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Hamada Nobuyuki - - 2011
For nearly a century, ionizing radiation has been indispensable to medical diagnosis. Furthermore, various types of electromagnetic and particulate radiation have also been used in cancer therapy. However, the biological mechanism of radiation action remains incompletely understood. In this regard, a rapidly growing body of experimental evidence indicates that radiation ...
Mosconi Marita - - 2011
An improved assessment of the biological effects and related risks of low doses of ionizing radiation is currently an important issue in radiation biology. Irradiations using microbeams are particularly well suited for precise and localized dose depositions, whereas recombinant cell lines with fluorescent proteins allow the live observation of radiation-induced ...
Sannino Anna - - 2011
Purpose: To investigate the influence of cell cycle on the adaptive response (AR) induced by the exposure of human blood lymphocytes to radiofrequency fields (RF). Materials and methods: Human peripheral blood lymphocytes in G(0)-, G(1)- or S-phase of the cell cycle were exposed for 20 hours to an adaptive dose (AD) of ...
Martin Olga A - - 2011
The importance of bystander effects is becoming more appreciated, as studies show they may affect the course of cancer and other chronic diseases. The term "bystander effects" refers to changes in naïve cells sharing the same milieu with cells that have been damaged. Bystander cells may be in contact with, ...
Czakai Kristin - - 2011
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most potent rodent renal carcinogens studied to date. Although controversial results regarding OTA genotoxicity have been published, it is now widely accepted that OTA is not a mutagenic, DNA-reactive carcinogen. Instead, increasing evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggests that ...
Zhang Jie - - 2011
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely used in industry; it is nonbiodegradable and persistent in the human body and in the environment. Although reports have indicated that young people might have higher PFOS levels in serum or blood than do older people, its adverse effects on neonatal testicular cells had not ...
Edwards Falicia L - - 2013
Methyl parathion (C₈H₁₀NO₅PS) and parathion (C₁₀H14 NO₅PS) are both organophosphate insecticides (OPI) widely used for household and agricultural applications. They are known for their ability to irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase which often leads to a profound effect on the nervous system of exposed organisms. Many recently published studies have indicated that ...
Murayama Hideyuki - - 2011
It has been reported that low-power laser irradiation (LLI) can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation. Some reports suggest that LLI interferes with the cell cycle and inhibits cell proliferation, while others suggest that LLI has a stimulatory effect. Mechanisms underlying the effects of LLI remain unclear. Since the ...
Huang Yun - - 2011
Micronuclei are closely related to DNA damage. The presence of micronuclei in mammalian cells is a common phenomenon post ionizing radiation. The level of micronucleation in tumor cells has been used to predict prognosis after radiotherapy in many cancers. In order to understand how irradiation-induced micronuclei affect cell fate, we ...
Choi Dae-Kyoung - - 2011
A new sunscreen ingredient, methoxycinnamidopropyl polysilsesquioxane (MCP-PSQ), which contains an ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing p-methoxycinnamoyl group, has been developed synthetically and evaluated using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Previous studies revealed that MCP-PSQ has a raising or boosting effect on the sun protection factor (SPF) of other sunscreen agents. In this ...
Lossaint G - - 2011
In the presence of sustained DNA damage occurring in S-phase or G2, normal cells arrest before mitosis and eventually become senescent. The checkpoint kinases Chk1/Chk2 and the CDK inhibitor p21 are known to have important complementary roles in this process, in G2 arrest and cell cycle exit, respectively. However, additional ...
Corbin Audrey - - 2011
The penetration and overall efficacy of six mouthrinse actives was evaluated by using an in vitro flow cell oral biofilm model. The technique involved preloading biofilm cells with a green fluorescent dye that leaked out as the cells were permeabilized by a treatment. The loss of green color, and of ...
Kim Jung-Sik JS Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington, DC 20057, - - 2011
Following DNA damage, human cells undergo arrests in the G(1) and G(2) phases of the cell cycle and a simultaneous arrest in cell size. We previously demonstrated that the cell size arrest can be uncoupled from the cell cycle arrest by mutational inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. Here ...
He Jinpeng - - 2011
Cell cycle checkpoint is a self-protective mechanism for cells to monitor genome integrity and ensure the high-fidelity transmission of genetic information to daughter cells. Insufficient function of cell cycle checkpoints has been demonstrated to partially account for tumor initiation, promotion and progression. In the ten melanoma cell lines that we ...
Végh Attila G - - 2011
The reliable determination of the mechanical properties of a living cell is one of the most important challenges of the atomic force microscopic measurements. In the present study the spatial and temporal dependency of the force measurements on cerebral endothelial cells was investigated. Besides imaging the cells, two different sequences ...
Lee Nahyoung G - - 2011
To study the ability of ultrasound (US) and microbubbles (MB) to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy against retinoblastoma Y79 cells in vitro. The experiment was performed in three stages. The authors first compared cell viability of Y79 cells exposed to doxorubicin versus cells exposed to doxorubicin combined with low-intensity, low-frequency US + ...
Kwakye Gunnar F - - 2011
Cellular manganese (Mn) uptake and transport dynamics can be measured using a cellular fura-2 manganese extraction assay (CFMEA). The assay described here uses immortalized murine striatal cell line and primary cortical astrocytes, but the method is equally adaptable to other cultured mammalian cells. An ultrasensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain for ...
Dinu Diana - - 2011
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a contaminant of certain foods and feeds, is cytotoxic and genotoxic to mammalians cells. Exposure of human embryonic kidney (Hek-293) cells to DON led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability, with an IC(50) about 7.6 μM. The DON effects on Hek-293 morphology, reactive oxygen ...
Liu Shin-Yi - - 2011
Sestrin 2 (SESN2) is a stress-inducible protein required for maintaining redox homeostasis. However, its mode of action remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that SESN2 is induced in human glioblastoma U87 cells following ionizing radiation (IR). SESN2 silencing not only results in increased oxidative stress but also ...
Venkitaraman Ashok R AR University of Cambridge, Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison/MRC Research Centre, UK. - - 2011
Genome instability occurs early in the development of most cancers. Bester et al. now provide evidence that oncogenic signals trigger cell division without coordinate nucleotide synthesis, engendering aberrant DNA replication and damage that could promote carcinogenesis. A mismatch between proliferation and metabolite production may characterize oncogenic cell cycles.
Saito Shigeyoshi - - 2011
Prenatal radiation exposure induces various central nervous system (CNS) disorders depending on the dose, affected region and gestation period. The goal of this study was to assess noninvasively a CNS development disorder induced by prenatal X-ray exposure using quantitative manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) as well as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and ...
Lu Jin-Jian - - 2011
Curcumin (CUR), a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, displays potential anti-cancer activity. One of the mechanisms stems from its ability to elicit cell cycle arrest followed by suppression of cell proliferation. Herein, we reported that CUR significantly induced DNA damage and mediated S and G2/M phase arrest in ...
Chen Jing - - 2011
We demonstrate a novel architecture of solar cell by incorporating graphene thin film in a quantum dot sensitized solar cell. Quantum dot sensitized nanorods with a graphene layer exhibited a 54.7% improvement comparing a quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorods without graphene layer. A fill factor as high as ∼62% was ...
Deckbar Dorothee D Darmstadt University of Technology, Radiation Biology and DNA Repair, Darmstadt, - - 2011
The DNA damage response pathways involve processes of double-strand break (DSB) repair and cell cycle checkpoint control to prevent or limit entry into S phase or mitosis in the presence of unrepaired damage. Checkpoints can function to permanently remove damaged cells from the actively proliferating population but can also halt ...
Daunton Rachael - - 2011
The design and fabrication of a thermally actuated polymeric 'soft' microgripper incorporating a bare gold working electrode is described. An intial test confirms that the electrochemical works as an effective microelectrode, opening up exciting possibilities in single cell measurements.
Sciandrello G - - 2011
Previously, we reported that the progeny of mammalian cells, which has been exposed to sodium arsenite for two cell cycles, exhibited chromosomal instability and concurrent DNA hypomethylation, when they were subsequently investigated after two months of subculturing (about 120 cell generations) in arsenite-free medium. In this work, we continued our ...
Hsu W-S - - 2011
Genome stability depends on faithful chromosome segregation, which relies on maintenance of chromatid cohesion during S phase. In eukaryotes, Pds1/securin is the only known inhibitor that can prevent loss of cohesion. However, pds1Δ yeast cells and securin-null mice are viable. We sought to identify redundant mechanisms that promote cohesion within ...
Dovigo Lívia N - - 2011
This study describes the association of curcumin with LED light for the inactivation of Candida albicans. Suspensions of Candida were treated with nine curcumin concentrations and exposed to LED at different fluences. The protocol that showed the best outcomes for Candida inactivation was selected to evaluate the effect of the ...
Brozovic Gordana - - 2011
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of repeated exposure to isoflurane or halothane and compare it with the genotoxicity of repeated exposure to cisplatin. We also determined the genotoxicity of combined treatment with inhalation anaesthetics and cisplatin on peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), brain, liver and kidney ...
Gallavardin Thibault - - 2011
The synthesis and photophysical properties of two lipophilic quadrupolar chromophores featuring anthracenyl (1) or dibromobenzene (2) were described. These two chromophores combined significant two-photon absorption cross-sections with high fluorescence quantum yield for 1 and improved singlet oxygen generation efficiency for 2, in organic solvents. The use of Pluronic nanoparticles allowed ...
Mueller Sabine S Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0106, USA. - - 2011
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can radiosensitize cancer cells. Radiation is critical in high-risk neuroblastoma treatment, and combinations of HDAC inhibitor vorinostat and radiation are proposed for neuroblastoma trials. Therefore, we investigated radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in neuroblastoma. Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines decreased cell viability and resulted in additive effects ...
Paris Lorena - - 2011
Male germ cells have been shown to differ in their DNA damage response (DDR) with respect to somatic cells. In addition, DDR pathways are modulated along spermatogenesis, accompanying profound chromatin modifications. Histone H2AX phosphorylation is a fundamental step of DDR. Few data are available on the long-term kinetics of phosphorylated ...
Horinouchi Mayumi - - 2011
Photochemical genotoxicity was evaluated in human keratinocyte NCTC2544 cells. The cells were pre-treated with photogenotoxic or pseudophotoclastogenic chemicals and irradiated with a solar-simulator for 50min at a total UV dose of 5J/cm(2) or placed in the dark for the same period. After washing, the cells were cultured for 1.5-2 cell ...
Chávez de Paz Luis E - - 2011
Nanoparticle complexes were prepared from chitosans of various molecular weights (MW) and degrees of deacetylation (DD). The antimicrobial effect was assessed by the Live/Dead BacLight technique in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and image analysis. Nanocomplexes prepared from chitosans with high MW showed a low antimicrobial effect (20 ...
Roobol Anne A Centre for Molecular Processing and Protein Science Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, - - 2011
In vitro cultured mammalian cells respond to mild hypothermia (27-33 °C) by attenuating cellular processes and slowing and arresting the cell cycle. The slowing of the cell cycle at the upper range (31-33 °C) and its complete arrest at the lower range (27-28 °C) of mild hypothermia is effected by the activation of ...
Wyrobek A J - - 2011
We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose-response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were ...
Choi Kyu Jin - - 2011
Identification of genes that modulate radiation sensitivity provides important tools to study cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We combined DNA microarrays and viability assays to identify modulators of radiation sensitivity in A549 lung cancer cells. Up-regulated genes were selected from microarray experiments and RNA expression levels were confirmed by real-time ...
Rwigema Jean-Claude M JC Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232, - - 2011
To evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation of acute ionizing radiation damage by mitochondrion-targeted small molecules. We evaluated the ability of nitroxide-linked alkene peptide isostere JP4-039, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-linked alkene peptide esostere MCF201-89, and the p53/mdm2/mdm4 protein complex inhibitor BEB55 to mitigate radiation effects by clonogenic survival curves with ...
Qi Lin - - 2011
ERp29 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible protein. It was found that ERp29 was highly expressed in several cancers and associated with resistance to oxidative and radiation stress, which may serve as a novel target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) anticancer approach. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to detect ERp29 ...
Roa Wilson - - 2011
Intrinsic radiosensitivity of normal and tumour tissues has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor for patients' response to radiotherapy. This study compares the real-time cell-impedance sensing (RT-CES) assay with the conventional clonogenic assay in terms of in-vitro radiosensitivity. One objective in this study was to predict in-vivo response ...
Hyka-Nouspikel Nevila - - 2011
Faithful repair of DNA lesions is a crucial task that dividing cells must actively perform to maintain genome integrity. Strikingly, nucleotide excision repair (NER), the most versatile DNA repair system, is specifically down-regulated in terminally differentiated cells. This prompted us to examine whether NER attenuation might be a common feature ...
Belyaev Igor - - 2011
Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have previously been shown to affect conformation of chromatin and cell proliferation. Possible genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of ELF-MF have also been discussed and tested. In this study, we analysed the effect of ELF-MF on chromatin conformation in E. coli GE499 cells by the anomalous ...
Rungta Parul - - 2011
We present a general approach for the selective imaging and killing of cancer cells using protein-activated near-infrared emitting and cytotoxic oxygen generating nanoparticles. Poly(propargyl acrylate) (PA) particles were surface modified through the copper-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition of azide-terminated indocyanine green (azICG), a near-infrared emitter, and poly(ethylene glycol) (azPEG) chains of various ...
Kumari Mamta - - 2011
Increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) in consumer products may enhance its release into the environment. Phytotoxicity study is important to understand its possible environmental impact. Allium cepa (Onion bulb) is the best model organism to study genetic toxicology of nanoparticles. Here we have reported cytogenetic and genotoxic ...
De Bacco Francesca - - 2011
Ionizing radiation (IR) is effectively used in cancer therapy. However, in subsets of patients, a few radioresistant cancer cells survive and cause disease relapse with metastatic progression. The MET oncogene encodes the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor and is known to drive "invasive growth", a regenerative and prosurvival program unduly ...
Kunos Charles A CA Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2011
To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. The cells were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (11, 23, 37, 67 cGy/h) using a custom-fabricated cell irradiator or to high-dose-rate ...
Miller L L - - 2011
Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. ...
Kaida Atsushi - - 2011
Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) is able to visualize dynamics of cell cycle progression in live cells; G1- and S-/G2-/M-phase cells expressing Fucci emit red and green fluorescence, respectively. This system could be applied to cell kinetic analysis of tumour cells in the field of cancer therapy; however, it ...
Song Xiao-Lian - - 2011
Microwaves have other biological effects on cancer as well besides killing tumor cells by coagulation. Some studies showed that microwaves may induce apoptosis in some tumor cells. The apoptotic effect of microwaves may help in clinic to remove residual malignant cells nearby the primary lesion and avoid relapse subsequently. However, ...
Malki Ahmed - - 2011
We previously reported novel quinuclidinone analogs that showed both additive and synergistic cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. We aimed at understanding the mechanism of these analogs and also their cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The effects of these analogs were studied in response to gamma radiation in H1299 human large ...
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