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Haritakun Rachada - - 2010
A novel cyclodepsipeptide, cordycommunin (1), and two dihydroisocoumarins (2 and 3) were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps communis BCC 16475. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues of 1 were addressed by application of Marfey's method. Cordycommunin (1) showed growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra with an ...
Hansen Jakob - - 2010
A central part of the research in protein misfolding and its associated disorders is the development of treatment strategies based on ensuring cellular protein homeostasis. This often includes testing chemical substances or drugs for their ability to counteract protein misfolding processes and to promote correct folding. Such investigations also include ...
Molina W F - - 2010
Inoculation with bacterial or fungal antigens that stimulate cell proliferation has been widely used to obtain metaphases for cytogenetic studies of fish. We evaluated the potential of new pharmaceutical compounds as mitogenic agents in fish, testing the efficacy of Aminovac (mixed antigens and epsilon-acetamidocaproic acid), Broncho-Vaxom (bacterial lysate) and Estimoral ...
Mahmood Meena - - 2010
Functional nanomaterials that included gold, silver nanoparticles and single wall carbon nanotubes were delivered to two cell lines (MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells) in various concentrations. The cells were found to uptake the nanomaterials in a relatively short time, a process that significantly affected the shape and ...
Wang Yixiang - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Quinacrine has potential as a chemosensitizer when combined with chemotherapy, but its anti-cancer mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of quinacrine to enhance the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin and the underlying mechanism involved. METHODS: The potential role of quinacrine in enhancing the ...
Wang Piwen - - 2010
The chemopreventive effect of green tea polyphenols, such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been well demonstrated in cell culture studies. However, a wide range of IC(50) concentrations has been observed in published studies of the anti-proliferative activity of EGCG from different laboratories. Although the susceptibility to EGCG treatment is largely dependent ...
Fasullo Michael - - 2010
AFB(1) is a potent recombinagen in budding yeast. AFB(1) exposure induces RAD51 expression and triggers Rad53 activation in yeast cells that express human CYP1A2. It was unknown, however, when and if Rad51 foci appear. Herein, we show that Rad53 activation correlates with cell-cycle delay in yeast and the subsequent formation ...
Schmidt Martin - - 2010
Boric acid (BA) has broad antimicrobial activity that makes it a popular treatment for yeast vaginitis in complementary and alternative medicine. In the model yeast S. cerevisiae, BA disturbs the cytoskeleton at the bud neck and impairs the assembly of the septation apparatus. BA treatment causes cells to form irregular ...
Sottejeau Y - - 2010
Holistica Laboratories (Eguilles, France) developed the nutritional supplements Omegacoeur® and Doluperine® based on two of the most ancient and unique dietary health traditions. Omegacoeur® is formulated to supply key active components of Mediterranean diet (omega 3,6,9 fatty acids, garlic, and basil) and the formulation of Doluperine® was based on the ...
Khanavi Mahnaz - - 2010
Vinca minor L. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat cerebral and memory disorders in European folk medicine. Furthermore, it contains more than 50 alkaloids, some of them having bisindole structure such as the antineoplastic alkaloids present in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae). In ...
Gerlach Samantha L - - 2010
Cycloviolacin O2 (CyO2), a cyclotide from Viola odorata (Violaceae) has antitumor effects and causes cell death by membrane permeabilization. In the breast cancer line, MCF-7 and its drug resistant subline MCF-7/ADR, the cytotoxic effects of CyO2 (0.2-10 microM) were monitored in the presence and absence of doxorubicin (0.1-5 microM) using ...
Lukaszczyk Jan - - 2010
In the present paper the synthesis and selected properties of functional aliphatic poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) are described. This polyester was synthesized by melt co-polymerization of succinic anhydride and allyl glycidyl ether in the presence of benzyltrimethylammonium chloride as catalyst. The chain structure of PSAGE and its end-groups was characterized by ...
Prasanna R - - 2010
A novel compound 2-arylidene-4,7-dimethyl indan-1-one synthesized was screened for anticancer effect against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7. An IC50 value of > or = 80 microM, nontoxic to the normal breast cell line HBL-100, showed complete inhibition of the MCF-7 cells. Analysis of mechanisms showed nuclear fragmentation and ...
Di Virgilio Ana L - - 2010
The cytotoxicity potential of TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NP) in UMR 106 cells was studied by evaluating the lysosomal activity with neutral red uptake assay (NR), and the mitochondrial activity with tetrazolium MTT test. Different NP concentrations (10-300 microg/mL range) were used. A significant (p < 0.001) increase in the ...
Effenberger Katharina - - 2010
Thymoquinone (TQ; 1) is a weak anticancer constituent of black seed oil. Derivatives bearing terpene-terminated 6-alkyl residues were tested in cells of human HL-60 leukemia, 518A2 melanoma, multidrug-resistant KB-V1/Vbl cervix, and MCF-7/Topo breast carcinomas, as well as in non-malignant human foreskin fibroblasts. Derivatives with a short four-atom spacer between quinone ...
Shimoda Nao - - 2010
We investigated the protective effect of several heterocyclic pyrimidine compounds against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, as well as the inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. One of the compounds examined, 2-piperadino-6-methyl-5-oxo-5,6-dihydro(7H)pyrrolo[3,4d]pyrimidine maleate (MS-818), showed low cytotoxicity even at 500 microM. At 50-500 microM, ...
Ren Yu - - 2010
MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be deregulated in different types of cancer. miR-21 is a key player in the majority of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-21 in glioblastoma cells leads to repression of cell growth, increased cellular apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, which can theoretically enhance the chemotherapeutic effect in cancer therapy. ...
Mathen Caroline - - 2010
Poecilocerus pictus, an aposematic insect, feeds on Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) and sequesters cardiac glycosides which are used in chemical defense. The aim was to characterize the components of the methanolic extracts of P. pictus and C. gigantea and investigate preferential cytotoxicity of the insect extract, if any, on human cancer ...
Deubzer Beate - - 2010
By intravenous (but not oral) application of ascorbate, millimolar serum concentrations can be reached, which are preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells. Cytotoxicity is mediated by transition metal-dependent generation of H(2)O(2) in the interstitial space. In this study, the sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells (Kelly, SK-N-SH) to ascorbate and H(2)O(2) and their ...
Morabito Caterina - - 2010
Background/Aims. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the in vitro neuritogenesis during cell exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of different intensities and durations using pheochromocytoma-derived cell line (PC12 cells) as neuronal model. Methods. Proliferative rates and neuritogenesis were tested by colorimetric assay and ...
Ciofani Gianni - - 2010
The explosive growth of nanotechnology in the last years has led to dramatic innovations in pharmacology, and it is revolutioning the development of biologically active compounds. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely explored for biomedical applications such as intracellular transporters for (bio)molecules, and represent promising future tools for efficient and safe ...
Dushimirimana S - - 2010
Schistocera gregaria (Forsk.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) remains a major insect pest in Africa, more particularly in the Sahelian zone. Present control methods are only partially efficient. In a previous study, we tested the potentiality of a sterile insect technique (SIT). Males of S. gregaria appeared to be much radiosensitive as already ...
Ponte-Sucre Alicia - - 2010
Naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids equipped with a N,C-hetero-'biaryl' axis, and, in particular, simplified synthetic analogues thereof, kill intracellular Leishmania major at concentrations in the low submicromolar range, while being significantly less toxic to their major host cell, the macrophage, at the same concentrations. To further investigate their mechanism of action we evaluated ...
Sato Nodoka - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins and its inhibitors have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. We reasoned that combination treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells with COX-2 inhibitors and anticancer agents may result in synergistic apoptosis. ...
Suyama Hisashi - - 2010
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by autocrine mechanisms. Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor c-kit can activate Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathways. Imatinib mesylate (STI571) can inhibit c-kit tyrosine kinase activity, but clinical trials have resulted in failure. We investigated the possibility of SCF/c-kit-targeted therapy ...
Molinari G - - 2010
Abamectin and Ivermectin are 2 closely related members of the Avermectin family of 16-membered macrocyclic lactones derived from the actinomycete Streptomyces avermectinius which exhibit extraordinary anthelmintic activity. They are used worldwide in veterinary and human medicine as well as in agriculture. In the present review we summarized the results published ...
Wiegand C - - 2010
The cationic polysaccharide chitosan possesses bioactive properties such as antimicrobial activity, antitumor effects, hemostatic assets and positive effects on wound healing. The influence of polycations like chitosan on human cells has been reported to depend on their molecular weight. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by polycations is not yet ...
Kim Jin Sik - - 2010
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) possess beneficial physicochemical and mechanical properties; however, despite these advantages there are concerns regarding the adverse effects of CNT on lung and development of diseases, such as lung cancer and mesothelioma. According to fiber characteristics of length and diameter (aspect ratio), fibers with high aspect ratio (10-15 ...
Senft Christian - - 2010
New drugs are constantly sought after to improve the survival of patients with malignant gliomas. The ideal substance would selectively target tumor cells without eliciting toxic side effects. Here, we report on the anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive properties of the natural, nontoxic compound Curcumin observed in five human glioblastoma (GBM) ...
Yanagisawa Makoto - - 2010
AD (Alzheimer's disease) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common form of dementia. One of the pathological hallmarks of AD is the aggregation of extracellular Aβs (amyloid β-peptides) in senile plaques in the brain. The process could be initiated by seeding provided by an interaction between G(M1) ganglioside and ...
Kelly Sarah E - - 2010
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered a subset of the bulk tumor responsible for initiating and maintaining the disease. Several surface cellular markers have been recently used to identify CSCs. Among those is CD133, which is expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as embryonic stem cells and various cancers. ...
Patlolla Anita - - 2010
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have won enormous popularity in nanotechnology. Due to their unusual, one dimensional, hollow nanostructure and unique physicochemical properties they are highly desirable for use within the commercial, environmental and medical sectors. Despite their wide application, little information is known concerning their impact on human health and ...
Ayaki Masahiko - - 2010
This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of five prostaglandin analog ophthalmic solutions on four ocular surface cell lines, ie, Chang (human conjunctiva), SIRC (rabbit cornea), RC-1 (rabbit cornea), and BCE C/D-1b (bovine cornea). Cell viability was measured by neutral red and MTT assays in cells treated for 10, 30, or 60 ...
Sohaebuddin Syed K - - 2010
Despite intensive research efforts, reports of cellular responses to nanomaterials are often inconsistent and even contradictory. Additionally, relationships between the responding cell type and nanomaterial properties are not well understood. Using three model cell lines representing different physiological compartments and nanomaterials of different compositions and sizes, we have systematically investigated ...
Cheng Yu-Wen - - 2010
To investigate the mechanism of proliferation effect induced by (R,R)-XY-10 and (S,S)-XY-10 on retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to investigate the effect of (R,R)-XY-10 and (S,S)-XY-10 on cell growth, and their mechanisms of proliferative action ...
Hu Kefei - - 2010
Saponin fractions of Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS) have cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro, but are too toxic to be useful in the clinic. The toxic effect was abolished by converting QS fractions into stable nanoparticles through the binding of QS to cholesterol. Two fractions of QS were selected ...
Ferrandino I - - 2010
We analyzed the effect of cadmium on corticotropic (ACTH) and prolactin (PRL) cells in the pituitary gland of the Podarcis sicula lizard under chronic exposure to this metal. Adult lizards were given CdCl2 in drinking water at the dose of 10 &mu;g/10 g body mass for 120 days. Light microscopy ...
Wakida Nicole M - - 2010
Establishing and maintaining polarization is critical during cell migration. It is known that the centrosome contains numerous proteins whose roles of organizing the microtubule network range include nucleation, stabilization and severing. It is not known whether the centrosome is necessary to maintain polarization. Due to its role as the microtubule ...
Wang Peng - - 2010
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an alternative treatment modality for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, γ-ray and reactor neutron irradiation. The ...
Zhang Xia - - 2010
We have previously reported on a gold(III) complex, namely [AuBr(2)(DMDT)] (N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate) showing potent in vitro and in vivo growth inhibitory activities toward human cancer cells and identifying the cellular proteasome as one of the major targets. However, the importance of the oxidation state of the gold center and the involved ...
das Neves Ricardo Pires RP Medical Research Council Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United - - 2010
Populations of genetically identical eukaryotic cells show significant cell-to-cell variability in gene expression. However, we lack a good understanding of the origins of this variation. We have found marked cell-to-cell variability in average cellular rates of transcription. We also found marked cell-to-cell variability in the amount of cellular mitochondrial mass. ...
Rushton Erik K EK Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14624, USA. - - 2010
Engineered nanoparticles (NP) are being developed and incorporated in a number of commercial products, raising the potential of human exposure during manufacture, use, and disposal. Although data concerning the potential toxicity of some NP have been reported, validated simple assays are lacking for predicting their in vivo toxicity. The aim ...
Sparrow Janet R JR Departments of Ophthalmology and Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2010
Bisretinoid lipofuscin compounds that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of macular degeneration. In the development of approaches to the amelioration of retinal disorders characterized by enhanced RPE lipofuscin formation, attention is being given to therapies that reduce the production of ...
Yang Pei-Yu - - 2010
Norcantharidin exhibits cytotoxicity in many cancer cell lines, including colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Its cytotoxic potency on primary CRC cells and other normal constituent cells of the human body remains elusive. This study investigates whether norcantharidin differentially exhibits cytotoxicity on primarily isolated CRC cells and dermal fibroblasts. The in vitro ...
Nishiyama Takahito - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) plays an important role in the detoxification of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, also known as vitamin K3). However, menadiol (2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenediol) formed from menadione by NQO1-mediated reduction continues to be an unstable substance, which undergoes the reformation of menadione with concomitant formation of reactive ...
Das Umashankar - - 2010
A number of N-4-(2-aminoethoxy)phenylcarbonyl derivatives of various 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones 2-5 demonstrated noteworthy cytotoxic potencies towards human HL-60 leukemic cells as well as human HSC-2 and HSC-4 squamous cell carcinomas. In general, toxicity towards HGF, HPC, and HPLF normal cells was substantially lower. The highest selective toxicity was noted when the terminal ...
Kosuri K V - - 2010
Mesothelioma is an uncommon malignancy whose global incidence continues to rise. The therapeutic standard for advanced disease is intravenous pemetrexed and cisplatin. The anti-folate capecitabine is significantly less effective than pemetrexed. The balance between thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is critical to the efficacy of ...
Miot-Noirault Elisabeth - - 2011
Our strategy is to increase drug accumulation in target tumour cells using specific "vectors" tailored to neoplastic tissue characteristics, which ideally are not found in healthy tissues. The aim of this work was to use 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) as a drug carrier, in view of its well-known accumulation by most primary ...
Hsieh Cheng-Chih - - 2010
Microtubule is a popular target for anticancer drugs. Chamaecypanone C, is a natural occurring novel skeleton compound isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The present study demonstrates that chamaecypanone C induced mitotic arrest through binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, thus preventing tubulin polymerization. In addition, ...
Nocca Giuseppina - - 2010
Cytotoxicity of the dental resin monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and the protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on monomer-induced cell damage are well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to analyze the hypothesis that the protection of NAC from HEMA cytotoxicity might be due to direct NAC adduct formation. ...
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