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Results 201 - 250 of 1863
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Khanna Rajnish R Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2014
Reorganization of the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton is critical for guard cell function. Here, we investigate how environmental and hormonal signals cause these rearrangements and find that COP1, a RING-finger-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, is required for degradation of tubulin, likely by the 26S proteasome. This degradation is required for stomatal closing. ...
Vickers Dwayne A L DA The Rowland Institute, Harvard - - 2014
Electroporation has received increasing attention in the past years, because it is a very powerful technique for physically introducing non-permeant exogenous molecular probes into cells. This work reports a microfluidic electroporation platform capable of performing multiple molecule delivery to mammalian cells with precise and molecular-dependent parameter control. The system's ability ...
Marinova Zoya Z University Clinics for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zürich; - - 2014
Many brain-related disorders have neuronal cell death involved in their pathophysiology. Improved in vitro models to study neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of drugs and downstream pathways involved would help gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection/neurotoxicity and could potentially facilitate drug development. However, many existing in vitro toxicity assays ...
O'Brien Jason M JM Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Environmental Health - - 2014
De novo mutations arise mostly in the male germline and may contribute to adverse health outcomes in subsequent generations. Traditional methods for assessing the induction of germ cell mutations require the use of large numbers of animals, making them impractical. As such, germ cell mutagenicity is rarely assessed during chemical ...
Newell Evan W EW Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos #03-06, Singapore, 138648, Singapore, - - 2014
Mass cytometry is a form of flow cytometry based on single-cell mass spectrometry that uses monoisotopic elemental labels to probe individual cells. Reduced cross talk between channels and an ability to measure >30 independent cellular parameters make this an attractive approach for high-dimensional analysis of cellular phenotypes and function. Here, ...
Borlinghaus Jan J Department of Plant Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, - - 2014
Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide) in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will ...
Chaves-Olarte Esteban E Programa de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, 11501-2060, Costa Rica, - - 2014
The pathogenesis of brucellosis depends on the ability of bacteria from the genus Brucella to invade and replicate within animal cells. To understand the molecular pathways used by Brucella spp. to reach its intracellular niche, robust and reproducible bacteria purification protocols that provide enough material for biochemical and molecular biology ...
Cerveira Joana F JF Unidade de Química-Física Molecular and Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal ; Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa", CIBERER, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, - - 2014
Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure ...
Pan Xinghua X Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, - - 2014
Single-cell analysis heralds a new era that allows "omics" analysis, notably genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and proteomics at the single-cell level. It enables the identification of the minor subpopulations that may play a critical role in a biological process of a population of cells, which conventionally are regarded as homogeneous. It ...
Song Congdi C Department of Biology II, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Grosshadernerstrasse 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, - - 2014
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) is a protein that specifically binds methylated DNA, thus regulating transcription and chromatin organization. Mutations in the gene have been identified as the principal cause of Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disorder. Although the role of MECP2 has been extensively studied in nervous tissues, still ...
Saxe Friederike F Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam-Golm, 14476, - - 2014
X-ray scattering is a well-established method for measuring cellulose microfibril angles in secondary cell walls. However, little data is available on the much thinner primary cell walls. Here, we show that microfibril orientation distributions can be determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) even in primary cell walls. The technique ...
Lee Jaehee J Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - - 2014
Introduction of exogenous genetic material, such as DNA, mRNA, siRNA, or miRNA, into cells is routinely performed using one of the many different standardized methods, including lipid-mediated transfection, electroporation, and microinjection to identify their biological function. The ability to control the location and amount of nucleic acids introduced into a ...
Quester S S Department of Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Cologne, 50939 Cologne, - - 2014
We have generated closed-cell microcellular foams from gliadin, an abundantly available wheat storage protein. The extraction procedure of gliadin from wheat gluten, which involves only the natural solvents water and ethanol, respectively, is described with emphasis on the precipitation step of gliadin which results in a fine dispersion of mostly ...
Gedye Craig A CA Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Cell surface proteins have a wide range of biological functions, and are often used as lineage-specific markers. Antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens are widely used as research tools, diagnostic markers, and even therapeutic agents. The ability to obtain broad cell surface protein profiles would thus be of great value ...
Lee Ling Yen LY Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Biomolecular Frontiers Research Centre, Macquarie University , Sydney, NSW , - - 2014
Glycoproteins perform extra- and intracellular functions in innate and adaptive immunity by lectin-based interactions to exposed glyco-determinants. Herein, we document and mechanistically explain the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation determinants on glycoproteins trafficking through the shared biosynthetic machinery of human cells. LC-MS/MS-based quantitative glycomics showed that the secreted glycoproteins of eight ...
Lu Jun J Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, - - 2014
Lithium-oxygen batteries have the potential needed for long-range electric vehicles, but the charge and discharge chemistries are complex and not well understood. The active sites on cathode surfaces and their role in electrochemical reactions in aprotic lithium-oxygen cells are difficult to ascertain because the exact nature of the sites is ...
Clohisey Sara M R SM The Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United - - 2014
Little is known about how microtubules are regulated in different cell types during development. EB1 plays a central role in the regulation of microtubule plus ends. It directly binds to microtubule plus ends and recruits proteins which regulate microtubule dynamics and behaviour. We report the identification of Kank, the sole ...
Mold Matthew M The Birchall Centre, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, - - 2014
Aluminium-based adjuvants (ABA) are the predominant adjuvants used in human vaccinations. While a consensus is yet to be reached on the aetiology of the biological activities of ABA several studies have identified shape, crystallinity and size as critical factors affecting their adjuvanticity. In spite of recent advances, the fate of ...
Ghalhar Masoud Gandomkar MG Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran E-mail : - - 2014
HSP90 may be overexpressed in cancer cells which are greatly dependent on Hsp90 function. Geldanamycin derivative 17 allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) inhibits the function and expression of HSP90. 17-AAG has poor water-solubility which is a potential problem for clinical practice. In this study for improving the stability and solubility of molecules in ...
Xiao Xi X Department of Chemistry, Life Science School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. - - 2014
Our previous study reported that galaxamide, which is a cyclo-pentapeptide containing five leucines that was extracted from Galaxaura filamentosa, displayed remarkable anticancer cytotoxicity. This novel cyclo-peptide provided a new skeleton for the structural modifications used in finding new drugs with better anticancer properties. In this study, five analogues were synthesized ...
Bacchi Pedro Starzynski PS Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental and Centro de Investigação Translacional em Oncologia, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo and Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 251, CEP 01246-000 São Paulo, - - 2014
Metabolomics has proven an useful tool for systems biology. Here we have used a metabolomics approach to identify conditions in which de novo expression of an established tumor marker, galectin-3, would confer a potential selective advantage for melanoma growth and survival. A murine melanoma cell line (Tm1) that lacks galectin-3 ...
Lin Yao-Cheng YC 1] Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Technologiepark 927, Ghent B-9052, Belgium [2] Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, Ghent B-9052, Belgium - - 2014
The HEK293 human cell lineage is widely used in cell biology and biotechnology. Here we use whole-genome resequencing of six 293 cell lines to study the dynamics of this aneuploid genome in response to the manipulations used to generate common 293 cell derivatives, such as transformation and stable clone generation ...
Zhang Ji-Gang JG Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai First People's Hospital, School of medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. - - 2014
Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and 2) are key regulators of focal adhesion, actomyosin contraction and cell motility. RhoA/ROCK signaling has emerged as an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapeutics. Whether RhoA/ROCK is involved in regulating ...
Sharma Puja P School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, - - 2014
The role of physical forces in disease onset and progression is widely accepted and this knowledge presents an alternative route to investigating disease models. Recently, numerous force measurement techniques have been developed to probe single and multi-cell behavior. While these methods have yielded fundamental insights, they are yet unable to ...
Doan-Xuan Quang-Minh QM Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary; These authors contributed equally to this - - 2014
The application of FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) sensors for monitoring protein-protein interactions under vital conditions is attracting increasing attention in molecular and cell biology. Laser-scanning cytometry (LSC), a slide-based sister procedure to flow cytometry, provides an opportunity to analyze large populations of adherent cells or 2-D solid tissues in ...
Hess George P - - 2014
Various devices have been used to flow neurotransmitter solutions over cells containing receptors (e.g., ligand-gated ion channels) for whole-cell current recordings. With many of the devices, the orientation between the porthole of the flow device and the cell is not maintained absolutely constant. Orientation is critical for reproducibility in kinetic ...
Ambriz-Aviña Verónica V 0000-0001-6614-4240 Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta S/N, 36050 Guanajuato, GTO, - - 2014
Although reports of flow cytometry (FCM) applied to bacterial analysis are increasing, studies of FCM related to human cells still vastly outnumber other reports. However, current advances in FCM combined with a new generation of cellular reporter probes have made this technique suitable for analyzing physiological responses in bacteria. We ...
Bettenworth Dominik D Department of Medicine B, University Hospital Münster, Münster, - - 2014
Impaired epithelial wound healing has significant pathophysiological implications in several conditions including gastrointestinal ulcers, anastomotic leakage and venous or diabetic skin ulcers. Promising drug candidates for accelerating wound closure are commonly evaluated in in vitro wound assays. However, staining procedures and discontinuous monitoring are major drawbacks hampering accurate assessment of ...
Han Lin L 1] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA - - 2014
Despite the recent advance of single-cell gene expression analyses, co-measurement of both genomic and transcriptional signatures at the single-cell level has not been realized. However such analysis is necessary in order to accurately delineate how genetic information is transcribed, expressed, and regulated to give rise to an enormously diverse range ...
Koirala Santosh S Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, - - 2014
Many bacteria are motile only when nutrients are scarce. In contrast, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is motile only when nutrients are plentiful, suggesting that this bacterium uses motility for purposes other than foraging, most likely for host colonization. In this study, we investigated how nutrients affect motility in S. enterica and ...
Fu Ci C Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of - - 2014
Intercellular communication of vegetative cells and their subsequent cell fusion is vital for different aspects of growth, fitness, and differentiation of filamentous fungi. Cell fusion between germinating spores is important for early colony establishment, while hyphal fusion in the mature colony facilitates the movement of resources and organelles throughout an ...
Keerthy Hosadurga K HK Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore, - - 2014
The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 is a well-known and attractive therapeutic target for cancer. In the present study the solution-phase T3P-DMSO mediated efficient synthesis of 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles from alcohols, malanonitrile and phenols is reported. These novel 2-amino-chromene-3-carbonitriles showed cytotoxicity in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Compound 4g was found to ...
Raghunathan Vijay Krishna VK Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of - - 2014
The extracellular environment possesses a rich milieu of biophysical and biochemical signaling cues that are simultaneously integrated by cells and influence cellular phenotype. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (WWTR1; TAZ), two important signaling molecules of the Hippo pathway, have been recently implicated as nuclear relays of ...
Maynard Glynn Vivian GV Grains and Forestry Branch, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, GPO Box 858 Canberra ACT Australia 2601. - - 2014
This paper provides a revision of Goniocolletes Cockerell, and of Australian subgenera of Leioproctus Smith (Hy-menoptera: Colletidae: Paracolletini) with three submarginal cells. Seven subgenera were revised: Leioproctus s.str., L. (Ceratocolletes) Michener, L. (Cladocerapis) Cockerell, L. (Excolletes) Michener, L. (Lamprocolletes) Smith, L. (Odontocolletes) Maynard, and L. (Protomorpha) Rayment, and seven new ...
Sinclair Robert R Mathematical Biology Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Onna-son, Okinawa, - - 2014
When a given tissue must, to be able to perform its various functions, consist of different cell types, each fairly evenly distributed and with specific probabilities, then there are at least two quite different developmental mechanisms which might achieve the desired result. Let us begin with the case of two ...
Bennett Robert D RD Laboratory of Adaptive and Regenerative Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston, MA , - - 2014
Complex tissues such as the lung are composed of structural hierarchies such as alveoli, alveolar ducts, and lobules. Some structural units, such as the alveolar duct, appear to participate in tissue repair as well as the development of bronchioalveolar carcinoma. Here, we demonstrate an approach to conduct laser microdissection of ...
Burton Rachel A RA Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls - School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide Glen Osmond, SA, - - 2014
The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be ...
Sands Bryan B Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs) fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, ...
Kaczmarczyk Agnieszka A Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, - - 2014
The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of ...
Ji Hong H La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science (LIMS), La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
Secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed within extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in intercellular communication by regulating recipient cell gene expression and affecting target cell function. Here, we report the isolation of three distinct EV subtypes from the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1863 - shed microvesicles (sMVs) and two ...
Enenkel Cordula C Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada. - - 2014
Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome ...
Shen Bang B Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, - - 2014
Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites requires transmembrane adhesins that mediate binding to receptors on the substrate and host cell to facilitate motility and invasion. Rhomboid proteases (ROMs) are thought to cleave adhesins within their transmembrane segments, thus allowing the parasite to disengage from receptors and ...
Cerrada Alejandro A Departmento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, - - 2014
Lung alveolar type II (ATII) cells are specialized in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension to minimize the work of breathing. Surfactant synthesis, assembly and secretion are closely regulated and its impairment is associated with severe respiratory disorders. At present, well-established ATII ...
Petti Carloalberto C Department of Horticulture, University of Kentucky Lexington, KY, - - 2014
In a screen for root hair morphogenesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana L. we identified a T-DNA insertion within a type III J-protein AtDjC17 caused altered root hair development and reduced hair length. Root hairs were observed to develop from trichoblast and atrichoblast cell files in both Atdjc17 and 35S::AtDJC17. Localization ...
Méjard Régis R Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, - - 2014
The objectives of this study were to establish an in-depth understanding of the signals induced by mammalian cells in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. To this end, two plasmonic structures with different propagation and penetration distances were used: conventional surface plasmon resonance and long-range surface plasmon resonance. Long-range SPR showed ...
Lewis Katherine J R KJ University of Colorado at - - 2013
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels represent a versatile material scaffold for culturing cells in two or three dimensions with the advantages of limited protein fouling and cytocompatible polymerization to enable cell encapsulation. By using light-based chemistries for gelation and for incorporating biomolecules into the network, dynamic niches can be created that ...
Sawa Hitoshi H Multicellular Organization Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, 411-8540 - - 2013
Wnt proteins are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that control many aspects of development in organisms ranging from sponges to vertebrates. Wnt proteins are also important regulators of C. elegans development, with functions in processes as diverse as cell fate specification, asymmetric cell division, cell migration and synapse formation. In this review, ...
Ohno Motofumi - - 2013
When resorbable hydroxyapatite (HA) granules, which are used as a bone supplement material, were treated in neutral 4% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution, formation of a reactant resembling calcium fluoride was observed on the surface of the granules. Immediate and slow release of fluoride from fluoridated HA (HA+F) granules was observed ...
Pithon Matheus Melo - - 2011
Sickle cell anemia is a common hereditary hematologic disease. It affects many systems and tissues in the body, including the mouth. Delayed tooth eruption, an uncommon degree of periodontitis, alterations in the cells of the tongue surface, hypomaturation and hypomineralization in enamel and dentin, pulp calcifications, hypercementosis, and bone alterations ...
Longo João Paulo F - - 2011
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique employed in the treatment of several superficial infections, such as caries. PDT uses a non-toxic drug termed photosensitizer (PS) followed by light irradiation. The cytotoxic effects of the therapy are related to the production of reactive species produced after light activation of a photosensitizer, ...
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