the generation of T-cells. The mechanisms or signals that determine the initial differentiation of the two well distinguished histological compartments of the thymus, cortex and medulla, remain unknown. Here, we report a three-dimensional analysis of the distribution of some established thymic epithelial ...
Fujinaga Koh K UCSF, United - - 2014
Regulation of transcription elongation by positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) plays a central role in determining the state of cellular activation, proliferation, and differentiation. In cells, P-TEFb exists in active and inactive forms. Its release from the inactive 7SK small nuclear RiboNucleoProtein (7SK snRNP) complex is a critical step ...
Richier Benjamin B MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Division of Molecular Neurobiology, London, - - 2014
Advances in labeling technologies are instrumental to study the developmental mechanisms that control organ formation and function at the cellular level. Until recently, genetic tools relied on the expression of single markers to visualize individual cells or lineages in developing and adult animals. Exploiting the expanding color palette of fluorescent ...
Hühner Jens J IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Klosterneuburg, Austria; Faculty of Chemistry, Aalen University, Aalen, Germany; Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, - - 2014
Cultured mammalian cells are model systems in basic biology research, production platforms of proteins for medical use, and testbeds in synthetic biology. Flavin cofactors, in particular flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, are critical for cellular redox reactions and sense light in naturally-occurring photoreceptors and optogenetic tools. Here, we quantified ...
Boron Agnieszka Karolina AK Biology Department, Plant Growth and Development, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen, Belgium and Saint-Petersburg State University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Universitetskaya emb. 7/9, 199034 Saint-Petersburg, - - 2014
Plant stature and shape are largely determined by cell elongation, a process that is strongly controlled at the level of the cell wall. This is associated with the presence of many cell wall proteins implicated in the elongation process. Several proteins and enzyme families have been suggested to be involved ...
Zabel Robert R Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V, Otto-Hahn-Str. 6b, D-44227, Dortmund, - - 2014
Pt-based anti-cancer drugs, such as cisplatin, are known to undergo several (bio-) chemical transformation steps after administration. Hydrolysis and adduct formation with small nucleophiles and larger proteins are their most relevant reactions on the way to the final reaction site (DNA), but there are still many open questions regarding the ...
Li Hequn H Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6700 HE Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
We investigated the applicability of the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay combined with the in vitro BeWo transport model to predict the relative in vivo developmental toxicity potencies. To this purpose, the in vitro developmental toxicity of five antifungal compounds was investigated by characterizing their inhibitory effect on the differentiation of ...
Viotti Manuel M Genentech Incorporated, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2014
Despite the importance of the gut and its accessory organs, our understanding of early endoderm development is still incomplete. Traditionally, endoderm has been difficult to study because of its small size and relative fragility. However, recent advances in live cell imaging technologies have dramatically expanded our understanding of this tissue, ...
Roy Sougata S Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, - - 2014
Recent findings in several organ systems show that cytoneme-mediated signaling transports signaling proteins along cellular extensions and targets cell-to-cell exchanges to synaptic contacts. This mechanism of paracrine signaling may be a general one that is used by many (or all) cell types in many (or all) organs. We briefly review ...
Tomé-Amat Jaime J Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, - - 2014
Toxins have been deeply studied for their use as therapeutic agents in search for an improvement in toxic efficiency altogether with a minimization of their undesired side effects. Different studies have shown how toxins can follow different intracellular pathways which are connected with their cytotoxic action inside the cells. The ...
Yajima Ryuji R Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, - - 2014
The formation of senile plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is likely the initial event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Possession of the APOE ε4 allele, the strong genetic factor for AD, facilitates the Aβ deposition from the presymptomatic stage of AD in a gene-dosage-dependent manner. However, the precise ...
Soler Marta M QBIS-CAT Research Group, Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC) and Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, E-17071 Girona, Catalonia, - - 2014
The undecapeptide KKLFKKILKKL-NH2 (BP16) is a non-toxic cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that is mainly internalized into cancer cells through a clathrin dependent endocytic mechanism and localizes in late endosomes. Moreover, this CPP is able to enhance the cellular uptake of chlorambucil (CLB) improving its cytotoxicity. In this work, we further explored ...
Patel Achchhe L - - 2014
Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a clinically significant human pathogen and one of the leading causative agents of sexually transmitted diseases. As obligate intracellular bacteria, C. trachomatis has evolved strategies to redirect the host¿s signaling and resources for its own survival and propagation. Despite the clinical notoriety of Chlamydia ...
Roy Ankita A University of - - 2014
Sodium-coupled SLC12 cation chloride cotransporters play important roles in cell volume and chloride homeostasis, epithelial fluid secretion, and renal tubular salt reabsorption. These cotransporters are phosphorylated and activated indirectly by With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases through their downstream effector kinases, SPAK and OSR1. Multiple WNK kinases can coexist within a single cell ...
Chen Juan-Juan JJ Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong, Chongqing 400016, - - 2014
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence has shown the association between aberrantly expressed miR-221 and cancer development; however, little is known concerning its potential role in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. In the present study, functional studies demonstrated ...
Jiang Peidu P Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519, - - 2014
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic materials to the lysosome or vacuole. This system plays a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in living organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Thus, an accurate and reliable measure of autophagic activity is necessary. However, autophagy involves dynamic ...
Maisonneuve Benoit G C - - 2014
In the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many researchers and companies alike are investigating the utility of concentrated mesenchymal stem cell suspensions as therapeutic injectables, with the hope of regenerating the damaged tissue site. These cells are seldom used alone, being instead combined with synthetic biomacromolecules, such as ...
Niikura Kenichi - - 2014
The nanoparticle-based delivery of siRNA with a non-cationic outermost surface at low particle concentration is greatly desired. We newly synthesized bifurcated ligand (BL) possessing hydrophobic and hydrophilic arms as a surface ligand of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for siRNA delivery. The design concept of this ligand is the amphiphilic property that ...
Marada Venkata V V R VV Institut für Vegetative Physiologie und Pathophysiologie, Universitätmedizin Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
The ability of an antineoplastic drug to exert its cytostatic effect depends largely on the balance between its uptake into and extrusion from the cancer cells. ATP driven efflux transporter proteins drive the export of antineoplastic drugs and play a pivotal role in the development of chemoresistance. As regards uptake ...
Jevtić Predrag P Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, - - 2014
Early Xenopus laevis embryogenesis is a robust system for investigating mechanisms of developmental timing. After a series of rapid cell divisions with concomitant reductions in cell size, the first major developmental transition is the midblastula transition (MBT), when zygotic transcription begins and cell cycles elongate [1-3]. Whereas the maintenance of ...
Zhu Leiming L School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, P.R. China. - - 2014
We reported a reactive probe for HSO3(-), which showed a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence response to HSO3(-) with fast response (t1/2 = 20 s), good specificity and low detection limit (3.0 nM). The probe was cell membrane permeable and successfully used for visualizing trace SO2 derivatives in living cells.
Vishwanathan Nandita N Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Avenue S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455-0132, - - 2014
Transcriptomics is increasingly being used on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to unveil physiological insights related to their performance during production processes. The rich transcriptome data can be exploited to provide impetus for systems investigation such as modeling the central carbon metabolism or glycosylation pathways, or even building genome-scale models. ...
Li Changgong C Department of Pediatrics, Division of Newborn Medicine, Los Angeles County+University of Southern California Medical Center and Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2014
Development of the mammalian lung is predicated on cross-communications between two highly interactive tissues, the endodermally-derived epithelium and the mesodermally-derived pulmonary mesenchyme. While much attention has been paid the lung epithelium, the pulmonary mesenchyme, partly due to lack of specific tractable markers remains under-investigated. The lung mesenchyme is derived from ...
Azimifar S Babak SB Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, - - 2014
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics provides a powerful approach to globally investigate the biological function of individual cell types in mammalian organs. Here, we applied this technology to the in-depth analysis of purified hepatic cell types from mouse. We quantified 11,520 proteins, making this the most comprehensive proteomic resource of any ...
Marconett Crystal N CN Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America ; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of - - 2014
Cell-type specific gene regulation is key to gaining a full understanding of how the distinct phenotypes of differentiated cells are achieved and maintained. Here we examined how changes in transcriptional activation during alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) differentiation determine phenotype. We performed transcriptomic profiling using in vitro differentiation of human and ...
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