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Sinclair Robert R Mathematical Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Onna-son, Okinawa, - - 2014
When a given tissue must, to be able to perform its various functions, consist of different cell types, each fairly evenly distributed and with specific probabilities, then there are at least two quite different developmental mechanisms which might achieve the desired result. Let us begin with the case of two ...
Bennett Robert D RD Laboratory of Adaptive and Regenerative Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA , - - 2014
Complex tissues such as the lung are composed of structural hierarchies such as alveoli, alveolar ducts, and lobules. Some structural units, such as the alveolar duct, appear to participate in tissue repair as well as the development of bronchioalveolar carcinoma. Here, we demonstrate an approach to conduct laser microdissection of ...
Burton Rachel A RA Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls - School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide Glen Osmond, SA, - - 2014
The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be ...
Sands Bryan B Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs) fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, ...
Enenkel Cordula C Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. - - 2014
Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome ...
Gaglia Giorgio G Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2014
The dynamics of the tumor suppressor protein p53 have been previously investigated in single cells using fluorescently tagged p53. Such approach reports on the total abundance of p53 but does not provide a measure for functional p53. We used fluorescent protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) to quantify in single cells the ...
Ji Hong H La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science (LIMS), La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
Secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed within extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in intercellular communication by regulating recipient cell gene expression and affecting target cell function. Here, we report the isolation of three distinct EV subtypes from the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1863 - shed microvesicles (sMVs) and two ...
Kaczmarczyk Agnieszka A Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, - - 2014
The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of ...
Cerrada Alejandro A Departmento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, - - 2014
Lung alveolar type II (ATII) cells are specialized in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension to minimize the work of breathing. Surfactant synthesis, assembly and secretion are closely regulated and its impairment is associated with severe respiratory disorders. At present, well-established ATII ...
Petti Carloalberto C Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky Lexington, KY, - - 2014
In a screen for root hair morphogenesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana L. we identified a T-DNA insertion within a type III J-protein AtDjC17 caused altered root hair development and reduced hair length. Root hairs were observed to develop from trichoblast and atrichoblast cell files in both Atdjc17 and 35S::AtDJC17. Localization ...
Méjard Régis R Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, - - 2014
The objectives of this study were to establish an in-depth understanding of the signals induced by mammalian cells in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. To this end, two plasmonic structures with different propagation and penetration distances were used: conventional surface plasmon resonance and long-range surface plasmon resonance. Long-range SPR showed ...
Claycomb Kumiko I KI Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health - - 2014
The precise function of multi-nucleated microglia, called globoid cells, that are uniquely abundant in the central nervous system of globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is unclear. This gap in knowledge has been hindered by the lack of an appropriate in vitro model for study. Herein, we describe a primary murine glial ...
Smith Alec S T AS NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central - - 2014
The development of more predictive and biologically relevant in vitro assays is predicated on the advancement of versatile cell culture systems which facilitate the functional assessment of the seeded cells. To that end, microscale cantilever technology offers a platform with which to measure the contractile functionality of a range of ...
Singh Deepika D Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Institute of Biochemistry II; Goethe University; Frankfurt (Main), - - 2014
Asymmetric cell divisions combine cell division with fate specification and one general model of how this is achieved was proposed already decades ago(1,2): During interphase, the cell polarity axis is specified, followed by orientation of the spindle along the polarity axis and segregation of fate determinants along the polarity axis ...
Jósvay Katalin K 1] Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary [2] Institute of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, Szeged, - - 2014
The B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J transgenic mouse strain, widely used to study neuronal development and regeneration, expresses the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system under the control of regulatory sequences of the Thy1 gene. The Thy1 (CD90) cell surface glycoprotein is present on many cell types ...
Newman Ehren L EL Center for Memory and Brain, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA - - 2014
Theta rhythmic fluctuations in the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit are believed to reflect rapid transitions between modes of mnemonic processing. Specifically, activity at the trough and peak of CA1 pyramidal layer theta is thought to correspond to retrieval and encoding related processing, respectively. Spatially tuned "grid cells" in layers II and III ...
Shen Bang B Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, - - 2014
Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites requires transmembrane adhesins that mediate binding to receptors on the substrate and host cell to facilitate motility and invasion. Rhomboid proteases (ROMs) are thought to cleave adhesins within their transmembrane segments, thus allowing the parasite to disengage from receptors and ...
Papiorek Sarah S Institute of Sensory Ecology, Department Biology, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and ...
Tripathi Utkarsh K UK Theriogenology Lab, Livestock Production Management, National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, - - 2014
Sub-fertility is one of the most common problems observed in crossbred males, but the etiology remains unknown in most of the cases. Although proteomic differences in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma between breeds have been investigated, the possible differences at the sperm precursor cells and supporting/nourishing cells have not been ...
Halliez Sophie S Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, U892 Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires Jouy-en-Josas, - - 2014
The deletion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) in mouse, goat, and cattle has no drastic phenotypic consequence. This stands in apparent contradiction with PrP(C) quasi-ubiquitous expression and conserved primary and tertiary structures in mammals, and its pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases such as prion and Alzheimer's ...
Paulus Geraldine L C GL Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, - - 2014
A significant advantage of a graphene biosensor is that it inherently represents a continuum of independent and aligned sensor-units. We demonstrate a nanoscale version of a micro-physiometer - a device that measures cellular metabolic activity from the local acidification rate. Graphene functions as a matrix of independent pH sensors enabling ...
Ahlberg Sebastian S Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, - - 2014
PVP-capped silver nanoparticles with a diameter of the metallic core of 70 nm, a hydrodynamic diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of -20 mV were prepared and investigated with regard to their biological activity. This review summarizes the physicochemical properties (dissolution, protein adsorption, dispersability) of these nanoparticles and ...
Torrano Adriano A AA Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), University of Munich (LMU), Butenandtstrasse 5-13(E), 81377 Munich, - - 2014
Particle_in_Cell-3D is a powerful method to quantify the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. It combines the advantages of confocal fluorescence microscopy with fast and precise semi-automatic image analysis. In this work we present how this method was applied to investigate the impact of 310 nm silica nanoparticles on human vascular endothelial ...
Castillo Diaz Luis A LA School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK ; Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
Biomaterials that provide three-dimensional support networks for the culture of cells are being developed for a wide range of tissue engineering applications including the regeneration of bone. This study explores the potential of the versatile ionic-complementary peptide, FEFEFKFK, for such a purpose as this peptide spontaneously self-assembles into β-sheet-rich fibres ...
Bremel Robert D RD EigenBio LLC , Madison, WI , - - 2014
Immunoglobulins are highly diverse protein sequences that are processed and presented to T-cells by B-cells and other antigen presenting cells. We examined a large dataset of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IGHV) to assess the diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEMs). TCEM comprise those amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide, ...
Grubmüller Stephanie S Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universität München Garching, - - 2014
Intracellular bacterial pathogens (IBPs) are dependent on various nutrients provided by the host cells. Different strategies may therefore be necessary to adapt the intracellular metabolism of IBPs to the host cells. The specific carbon sources, the catabolic pathways participating in their degradation, and the biosynthetic performances of IBPs are still ...
Harreither Eva E Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, - - 2014
Oct4 is a transcription factor that plays a major role for the preservation of the pluripotent state in embryonic stem cells as well as for efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) or other progenitors. Protein-based reprogramming methods mainly rely on the addition of a fused ...
Remacle Albert G AG Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of - - 2014
Bacteroides fragilis causes the majority of Gram-negative anaerobic infections in the humans. The presence of a short, 6-kb, pathogenicity island in the genome is linked to enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF). The role of the enterotoxin in B. fragilis virulence, however, remains to be determined, as the majority of clinical isolates ...
Alim Ishraq I Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, The Burke Medical Research Institute, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, White Plains, New York, - - 2014
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced endogenously in a number of cellular compartments, including the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and at the plasma membrane, and can play divergent roles as a second messenger or a pathological toxin. It is assumed that the tuned production of H2O2 within neuronal and nonneuronal ...
Rouleau Nicolas N Behavioural Neuroscience Program, Laurentian University Sudbury, ON, Canada ; Department of Psychology, Laurentian University Sudbury, ON, - - 2014
Within a cell system structure dictates function. Any interaction between cells, or a cell and its environment, has the potential to have long term implications on the function of a given cell and emerging cell aggregates. The structure and function of cells are continuously subjected to modification by electrical and ...
Bhutta Musab S MS Henry Wellcome Laboratory of Cell Biology, Davidson Building, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. - - 2014
Mammalian cytokinesis proceeds by constriction of an actomyosin ring and furrow ingression, resulting in the formation of the midbody bridge connecting two daughter cells. At the centre of the midbody resides the Flemming body, a dense proteinaceous ring surrounding the interlocking ends of anti-parallel microtubule arrays. Abscission, the terminal step ...
Pal Mainak M Department of Physics, Bose Institute 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700009, - - 2014
The different cell types in a living organism acquire their identity through the process of cell differentiation in which multipotent progenitor cells differentiate into distinct cell types. Experimental evidence and analysis of large-scale microarray data establish the key role played by a two-gene motif in cell differentiation in a number ...
Luchinat Enrico E 1] CERM, Magnetic Resonance Center, University of Florence, Via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Florence, Italy [2] Department of Biomedical, Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence, - - 2014
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are related to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Here we exploit in-cell NMR to characterize the protein folding and maturation of a series of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants in human cells and to obtain insight into their behaviour in the cellular ...
Erb Marcella L ML Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, United - - 2014
Dynamic instability, polarity, and spatiotemporal organization are hallmarks of the microtubule cytoskeleton that allow formation of complex structures such as the eukaryotic spindle. No similar structure has been identified in prokaryotes. The bacteriophage-encoded tubulin PhuZ is required to position DNA at mid-cell, without which infectivity is compromised. Here, we show ...
Möhlendick Birte B Department of Surgery (A), Heinrich Heine University and University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
In this unit, we describe a workflow that enables array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of single cells. The unit first describes the isolation and preparation of single peripheral mononuclear cells from blood (PBMC) to prepare a suitable reference DNA for aCGH experiments. An alternative procedure is described for the preparation ...
Mehrabian Mohadeseh M Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Knowledge of phenotypic changes the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) contributes to may provide novel avenues for understanding its function. Here we consider data from functional knockout/down studies and protein-protein interaction analyses from the perspective of PrP's relationship to its ancestral ZIP metal ion transporting proteins. When approached in this manner, ...
Klein-Scory Susanne S IMBL, Medical Clinic Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum GmbH, Ruhr-University Bochum, In der Schornau 23-25, 44892 Bochum, - - 2014
Pancreatic cancer development is associated with characteristic alterations like desmoplastic reaction and immune escape which are mediated by the cell-cell communication mechanism and by the microenvironment of the cells. The whole of released components are important determinants in these processes. Especially the extracellular vesicles released by pancreatic cancer cells play ...
- - 2014
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080808.].
Lee Hangnoh - - 2014
Structural rearrangements of the genome resulting in genic imbalance due to copy number change are often deleterious at the organismal level, but are common in immortalized cell lines and tumors, where they may be an advantage to cells. In order to explore the biological consequences of copy number changes in ...
Ali M S MS Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, - - 2014
Power electronics and fuel cell technologies play an important role in the field of renewable energy. The demand for fuel cells will increase as fuel cells become the main power source for portable applications. In this application, a high-efficiency converter is an essential requirement and a key parameter of the ...
Kuehl Carole J CJ Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale School of Medicine, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of - - 2014
Shigella flexneri is a human pathogen that triggers its own entry into intestinal cells and escapes primary vacuoles to gain access to the cytosolic compartment. As cytosolic and motile bacteria encounter the cell cortex, they spread from cell to cell through formation of membrane protrusions that resolve into secondary vacuoles ...
Guo Huichen H State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, The People's Republic of - - 2014
This study provides a unique approach to activate caged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) using indirect UV light emitted by the near-infrared (NIR)-to-UV upconversion process to achieve high spatial and temporal gene interference patterns. siRNA molecules against the anti-apoptotic gene survivin was caged by light-sensitive molecules (4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitroacetophenone, DMNPE), which rendered them ...
Erfani-Moghadam Vahid V Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, - - 2014
Curcumin is a potent natural anticancer agent, but its effectiveness is limited by properties such as very low solubility, high rate of degradation, and low rate of absorption of its hydrophobic molecules in vivo. To date, various nanocarriers have been used to improve the bioavailability of this hydrophobic biomaterial. This ...
Hoang Thanh V TV Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, - - 2014
The ocular lens contains only two cell types: epithelial cells and fiber cells. The epithelial cells lining the anterior hemisphere have the capacity to continuously proliferate and differentiate into lens fiber cells that make up the large proportion of the lens mass. To understand the transcriptional changes that take place ...
Haley Kathryn Patricia KP Department of Medicine - Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of - - 2014
Helicobacter pylori is a helical-shaped, gram negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric niche of half of the human population(1,2). H. pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide(3). One virulence factor that has been associated with increased risk of gastric disease ...
Ferber Shiran S Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv - - 2014
The subcutaneous matrigel plug assay in mice is a method of choice for the in vivo evaluation of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. In this method, desired factors are introduced into cold-liquid ECM-mimic gel which, after subcutaneous injection, solidifies to form an environment mimicking the cancer milieu. This matrix permits the ...
Lewis Katherine J R KJ University of Colorado at - - 2013
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels represent a versatile material scaffold for culturing cells in two or three dimensions with the advantages of limited protein fouling and cytocompatible polymerization to enable cell encapsulation. By using light-based chemistries for gelation and for incorporating biomolecules into the network, dynamic niches can be created that ...
Sawa Hitoshi H Multicellular Organization Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, 411-8540 - - 2013
Wnt proteins are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that control many aspects of development in organisms ranging from sponges to vertebrates. Wnt proteins are also important regulators of C. elegans development, with functions in processes as diverse as cell fate specification, asymmetric cell division, cell migration and synapse formation. In this review, ...
Zhang Leilei L Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Guangzhou, 510530 - - 2013
Sorting nexins are a large family of proteins that are associated with various components of the endosome system and they play many roles in processes such as endocytosis, intracellular protein trafficking and cell signaling. The subcellular distribution patterns of many of them remain controversial and their in vivo functions have ...
Nagai Masahiro - - 2012
Abstract Like many other small GTPases, Ran functions in eukaryotic cells as a molecular switch that cycles between GTP- and GDP-bound forms. Through the proper modulation of the GTP/GDP cycle, Ran functions with a number of Ran-binding proteins to control a broad array of fundamental cellular functions, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, ...
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