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Results 401 - 450 of 2861
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Rafehi Haloom - - 2011
The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic ...
Wu Lixian - - 2011
Activation of the IKK-NFκB pathway increases the resistance of cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR). This effect has been largely attributed to the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins by NFκB. Since efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is required for the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, we investigated if ...
Sun Yunguang - - 2011
Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein and key regulator of mitosis, is up-regulated in a variety of cancers and is often associated with a worse prognosis. Terameprocol down-regulates the Sp1-mediated transcription of survivin and Cdk1, which is important for cell cycle progression and many other proteins. Survivin inhibition has previously ...
Cardone John - - 2011
The intestinal epithelium not only provides a vital physical barrier between the host and environment but is also required for uptake of nutrients and the induction of tolerance against commensals. Deregulation of any of these functions leads to several disease states including chronic infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Here, ...
Sultan Sébastien - - 2011
Associative olfactory learning increased survival of adult born granule interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) at regions which are specific to the learned odorant. However, the mechanism shaping this odor-specific distribution of newborn neurons and its temporal relationship with the learning process are unknown. In the present study, using Bromodeoxyuridine ...
Hartlerode Andrea - - 2011
Double-strand break repair is executed by two major repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Whereas NHEJ contributes to the repair of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced double strand breaks (DSBs) throughout the cell cycle, HR acts predominantly during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The ...
Darzynkiewicz Zbigniew - - 2011
Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) provides a novel approach for automated scoring of micronuclei (MN) in different types of mammalian cells, serving as a biomarker of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. In this review, we discuss the advances to date in measuring MN in cell lines, buccal cells and erythrocytes, describe the advantages ...
Rieder Conly L - - 2010
In this review, I stress the importance of direct data and accurate terminology when formulating and communicating conclusions on how the G2/M and metaphase/anaphase transitions are regulated. I argue that entry into mitosis (i.e., the G2/M transition) is guarded by several checkpoint control pathways that lose their ability to delay ...
Zhao Guoping - - 2010
Mutagenicity is often a prerequisite to the development of malignancy. Evidences have shown that exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) results in various cancer inductions. However, whether any mutagenic base exists is still puzzling. In the present study, we exposed exponentially growing A(L) cells to PFOA and assayed the cells for ...
Malak Henryk - - 2010
A new approach to intracellular detection and imaging of metabolic processes and pathways is presented that uses surface plasmon resonance to enhance interactions between photon-absorbing metabolites and metal nanoparticles in contact with cells in vitro or in vivo. Photon absorption in the nanoparticles creates plasmon fields, enhancing intrinsic metabolite fluorescence, ...
Ding Jinmei - - 2011
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used to determine Hela cells activity with Hela treated by 0-46 μM methylmercury (MeHg) as the apoptosis model. The treated and untreated cells were stained by four different dyes (Janus Green B, Rhodamine 123, Neutral Red and Trypan Blue) and analyzed by CZE with UV/Vis detection. ...
Yoshino Kei - - 2011
Identification of reliable markers of radiosensitivity and the key molecules that enhance the susceptibility of esophageal cancer cells to anticancer treatments would be highly desirable. To identify molecules that confer radiosensitivity to esophageal squamous carcinoma cells, we assessed the radiosensitivities of the TE-5, TE-9 and TE-12 cloneA1 cell lines. TE-12 ...
Ding Jinmei - - 2010
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used to determine Hela cells activity with Hela treated by 0-46 μM methylmercury (MeHg) as the apoptosis model. The treated and untreated cells were stained by four different dyes (Janus Green B, Rhodamine 123, Neutral Red and Trypan Blue) and analyzed by CZE with UV/Vis detection. ...
Lucas Marcel - - 2011
Time-resolved autofluorescence, Raman microspectroscopy, and scanning microprobe X-ray diffraction were combined in order to characterize lignocellulosic biomass from poplar trees and how it changes during treatment with the ionic liquid 1-n-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAC) at room temperature. The EMIMAC penetrates the cell wall from the lumen, swelling the cell wall by ...
Trevors Jack T JT School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, N1G 2W1, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. - - 2011
This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). ...
Hershman Jerome M - - 2011
Radioiodine-131 released from nuclear reactor accidents has dramatically increased the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in exposed individuals. The deposition of ionizing radiation in cells results in double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) at fragile sites, and this early event can generate oncogenic rearrangements that eventually cause cancer. The aims of this ...
Cugia Giulia - - 2010
Cell storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) offers the most secure method of cell preservation even if cryopreserved cells are exposed to natural background of ionising radiation (IR). A lot of experiments have demonstrated that IR can induce damages in living cells, but only a little information regarding the response of ...
Mizuno Kazue - - 2011
Polymeric micelles loaded with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP, (cisplatin micelles) enable higher accumulation in solid tumors and lower toxicities compared with CDDP alone. The combined use of cisplatin micelles with radiation is expected to enhance therapeutic effects and reduce side effects. The kinetics of cisplatin micelle uptake, however, have not been fully ...
Skoczylas Marcin - - 2010
Irradiation of individual cultured mammalian cells with a pre-selected number of ions down to one ion per single cell is a useful experimental approach to investigating the low-dose ionising radiation exposure effects and thus contributing to a more realistic human cancer risk assessment. One of the crucial tasks of all ...
Ristic-Fira Aleksandra - - 2010
Response of human HTB140 melanoma cells to proton irradiation in combination with fotemustine (FM) was investigated. Effects of these agents were analysed on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Cells pretreated with 100- or 250-µM of FM were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62-MeV proton spread-out Bragg peak, ...
Farrell Hugh - - 2010
This constitutes the first study to report on the relationship between pulsed UV light (PL) irradiation and the simultaneous occurrence of molecular and cellular damage in clinical strains of Candida albicans. Microbial protein leakage and propidium iodide (PI) uptake assays demonstrated significant increases in cell membrane permeability in PL-treated yeast ...
Whiteside James R - - 2010
The bystander effect is defined as the induction of cellular damage in unirradiated cells, induced by irradiated cells in the surrounding area. Our laboratory has previously identified that an environmentally relevant dose of UVA is able to induce the effect in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, seen as reduced clonogenic survival. ...
Guertler A - - 2010
An easy, fast and reliable method was developed to screen hundreds of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines (lymphoblastoid cell lines, LCLs) for radiation sensitivity that were generated from lymphocytes isolated from young lung cancer patients. The WST-1 test explores the metabolic activity of the mitochondria as an indicator for the vital ...
Monteiro E - - 2010
In this study, experimental results of single cell spreading between two parallel microplates are exploited through finite element modeling. Axisymmetric computations at finite strains are performed to extract the mechanical properties of the cell which can account for cell shape evolution and traction force generation. Our model includes two distinct ...
Schirmer Markus A - - 2011
To determine whether genetic variability in TGFB1 is related to circulating transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plasma concentrations after radiotherapy and to radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells. Transforming growth factor-β1 plasma concentrations (n = 79) were measured in patients 1 year after radiotherapy and chromosomal aberrations (n = 71) ex vivo before therapy ...
Uchida Maho - - 2011
We used soft X-ray tomography (SXT)--a high-resolution, quantitative imaging technique--to measure cell size and organelle volumes in yeasts. Cell size is a key factor in initiating cell division in yeasts, whereas the number and volume of the organelles have a profound impact on the function and viability of a cell. ...
Claesson Kristina - - 2010
Purpose: To investigate cell cycle effects and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of α-particles from the clinically relevant radionuclide Astatine-211 ((211)At), using X-rays as reference radiation. Double-strand breaks (DSB), non-DSB clusters containing oxidised purines and clonogenic survival were investigated. Materials and methods: Asynchronous V79-379A fibroblasts or cells synchronised with mimosine in G1, early, ...
Rouas Caroline - - 2010
Uranium is naturally found in the environment, and its extensive use results in an increased risk of human exposure. Kidney cells have mainly been used as in vitro models to study effects of uranium exposure, and very little about the effects on other cell types is known. The aim of ...
Sabarinathan Devan - - 2010
The effect of naringenin on the growth of C6 glioma cells was investigated in the current study. Suppression of cell growth was assessed by MTT assay. Induction of cell cycle arrest was assessed by propidium iodide staining using flowcytometric analysis. Induction of DNA damage was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. ...
Wittmaack Klaus - - 2011
This study aimed at identifying the dose metric applicable to studies on the viability of cells exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) in vitro. A previously reported set of data was evaluated very carefully. The extent of cell death after 24-h exposure of three cell lines to suspended silica NPs (<30 nm) ...
Chen Y S - - 2010
Radiotherapy is a useful component of treatment strategies for esophageal cancer. The role of autophagy in response to ionizing radiation was investigated in human esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assay were used to evaluate the radiosensitivity of autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) on esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. The ...
Bauermeister Anja - - 2010
To test the effect of humidity on the radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans, air-dried cells were irradiated with germicidal 254 nm UV, and simulated environmental UV or γ-radiation and survival was compared to cells in suspension. It was observed that desiccated cells exhibited higher levels of resistance than cells in suspension ...
Roberts A M - - 2010
An analysis of swimming patterns in the ciliate Paramecium shows that the ability to swim preferentially upwards (negative gravitaxis) is primarily the result of upwardly curving trajectories. The trajectory characteristics are consistent with those produced by mechanical orientation. Cell profile measurements from microscope images suggest that the characteristic front-rear body ...
Park Se Woong - - 2011
We have developed a facile method to position different dyes (N719 and N749) sequentially in a mesoporous TiO(2) layer through selective desorption and adsorption processes. From the selective removal of the only upper part of the first adsorbed dye, double-layered dye-sensitized solar cells have been successfully achieved without any damage ...
Villeneuve Valérie - - 2010
Comment on: Singh RK, et al. Cell Cycle 2010; 9:4236-44.
Sharif Razinah - - 2011
Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects ...
Ballarini F - - 2010
Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed ...
Barger Jennifer F - - 2010
We performed a high-throughput screen to identify compounds with a selective ability to induce apoptosis in Akt-expressing cells without disrupting Bcl-xL-dependent survival. Results showed that a screening strategy based on Alamar Blue underrepresented the viability of Bcl-xL-expressing cells relative to Akt-expressing cells, possibly due to metabolic differences between the two ...
Sobol Margarita - - 2011
The best available approach of biological sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy currently includes cryoimmobilization by high-pressure freezing (HPF) followed by freeze-substitution (FS). This method has been well established for interphase cells; however, a reliable and easy procedure is still missing for mitotic cells especially because of their fragility and ...
Koike Manabu - - 2010
In clinical situations, cellular resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is a significant component of tumor treatment failure. The DNA repair protein Ku70 is a key contributor to chemoresistance to anticancer agents, e.g., etoposide and bleomycin, or radioresistance. Ku70 plays a key role as a sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) ...
Espírito Santo Christophe - - 2011
Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed ...
Archana P R - - 2010
The radioprotective effect of thymol (TOH), a monoterpene phenol, on radiation-induced DNA damage was analyzed in vitro. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) were treated with different concentrations of TOH (0-100 μg/mL) for 1 hour before exposure to 3 Gy gamma irradiation, and then cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus and single-cell gel electrophoresis ...
Feng Zhihui - - 2011
Synthetic lethality is a powerful approach to study selective cell killing based on genotype. We show that loss of Rad52 function is synthetically lethal with breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) deficiency, whereas there was no impact on cell growth and viability in BRCA2-complemented cells. The frequency of both spontaneous ...
Chiu Joyce - - 2011
Yeast cells begin to bud and enter the S phase when growth conditions are favorable during the G(1) phase. When subjected to some oxidative stresses, cells delay entry at G(1), allowing repair of cellular damage. Hence, oxidative stress sensing is coordinated with the regulation of cell cycle. We identified a ...
Ukpebor Justina - - 2010
Organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) toxicity is believed to be mediated through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Given their widespread distribution in aquatic systems and their ability to undergo chemical transformation, their environmental impacts at sublethal concentrations in non-target organisms have become an important question. We conducted a number of mammalian-cell genotoxic and ...
Ferrari C - - 2011
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron ...
He M - - 2011
The tumor suppressor p53 has a crucial role in cellular response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, but it is still unclear whether p53 can modulate radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). In the present work, three different hepatoma cell lines, namely HepG2 (wild p53), PLC/PRF/5 (mutation p53) and Hep3B (p53 ...
Ferreira Paulo M Pinheiro - - 2010
Clerodane diterpenes have demonstrated cytotoxic, antiplasmodial and anti-ulcer properties. In the present work, we determined the cytotoxic effect of casearin L (Cas L), O (Cas O) and X (Cas X) and (-)-hardwickiic acid isolated from Casearia sylvestris leaves, and investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in in vitro cell death induced ...
Zhang Shulin - - 2011
Berberine, extracted from golden thread (Coptis chinensis Franch), is an allelochemical exhibiting inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. Berberine-induced oxidative damage and antioxidant responses in M. aeruginosa cells were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms involved in berberine inhibition on algal growth. Malondialdehyde content in M. aeruginosa cells exposed ...
Bajinskis Ainars - - 2011
Abstract The effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on cellular development in the nervous system are presently unclear. The focus of the present study was to examine low-dose γ-radiation-induced effects on the differentiation of neuronal cells and on the development of neural stem cells to glial cells. Human neuroblastoma ...
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