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Results 301 - 350 of 2068
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Bugay Aleksandr N AN Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie Street, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. Electronic address: - - 2014
A model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli bacteria has been developed taking into account the whole sequence of molecular events starting from initial photo-damage and finishing with the fixation of point mutations. The wild-type phenotype bacterial cells are compared with UV-sensitive repair-deficient mutant cells. Attention is mainly ...
Zhang Ye Y Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5125, zhangye@stanford.edu - - 2014
The major cell classes of the brain differ in their developmental processes, metabolism, signaling, and function. To better understand the functions and interactions of the cell types that comprise these classes, we acutely purified representative populations of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, newly formed oligodendrocytes, myelinating oligodendrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, ...
Möll Andrea A Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School and HHMI, Boston, MA, - - 2014
Synthesis and hydrolysis of septal peptidoglycan (PG) are critical processes at the conclusion of cell division that enable separation of daughter cells. Cleavage of septal PG is mediated by PG amidases, hydrolytic enzymes that release peptide side chains from the glycan strand. Most γ-proteobacteria, including Escherichia coli, encode several functionally ...
Kumar Ashok A AA School of Engineering and Applied - - 2014
Although effective low-cost interventions exist, child mortality attributable to sickle cell disease (SCD) remains high in low-resource areas due, in large part, to the lack of accessible diagnostic methods. The presence of dense (ρ > 1.120 g/cm(3)) cells is characteristic of SCD. The fluid, self-assembling step-gradients in density created by ...
Chen Wang W Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, PR - - 2014
Forty eight 2-phenylnaphthalenoids were designed and successfully synthesized. Their in vitro cytotoxicities against the proliferations of MDA-MB-231, A549 and HeLa cell lines and inhibitory activities on DNA topoisomerase were evaluated. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were established on the basis of cytotoxicity data from MDA-MB-231 cell line. Among these compounds, ...
Gürtler A A Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department SG Radiation Protection and Health , Neuherberg , Germany - - 2014
Abstract Context: Radio-sensitivity in normal tissue is characterized by heterogeneity throughout the population and the absence of pre-diagnostic biomarkers. Objective: We conducted a proteomic approach to search for radiation characteristic protein regulation. Materials and methods: Cell lines were 10 Gy irradiated and analysed by 2D-DIGE after 24 h. Results were analysed intra- ...
Löfgren Maria M Section of Pathology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, - - 2014
Formation of synovial joints includes phenotypic changes of the chondrocytes and the organisation of their extracellular matrix is regulated by different factors and signalling pathways. Increased knowledge of the normal processes involved in joint development may be used to identify similar regulatory mechanisms during pathological conditions in the joint. Samples ...
Hua R R Dept of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, S119228; Dept of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, - - 2014
To detect aneuploidy from single fetal nucleated red blood cells (FNRBCs) from placental villi using whole genome amplification (WGA) and next generation sequencing. Three single FNRBCs per sample were manually picked from villi collected from ten women undergoing elective first trimester termination of pregnancy and one or two cells were ...
Chen Chang-Wen CW Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, - - 2014
A novel sequential layer-by-layer sub-100 °C vacuum-sublimation method to fabricate planar-type organometal halide perovskite solar cells is developed. Very uniform and highly crystalline perovskite thin films with 100% surface coverage are produced. The cells attain maximum and average efficiencies up to 15.4% and 14%, respectively. This low- temperature, all-vacuum process ...
Tung Nguyen Huu NH Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki International University, Sasebo, Nagasaki 859-3298, - - 2014
The crude extract of Alnus japonica bark exhibited a strong effect on the growth of Trypanosoma brucei. Subsequent chromatographic separation resulted in the isolation of two novel diarylheptanoids, known as alnuside C (2) and alnuside D (3), and three known compounds, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptan-3(R)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), oregonin (4) and hirsutanone (5). The structures ...
Pettit Jean-Baptiste JB European Bioinformatics Institute-European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL-EBI), Cambridge, United - - 2014
Complex tissues, such as the brain, are composed of multiple different cell types, each of which have distinct and important roles, for example in neural function. Moreover, it has recently been appreciated that the cells that make up these sub-cell types themselves harbour significant cell-to-cell heterogeneity, in particular at the ...
Mort Richard Lester RL a MRC Human Genetics Unit; MRC IGMM ; University of Edinburgh; Western General Hospital Edinburgh ; Scotland , - - 2014
Markers of cell cycle stage allow estimation of cell cycle dynamics in cell culture and during embryonic development. The Fucci system incorporates genetically encoded probes that highlight G1 and S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle allowing live imaging. However the available mouse models that incorporate Fucci are beset by problems ...
Chen Lei L a Reproductive Medicine Center ; First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University ; Zhengzhou , Henan Province , - - 2014
The cellular functions of the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 remain unknown. In this research, we studied the expression, localization and functions of TGN38 in the meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. TGN38 was expressed at every stage of oocyte meiotic maturation and colocalized with γ-tubulin at metaphase I and metaphase II. ...
Mi Hao-Yang HY The Key Laboratory for Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China; Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, 53715; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, - - 2014
Soft and hard thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and their blends were electrospun to fabricate nanofibrous scaffolds with various properties in order to investigate the substrate property effects on cellular response. The scaffolds were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle tests, and protein absorption ...
Park Ha-Young HY a Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology , Graduate School of Kyushu University , Fukuoka - - 2014
We investigated the effect of theaflavins (TFs) on membrane barrier of Caco-2 cells. For fluorescein-transport experiments, the apparent permeability (Papp) of fluorescein in Caco-2 cells pretreated with 20 μM TFs were significantly decreased compared with that in untreated cells. Although the respective monomeric catechins did not show any Papp reduction, purpurogallin ...
Toyjanova Jennet J School of Engineering, Brown University, 182 Hope St. Box D, Providence, RI, USA. - - 2014
Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level ...
Chapot-Chartier Marie-Pierre - - 2014
The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and ...
Dickman Christopher T D CT Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, - - 2014
Cell lines have been developed for modeling cancer and cancer progression. The molecular background of these cell lines is often unknown to those using them to model disease behaviors. As molecular alterations are the ultimate drivers of cell phenotypes, having an understanding of the molecular make-up of these systems is ...
Thu Chan Aye CA Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University Medical Center, 701 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, - - 2014
Individual mammalian neurons stochastically express distinct repertoires of α, β, and γ protocadherin (Pcdh) proteins, which function in neural circuit assembly. We report that all three subfamilies of clustered Pcdhs can engage in specific homophilic interactions, that cell surface delivery of Pcdhα isoforms requires cis interactions with other Pcdhs, and ...
McAlpine Jennifer A - - 2014
Many advanced human tumors, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are auxotrophic for arginine due to down-regulation of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in arginine synthesis. The arginine-lowering agent PEGylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) has shown efficacy as a monotherapy in clinical trials for treating arginine-auxotrophic tumors and is currently being ...
Mayrhofer Patrick P Department of Biotechnology/Vienna Institute of BioTechnology (BOKU-VIBT), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Vienna), Muthgasse 18, A-1190, Vienna, - - 2014
Over the years, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have emerged as the major host for expressing biotherapeutic proteins. Traditional methods to generate high-producer cell lines rely on random integration(s) of the gene of interest but have thereby left the identification of bottlenecks as a challenging task. For comparison of different ...
Vazquez Hector M HM *Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, - - 2014
Temperature sensitive cdc1(ts) mutants are reported to stop the cell cycle upon shift to 30°C in early G2, i.e. as small budded cells having completed DNA replication but unable to duplicate the spindle pole body. A recent report showed that PGAP5, a human homologue of CDC1, acts as a phosphodiesterase ...
Kourakis Matthew J MJ Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106, - - 2014
Despite its importance in development and physiology the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway remains one of the most enigmatic signaling mechanisms. The notochord of the ascidian Ciona provides a unique model for investigating the PCP pathway. Interestingly, the notochord appears to be the only embryonic structure in Ciona activating the ...
Park Eun-Jung EJ Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon, 443-749, Korea, - - 2014
Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are listed among 14 high-priority nanomaterials published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, but limited information is available on their potential hazards. In this study, we compared the toxicity of two different aluminum oxide nanorods (AlNRs) commercially available in vivo and in vitro. Considering aspect ...
Mikeš J J Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, P. J. Šafárik University in Košice, Košice, Slovakia. - - 2014
Labelling of DNA in replicating cells using 5-bromo-2´-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is widely used, however the rapid clearance and metabolisation of BrdU in the living organism is a critical issue. Although the pharmacokinetic of BrdU in experimental animals is empirically approximated, the exact time-curve remains unknown. Here we present novel method for ...
Jung In-Soo IS College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, - - 2014
Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) affect various cellular processes and systems, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolic pathways. The present study investigated ELF-MFs effect on nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells using proteomic applications to understand its role in the enhancement of neuronal differentiation. After ...
Liang Quanfeng Q State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, - - 2014
Engineering microorganisms capable of accumulating multiple products are sometimes attractive because they yield several advantages in balancing the in vivo metabolic flux and restoring the optimal cell physiology. With the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, numerous strategies for minimizing the substrate waste, optimizing the product portfolios, and maximizing ...
Teh J T JT Program in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, - - 2014
Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (Icmt) catalyzes the last of the three-step posttranslational protein prenylation process for the so-called CaaX proteins, which includes many signaling proteins, such as most small GTPases. Despite extensive studies on Icmt and its regulation of cell functions, the mechanisms of much of the impact of Icmt on cellular ...
Piotrowska U U Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical Center of Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, - - 2014
The endocrine activity of the thyroid gland is accomplished by its follicular and parafollicular cells. In these cells, numerous G proteins-dependent pathways are active and potentially could be regulated by a 33-kDa cytoplasmic protein phosducin, which interacts with the Gβ subunit and may compete with Gα or Gβγ dimer effectors. ...
Podlipec Rok - - 2014
Understanding biocompatibility of materials and scaffolds is one of the main challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Complex nature of cell-biomaterial interaction requires extensive preclinical functionality testing by studying specific cell responses to different biomaterial properties, from morphology and mechanics to surface characteristics at the molecular level. ...
Kuang Yi Y Brandeis University, United - - 2014
Emerging evidence reveals that prion-like structures play important roles to maintain the well-being of cells. While self-assembly of small molecules also afford prion-like nanofibrils (PriSM), little is known on the functions and mechanisms of PriSM. Previous works demonstrated that PriSM formed by a dipeptide derivative selectively inhibit the growth of ...
Balish Mitchell F MF Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA - - 2014
In recent decades, bacterial cell biology has seen great advances, and numerous model systems have been developed to study a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell division, motility, assembly of macromolecular structures, and biogenesis of cell polarity. Considerable attention has been given to these model organisms, which include Escherichia ...
Marie Dominique D Sorbonne Universités UPMC (PARIS 06), UMR 7144 and FR2424, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29688, Roscoff, France; CNRS, UMR 7144 and FR2424, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29688, Roscoff, - - 2014
Preservation of cells, choice of fixative, storage, and thawing conditions are recurrent issues for the analysis of phytoplankton by flow cytometry. We examined the effects of addition of the surfactant Pluronic F68 to glutaraldehyde-fixed photosynthetic organisms in cultures and natural samples. In particular, we examined cell losses and modifications of ...
Luo Baiwen B School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, - - 2014
Natural materials are promising alternatives to synthetic materials used in tissue engineering applications as they have superior biocompatibility and promote better cell attachment and proliferation. Ovalbumin, a natural polymer found in avian egg white, is an example of a nature-derived material. Despite the availability and reported biocompatibility of ovalbumin, limited ...
Ding Xiaoyun X Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA - - 2014
Separation of cells is a critical process for studying cell properties, disease diagnostics, and therapeutics. Cell sorting by acoustic waves offers a means to separate cells on the basis of their size and physical properties in a label-free, contactless, and biocompatible manner. The separation sensitivity and efficiency of currently available ...
Chung Jinyang J Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791, Republic of - - 2014
Fast and accurate pathogen detection in aquatic environments is challenging in many biomedical studies and microbial diagnostic applications. In this study, we developed a real-time, continuous, and non-destructive single cell detection method using target specific aptamer-conjugated fluorescent nanoparticles (A-FNPs) and an optofluidic particle-sensor platform. A-FNPs selectively bound to the surfaces ...
Dunlop E A EA Institute of Cancer and Genetics, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions as a key homeostatic regulator of cell growth and orchestrates whether anabolic or catabolic reactions are favoured. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) manages multiple biosynthetic pathways and promotes cell growth when nutrients are in plentiful supply. Many advances have been made over the last decade ...
Maza Itay I The Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, - - 2014
Xenopus oocytes can epigenetically reprogram mouse somatic cells toward totipotency. In this issue, Jullien et al. (2014) now describe rapid, interdependent molecular events that facilitate this reprogramming.
Zou Shu-Ping SP Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, People's Republic of China; Engineering Research Center of Bioconversion and Biopurification of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, People's Republic of - - 2014
The enantioselective resolution of (R,S)-2,3-dichloro-1-propanol ((R,S)-DCP) to (S)-DCP by whole cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli expressing halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH) activity was limited by product inhibition. To solve this problem to improve the productivity of (S)-DCP, an n-heptane-aqueous biphasic system was adopted in this work. The influential operational parameters including ...
Shinagawa Masaaki M Division of Laboratory Diagnosis, Sapporo Medical University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, - - 2014
The precise identities of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after bacteriolysis are still unknown. In the present study, we identified PA0423 protein, which was isolated from the Pseudomonas PAO-1 strain, as the factor responsible for cytotoxicity in lung epithelial cells. Whole bacterial cell lysate of P. aeruginosa PAO-1 caused ...
Wu Pengxiang - - 2014
Water permeability of the plasma membrane plays an important role in making optimal cryopreservation protocols for different types of cells. To quantify water permeability effectively, automated cell volume segmentation during freezing is necessary. Unfortunately, there exists so far no efficient and accurate segmentation method to handle this kind of image ...
Stahl John S JS Louis Stokes Cleveland Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center - - 2014
Mutation of the Cacna1a gene for the P/Q (CaV2.1) calcium channel invariably leads to cerebellar dysfunction. The dysfunction has been attributed to disrupted rhythmicity of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but the hypothesis remains unproven. If irregular firing rates cause cerebellar dysfunction, then the irregularity and behavioral deficits should co-vary in a ...
Nowotarski Stephanie H SH *Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC - - 2014
Actin-based protrusions are important for signaling and migration during development and homeostasis. Defining how different tissues in vivo craft diverse protrusive behaviors using the same genomic toolkit of actin regulators is a current challenge. The actin elongation factors Diaphanous and Enabled both promote barbed-end actin polymerization, and can stimulate filopodia ...
Macaulay Angus D - - 2014
Even after several decades of quiescent storage in the ovary, the female germ cell is capable of reinitiating transcription to build its reserves that are essential to support early embryonic development. In the current model of mammalian oogenesis, there exists bilateral communication between the gamete and the surrounding cells that ...
Cambré Alexander A Laboratory of Gene Technology, Department Biosystems, KU Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, KU Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee, - - 2014
Many bacteria are able to assume a transient cell wall-deficient (or L-form) state under favorable osmotic conditions. Cell wall stress such as exposure to β-lactam antibiotics can enforce the transition to and maintenance of this state. L-forms actively proliferate and can return to the walled state upon removal of the ...
Elliott Thomas S TS Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United - - 2014
The site specific, co-translational introduction of unnatural amino acids into proteins produced in cells has been facilitated by the development of the pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair. This pair can now be used to direct the site-specific incorporation of designer amino acids in E. coli, yeast, mammalian cells, and animals (the worm, ...
Oikawa Shino S Department of Physiology, Nippon Medical School Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2014
Background/Aims: We previously suggested that a non-neuronal cholinergic system modulates energy metabolism through the mitochondria. However, the mechanisms responsible for making this system crucial remained undetermined. Methods: In this study, we developed a fusion protein expression vector containing a luciferase gene fused to the folic acid receptor-α gene. Results: This ...
Fu Yun Y Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, P.R. - - 2014
The Mannich base containing ciprofloxacin and kojic acid structural units was prepared and evaluated in antitumor activity. The enhancement in antitumor activity was observed both from the Mannich base (IC50: 103.3±5.0 µM for HepG2, 87.9±8.0 µM for HCT-116 cell) and its copper complex (IC50: 11.5±1.8 µM for HepG2, 44.4±2.5 µM for HCT-116 cell) compared ...
Xu Jian J Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, PR - - 2014
A novel probe incorporating quaternized 4-pyridinium group into a BODIPY molecule was synthesized and studied for the selective detection of fluoride ions (F(-)) in aqueous solution. The design was based on a fluoride-specific desilylation reaction and the "Turn-On" fluorescent response of probe 1 to F(-) was ascribed to the inhibition ...
Ungvarsky Jan J Department of Organic Chemistry, Moyzesova 11, 04001 Kosice, Slovak - - 2014
A novel series of trisubstituted acridines were synthesized with the aim of mimicking the effects of BRACO19. These compounds were synthesized by modifying the molecular structure of BRACO19 at positions 3 and 6 with heteroacyclic moieties. All of the derivatives presented in the study exhibited stabilizing effects on the human ...
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