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Results 401 - 450 of 2072
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Möhlendick Birte B Department of Surgery (A), Heinrich Heine University and University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
In this unit, we describe a workflow that enables array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of single cells. The unit first describes the isolation and preparation of single peripheral mononuclear cells from blood (PBMC) to prepare a suitable reference DNA for aCGH experiments. An alternative procedure is described for the preparation ...
Newman Ehren L EL Center for Memory and Brain, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA - - 2014
Theta rhythmic fluctuations in the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit are believed to reflect rapid transitions between modes of mnemonic processing. Specifically, activity at the trough and peak of CA1 pyramidal layer theta is thought to correspond to retrieval and encoding related processing, respectively. Spatially tuned "grid cells" in layers II and III ...
Vickers Dwayne A L DA The Rowland Institute, Harvard - - 2014
Electroporation has received increasing attention in the past years, because it is a very powerful technique for physically introducing non-permeant exogenous molecular probes into cells. This work reports a microfluidic electroporation platform capable of performing multiple molecule delivery to mammalian cells with precise and molecular-dependent parameter control. The system's ability ...
Gedye Craig A CA Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Cell surface proteins have a wide range of biological functions, and are often used as lineage-specific markers. Antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens are widely used as research tools, diagnostic markers, and even therapeutic agents. The ability to obtain broad cell surface protein profiles would thus be of great value ...
Lee Ling Yen LY Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Biomolecular Frontiers Research Centre, Macquarie University , Sydney, NSW , - - 2014
Glycoproteins perform extra- and intracellular functions in innate and adaptive immunity by lectin-based interactions to exposed glyco-determinants. Herein, we document and mechanistically explain the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation determinants on glycoproteins trafficking through the shared biosynthetic machinery of human cells. LC-MS/MS-based quantitative glycomics showed that the secreted glycoproteins of eight ...
Newell Evan W EW Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos #03-06, Singapore, 138648, Singapore, - - 2014
Mass cytometry is a form of flow cytometry based on single-cell mass spectrometry that uses monoisotopic elemental labels to probe individual cells. Reduced cross talk between channels and an ability to measure >30 independent cellular parameters make this an attractive approach for high-dimensional analysis of cellular phenotypes and function. Here, ...
Quester S S Department of Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Cologne, 50939 Cologne, - - 2014
We have generated closed-cell microcellular foams from gliadin, an abundantly available wheat storage protein. The extraction procedure of gliadin from wheat gluten, which involves only the natural solvents water and ethanol, respectively, is described with emphasis on the precipitation step of gliadin which results in a fine dispersion of mostly ...
Sinclair Robert R Mathematical Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Onna-son, Okinawa, - - 2014
When a given tissue must, to be able to perform its various functions, consist of different cell types, each fairly evenly distributed and with specific probabilities, then there are at least two quite different developmental mechanisms which might achieve the desired result. Let us begin with the case of two ...
Keerthy Hosadurga K HK Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore, - - 2014
The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 is a well-known and attractive therapeutic target for cancer. In the present study the solution-phase T3P-DMSO mediated efficient synthesis of 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles from alcohols, malanonitrile and phenols is reported. These novel 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles showed cytotoxicity in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Compound 4g was found to ...
Méjard Régis R Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, - - 2014
The objectives of this study were to establish an in-depth understanding of the signals induced by mammalian cells in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. To this end, two plasmonic structures with different propagation and penetration distances were used: conventional surface plasmon resonance and long-range surface plasmon resonance. Long-range SPR showed ...
Pal Mainak M Department of Physics, Bose Institute 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700009, - - 2014
The different cell types in a living organism acquire their identity through the process of cell differentiation in which multipotent progenitor cells differentiate into distinct cell types. Experimental evidence and analysis of large-scale microarray data establish the key role played by a two-gene motif in cell differentiation in a number ...
Castillo Diaz Luis A LA School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK ; Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, Manchester, - - 2014
Biomaterials that provide three-dimensional support networks for the culture of cells are being developed for a wide range of tissue engineering applications including the regeneration of bone. This study explores the potential of the versatile ionic-complementary peptide, FEFEFKFK, for such a purpose as this peptide spontaneously self-assembles into β-sheet-rich fibres ...
Alim Ishraq I Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, The Burke Medical Research Institute, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, White Plains, New York, - - 2014
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced endogenously in a number of cellular compartments, including the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and at the plasma membrane, and can play divergent roles as a second messenger or a pathological toxin. It is assumed that the tuned production of H2O2 within neuronal and nonneuronal ...
Fu Ci C Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of - - 2014
Intercellular communication of vegetative cells and their subsequent cell fusion is vital for different aspects of growth, fitness, and differentiation of filamentous fungi. Cell fusion between germinating spores is important for early colony establishment, while hyphal fusion in the mature colony facilitates the movement of resources and organelles throughout an ...
Shen Bang B Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, - - 2014
Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites requires transmembrane adhesins that mediate binding to receptors on the substrate and host cell to facilitate motility and invasion. Rhomboid proteases (ROMs) are thought to cleave adhesins within their transmembrane segments, thus allowing the parasite to disengage from receptors and ...
Petti Carloalberto C Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky Lexington, KY, - - 2014
In a screen for root hair morphogenesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana L. we identified a T-DNA insertion within a type III J-protein AtDjC17 caused altered root hair development and reduced hair length. Root hairs were observed to develop from trichoblast and atrichoblast cell files in both Atdjc17 and 35S::AtDJC17. Localization ...
Burton Rachel A RA Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls - School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide Glen Osmond, SA, - - 2014
The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be ...
Erfani-Moghadam Vahid V Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Technology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, - - 2014
Curcumin is a potent natural anticancer agent, but its effectiveness is limited by properties such as very low solubility, high rate of degradation, and low rate of absorption of its hydrophobic molecules in vivo. To date, various nanocarriers have been used to improve the bioavailability of this hydrophobic biomaterial. This ...
Clohisey Sara M R SM The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United - - 2014
Little is known about how microtubules are regulated in different cell types during development. EB1 plays a central role in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. It directly binds to microtubule plus ends and recruits proteins which regulate microtubule dynamics and behaviour. We report the identification of Kank, the sole ...
Xiao Xi X Department of Chemistry, Life Science School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. - - 2014
Our previous study reported that galaxamide, which is a cyclo-pentapeptide containing five leucines that was extracted from Galaxaura filamentosa, displayed remarkable anticancer cytotoxicity. This novel cyclo-peptide provided a new skeleton for the structural modifications used in finding new drugs with better anticancer properties. In this study, five analogues were synthesized ...
Bennett Robert D RD Laboratory of Adaptive and Regenerative Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA , - - 2014
Complex tissues such as the lung are composed of structural hierarchies such as alveoli, alveolar ducts, and lobules. Some structural units, such as the alveolar duct, appear to participate in tissue repair as well as the development of bronchioalveolar carcinoma. Here, we demonstrate an approach to conduct laser microdissection of ...
Sands Bryan B Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs) fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, ...
Torrano Adriano A AA Department of Chemistry and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), University of Munich (LMU), Butenandtstrasse 5-13(E), 81377 Munich, - - 2014
Particle_in_Cell-3D is a powerful method to quantify the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. It combines the advantages of confocal fluorescence microscopy with fast and precise semi-automatic image analysis. In this work we present how this method was applied to investigate the impact of 310 nm silica nanoparticles on human vascular endothelial ...
Luchinat Enrico E 1] CERM, Magnetic Resonance Center, University of Florence, Via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Florence, Italy [2] Department of Biomedical, Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Florence, - - 2014
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are related to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Here we exploit in-cell NMR to characterize the protein folding and maturation of a series of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants in human cells and to obtain insight into their behaviour in the cellular ...
Maynard Glynn Vivian GV Grains and Forestry Branch, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, GPO Box 858 Canberra ACT Australia 2601. - - 2014
This paper provides a revision of Goniocolletes Cockerell, and of Australian subgenera of Leioproctus Smith (Hy-menoptera: Colletidae: Paracolletini) with three submarginal cells. Seven subgenera were revised: Leioproctus s.str., L. (Ceratocolletes) Michener, L. (Cladocerapis) Cockerell, L. (Excolletes) Michener, L. (Lamprocolletes) Smith, L. (Odontocolletes) Maynard, and L. (Protomorpha) Rayment, and seven new ...
Smith Alec S T AS NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central - - 2014
The development of more predictive and biologically relevant in vitro assays is predicated on the advancement of versatile cell culture systems which facilitate the functional assessment of the seeded cells. To that end, microscale cantilever technology offers a platform with which to measure the contractile functionality of a range of ...
Ambriz-Aviña Verónica V 0000-0001-6614-4240 Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta S/N, 36050 Guanajuato, GTO, - - 2014
Although reports of flow cytometry (FCM) applied to bacterial analysis are increasing, studies of FCM related to human cells still vastly outnumber other reports. However, current advances in FCM combined with a new generation of cellular reporter probes have made this technique suitable for analyzing physiological responses in bacteria. We ...
Singh Deepika D Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Institute of Biochemistry II; Goethe University; Frankfurt (Main), - - 2014
Asymmetric cell divisions combine cell division with fate specification and one general model of how this is achieved was proposed already decades ago(1,2): During interphase, the cell polarity axis is specified, followed by orientation of the spindle along the polarity axis and segregation of fate determinants along the polarity axis ...
Remacle Albert G AG Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of - - 2014
Bacteroides fragilis causes the majority of Gram-negative anaerobic infections in the humans. The presence of a short, 6-kb, pathogenicity island in the genome is linked to enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF). The role of the enterotoxin in B. fragilis virulence, however, remains to be determined, as the majority of clinical isolates ...
Haley Kathryn Patricia KP Department of Medicine - Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of - - 2014
Helicobacter pylori is a helical-shaped, gram negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric niche of half of the human population(1,2). H. pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide(3). One virulence factor that has been associated with increased risk of gastric disease ...
Lin Yao-Cheng YC 1] Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark 927, Ghent B-9052, Belgium [2] Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, Ghent B-9052, Belgium - - 2014
The HEK293 human cell lineage is widely used in cell biology and biotechnology. Here we use whole-genome resequencing of six 293 cell lines to study the dynamics of this aneuploid genome in response to the manipulations used to generate common 293 cell derivatives, such as transformation and stable clone generation ...
Lee Hangnoh - - 2014
Structural rearrangements of the genome resulting in genic imbalance due to copy number change are often deleterious at the organismal level, but are common in immortalized cell lines and tumors, where they may be an advantage to cells. In order to explore the biological consequences of copy number changes in ...
Ferber Shiran S Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv - - 2014
The subcutaneous matrigel plug assay in mice is a method of choice for the in vivo evaluation of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. In this method, desired factors are introduced into cold-liquid ECM-mimic gel which, after subcutaneous injection, solidifies to form an environment mimicking the cancer milieu. This matrix permits the ...
Han Lin L 1] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA - - 2014
Despite the recent advance of single-cell gene expression analyses, co-measurement of both genomic and transcriptional signatures at the single-cell level has not been realized. However such analysis is necessary in order to accurately delineate how genetic information is transcribed, expressed, and regulated to give rise to an enormously diverse range ...
Lu Jun J Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, - - 2014
Lithium-oxygen batteries have the potential needed for long-range electric vehicles, but the charge and discharge chemistries are complex and not well understood. The active sites on cathode surfaces and their role in electrochemical reactions in aprotic lithium-oxygen cells are difficult to ascertain because the exact nature of the sites is ...
Zhang Ji-Gang JG Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. - - 2014
Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and 2) are key regulators of focal adhesion, actomyosin contraction and cell motility. RhoA/ROCK signaling has emerged as an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapeutics. Whether RhoA/ROCK is involved in regulating ...
Pan Xinghua X Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Single-cell analysis heralds a new era that allows "omics" analysis, notably genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and proteomics at the single-cell level. It enables the identification of the minor subpopulations that may play a critical role in a biological process of a population of cells, which conventionally are regarded as homogeneous. It ...
Sharma Puja P School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, - - 2014
The role of physical forces in disease onset and progression is widely accepted and this knowledge presents an alternative route to investigating disease models. Recently, numerous force measurement techniques have been developed to probe single and multi-cell behavior. While these methods have yielded fundamental insights, they are yet unable to ...
Jósvay Katalin K 1] Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary [2] Institute of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, Szeged, - - 2014
The B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J transgenic mouse strain, widely used to study neuronal development and regeneration, expresses the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system under the control of regulatory sequences of the Thy1 gene. The Thy1 (CD90) cell surface glycoprotein is present on many cell types ...
Hoang Thanh V TV Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, - - 2014
The ocular lens contains only two cell types: epithelial cells and fiber cells. The epithelial cells lining the anterior hemisphere have the capacity to continuously proliferate and differentiate into lens fiber cells that make up the large proportion of the lens mass. To understand the transcriptional changes that take place ...
Cerveira Joana F JF Unidade de Química-Física Molecular and Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal ; Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa", CIBERER, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, - - 2014
Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure ...
Doan-Xuan Quang-Minh QM Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary; These authors contributed equally to this - - 2014
The application of FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) sensors for monitoring protein-protein interactions under vital conditions is attracting increasing attention in molecular and cell biology. Laser-scanning cytometry (LSC), a slide-based sister procedure to flow cytometry, provides an opportunity to analyze large populations of adherent cells or 2-D solid tissues in ...
Saxe Friederike F Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam-Golm, 14476, - - 2014
X-ray scattering is a well-established method for measuring cellulose microfibril angles in secondary cell walls. However, little data is available on the much thinner primary cell walls. Here, we show that microfibril orientation distributions can be determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) even in primary cell walls. The technique ...
O'Brien Jason M JM Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Environmental Health - - 2014
De novo mutations arise mostly in the male germline and may contribute to adverse health outcomes in subsequent generations. Traditional methods for assessing the induction of germ cell mutations require the use of large numbers of animals, making them impractical. As such, germ cell mutagenicity is rarely assessed during chemical ...
Marinova Zoya Z University Clinics for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zürich; - - 2014
Many brain-related disorders have neuronal cell death involved in their pathophysiology. Improved in vitro models to study neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of drugs and downstream pathways involved would help gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection/neurotoxicity and could potentially facilitate drug development. However, many existing in vitro toxicity assays ...
Bremel Robert D RD EigenBio LLC , Madison, WI , - - 2014
Immunoglobulins are highly diverse protein sequences that are processed and presented to T-cells by B-cells and other antigen presenting cells. We examined a large dataset of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IGHV) to assess the diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEMs). TCEM comprise those amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide, ...
Guo Huichen H State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, The People's Republic of - - 2014
This study provides a unique approach to activate caged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) using indirect UV light emitted by the near-infrared (NIR)-to-UV upconversion process to achieve high spatial and temporal gene interference patterns. siRNA molecules against the anti-apoptotic gene survivin was caged by light-sensitive molecules (4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitroacetophenone, DMNPE), which rendered them ...
Halliez Sophie S Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, U892 Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires Jouy-en-Josas, - - 2014
The deletion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)) in mouse, goat, and cattle has no drastic phenotypic consequence. This stands in apparent contradiction with PrP(C) quasi-ubiquitous expression and conserved primary and tertiary structures in mammals, and its pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases such as prion and Alzheimer's ...
Kuehl Carole J CJ Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale School of Medicine, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of - - 2014
Shigella flexneri is a human pathogen that triggers its own entry into intestinal cells and escapes primary vacuoles to gain access to the cytosolic compartment. As cytosolic and motile bacteria encounter the cell cortex, they spread from cell to cell through formation of membrane protrusions that resolve into secondary vacuoles ...
Erb Marcella L ML Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, United - - 2014
Dynamic instability, polarity, and spatiotemporal organization are hallmarks of the microtubule cytoskeleton that allow formation of complex structures such as the eukaryotic spindle. No similar structure has been identified in prokaryotes. The bacteriophage-encoded tubulin PhuZ is required to position DNA at mid-cell, without which infectivity is compromised. Here, we show ...
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