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Results 451 - 500 of 2926
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Ren Xuefeng - - 2011
Werner syndrome (WS) results from defects in the RecQ helicase (WRN) and is characterized by premature aging and accelerated tumorigenesis. Contradictorily, WRN deficient human fibroblasts derived from WS patients show a characteristically slower cell proliferation rate, as do primary fibroblasts and human cancer cell lines with WRN depletion. Previous studies ...
Rafehi Haloom - - 2011
The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic ...
Darzynkiewicz Zbigniew Z Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA. - - 2011
Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) provides a novel approach for automated scoring of micronuclei (MN) in different types of mammalian cells, serving as a biomarker of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. In this review, we discuss the advances to date in measuring MN in cell lines, buccal cells and erythrocytes, describe the advantages ...
Kim Ki Cheon - - 2011
The ethylacetate fraction of Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum (ENE) was shown to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by γ-radiation and activate antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and gluthathion peroxidase (GPx). ENE protected cells against radiation-induced cellular DNA damage, membrane lipid peroxidation, and protein modification, ...
Marquez-Lago Tatiana T - - 2011
In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If ...
Hartlerode Andrea A Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2011
Double-strand break repair is executed by two major repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Whereas NHEJ contributes to the repair of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced double strand breaks (DSBs) throughout the cell cycle, HR acts predominantly during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The ...
Boivin Anthony - - 2011
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive and recurrent malignancy owing to intrinsic radioresistance and lack of induction of apoptosis. The major focus of this work was to design a transient glutathione depleting strategy during the course of irradiation of HNSCC in order to overcome their radioresistance ...
Siqueira Germano - - 2011
Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in ...
Wu Lixian L Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of - - 2011
Activation of the IKK-NFκB pathway increases the resistance of cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR). This effect has been largely attributed to the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins by NFκB. Since efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is required for the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, we investigated if ...
Ishii Kelly S - - 2011
A novel 3D cell culture system was developed and tested. The cell culture device consists of a microfluidic chamber on an optically absorbing substrate. Cells are suspended in a thermoresponsive hydrogel solution, and optical patterns are utilized to heat the solution, producing localized hydrogel formation around cells of interest. The ...
Powell Heather M - - 2011
Quantification of cell viability and distribution within engineered tissues currently relies on representative histology, phenotypic assays, and destructive assays of viability. To evaluate uniformity of cell density throughout 3D collagen scaffolds prior to in vivo use, a nondestructive, field assessment of cell viability is advantageous. Here, we describe a field ...
Coelho Miguel - - 2011
Comment on: Knorre DA, et al. Cell Cycle 2010; 9:4501-5.
Gil Silvia - - 2011
In the quest of a curative radiotherapy treatment for gliomas new delivery modes are being explored. At the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), a new spatially-fractionated technique, called Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT) is under development. The aim of this work is to compare the effectiveness of ...
Malinouski Mikalai M Department of Biochemistry and Redox Biology Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of - - 2011
Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 ...
Sun Yunguang Y Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-5671, - - 2011
Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein and key regulator of mitosis, is up-regulated in a variety of cancers and is often associated with a worse prognosis. Terameprocol down-regulates the Sp1-mediated transcription of survivin and Cdk1, which is important for cell cycle progression and many other proteins. Survivin inhibition has previously ...
Okamoto Noritomo - - 2011
Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) plays an important role as a key protein in the repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and the work described here was designed to examine the effect of NBS1 on heat sensitivity for human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells. Cellular heat sensitivity was ...
Lordan Sinéad - - 2011
The term 'nanoclay' generically refers to the natural clay mineral, montmorillonite, with silica and alumina as the dominant constituents. The incorporation of nanoclays into polymeric systems dramatically enhances their barrier properties as well as their thermal and mechanical resistance. Consequently, nanoclays are employed in a wide range of industrial applications ...
Hirt-Burri Nathalie - - 2011
Few biopharmaceutical preparations developed from biologicals are available for tissue regeneration and scar management. When developing biological treatments with cellular therapy, selection of cell types and establishment of consistent cell banks are crucial steps in whole-cell bioprocessing. Various cell types have been used in treatment of wounds to reduce scar ...
Koto Masashi - - 2011
Lymphomas growing in the central nervous system exhibit resistance to radiotherapy compared to lymphomas of the lymph nodes. Because astrocytes have been shown to reduce radiation-induced neuronal toxicity, this study hypothesized that astrocytes might protect lymphoma cells from radiation-induced cell killing. A human lymphoma cell line, H9, and normal human ...
Zhao Guoping - - 2010
Mutagenicity is often a prerequisite to the development of malignancy. Evidences have shown that exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) results in various cancer inductions. However, whether any mutagenic base exists is still puzzling. In the present study, we exposed exponentially growing A(L) cells to PFOA and assayed the cells for ...
Malak Henryk - - 2010
A new approach to intracellular detection and imaging of metabolic processes and pathways is presented that uses surface plasmon resonance to enhance interactions between photon-absorbing metabolites and metal nanoparticles in contact with cells in vitro or in vivo. Photon absorption in the nanoparticles creates plasmon fields, enhancing intrinsic metabolite fluorescence, ...
Rieder Conly L - - 2010
In this review, I stress the importance of direct data and accurate terminology when formulating and communicating conclusions on how the G2/M and metaphase/anaphase transitions are regulated. I argue that entry into mitosis (i.e., the G2/M transition) is guarded by several checkpoint control pathways that lose their ability to delay ...
Lucas Marcel - - 2011
Time-resolved autofluorescence, Raman microspectroscopy, and scanning microprobe X-ray diffraction were combined in order to characterize lignocellulosic biomass from poplar trees and how it changes during treatment with the ionic liquid 1-n-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAC) at room temperature. The EMIMAC penetrates the cell wall from the lumen, swelling the cell wall by ...
Ding Jinmei - - 2010
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used to determine Hela cells activity with Hela treated by 0-46 μM methylmercury (MeHg) as the apoptosis model. The treated and untreated cells were stained by four different dyes (Janus Green B, Rhodamine 123, Neutral Red and Trypan Blue) and analyzed by CZE with UV/Vis detection. ...
Trevors Jack T JT School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, N1G 2W1, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. - - 2011
This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). ...
Ding Jinmei - - 2011
Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used to determine Hela cells activity with Hela treated by 0-46 μM methylmercury (MeHg) as the apoptosis model. The treated and untreated cells were stained by four different dyes (Janus Green B, Rhodamine 123, Neutral Red and Trypan Blue) and analyzed by CZE with UV/Vis detection. ...
Yoshino Kei - - 2011
Identification of reliable markers of radiosensitivity and the key molecules that enhance the susceptibility of esophageal cancer cells to anticancer treatments would be highly desirable. To identify molecules that confer radiosensitivity to esophageal squamous carcinoma cells, we assessed the radiosensitivities of the TE-5, TE-9 and TE-12 cloneA1 cell lines. TE-12 ...
Hershman Jerome M - - 2011
Radioiodine-131 released from nuclear reactor accidents has dramatically increased the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in exposed individuals. The deposition of ionizing radiation in cells results in double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) at fragile sites, and this early event can generate oncogenic rearrangements that eventually cause cancer. The aims of this ...
Cugia Giulia - - 2010
Cell storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) offers the most secure method of cell preservation even if cryopreserved cells are exposed to natural background of ionising radiation (IR). A lot of experiments have demonstrated that IR can induce damages in living cells, but only a little information regarding the response of ...
Mizuno Kazue - - 2011
Polymeric micelles loaded with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP, (cisplatin micelles) enable higher accumulation in solid tumors and lower toxicities compared with CDDP alone. The combined use of cisplatin micelles with radiation is expected to enhance therapeutic effects and reduce side effects. The kinetics of cisplatin micelle uptake, however, have not been fully ...
Skoczylas Marcin - - 2010
Irradiation of individual cultured mammalian cells with a pre-selected number of ions down to one ion per single cell is a useful experimental approach to investigating the low-dose ionising radiation exposure effects and thus contributing to a more realistic human cancer risk assessment. One of the crucial tasks of all ...
Whiteside James R - - 2010
The bystander effect is defined as the induction of cellular damage in unirradiated cells, induced by irradiated cells in the surrounding area. Our laboratory has previously identified that an environmentally relevant dose of UVA is able to induce the effect in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, seen as reduced clonogenic survival. ...
Monteiro E - - 2010
In this study, experimental results of single cell spreading between two parallel microplates are exploited through finite element modeling. Axisymmetric computations at finite strains are performed to extract the mechanical properties of the cell which can account for cell shape evolution and traction force generation. Our model includes two distinct ...
Guertler A - - 2010
An easy, fast and reliable method was developed to screen hundreds of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cell lines (lymphoblastoid cell lines, LCLs) for radiation sensitivity that were generated from lymphocytes isolated from young lung cancer patients. The WST-1 test explores the metabolic activity of the mitochondria as an indicator for the vital ...
Farrell Hugh - - 2010
This constitutes the first study to report on the relationship between pulsed UV light (PL) irradiation and the simultaneous occurrence of molecular and cellular damage in clinical strains of Candida albicans. Microbial protein leakage and propidium iodide (PI) uptake assays demonstrated significant increases in cell membrane permeability in PL-treated yeast ...
Ristic-Fira Aleksandra - - 2010
Response of human HTB140 melanoma cells to proton irradiation in combination with fotemustine (FM) was investigated. Effects of these agents were analysed on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Cells pretreated with 100- or 250-µM of FM were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62-MeV proton spread-out Bragg peak, ...
Uchida Maho - - 2011
We used soft X-ray tomography (SXT)--a high-resolution, quantitative imaging technique--to measure cell size and organelle volumes in yeasts. Cell size is a key factor in initiating cell division in yeasts, whereas the number and volume of the organelles have a profound impact on the function and viability of a cell. ...
Schirmer Markus A - - 2011
To determine whether genetic variability in TGFB1 is related to circulating transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plasma concentrations after radiotherapy and to radiosensitivity of lymphoid cells. Transforming growth factor-β1 plasma concentrations (n = 79) were measured in patients 1 year after radiotherapy and chromosomal aberrations (n = 71) ex vivo before therapy ...
Claesson Kristina - - 2010
Purpose: To investigate cell cycle effects and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of α-particles from the clinically relevant radionuclide Astatine-211 ((211)At), using X-rays as reference radiation. Double-strand breaks (DSB), non-DSB clusters containing oxidised purines and clonogenic survival were investigated. Materials and methods: Asynchronous V79-379A fibroblasts or cells synchronised with mimosine in G1, early, ...
Sabarinathan Devan - - 2010
The effect of naringenin on the growth of C6 glioma cells was investigated in the current study. Suppression of cell growth was assessed by MTT assay. Induction of cell cycle arrest was assessed by propidium iodide staining using flowcytometric analysis. Induction of DNA damage was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. ...
Wittmaack Klaus - - 2011
This study aimed at identifying the dose metric applicable to studies on the viability of cells exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) in vitro. A previously reported set of data was evaluated very carefully. The extent of cell death after 24-h exposure of three cell lines to suspended silica NPs (<30 nm) ...
Rouas Caroline - - 2010
Uranium is naturally found in the environment, and its extensive use results in an increased risk of human exposure. Kidney cells have mainly been used as in vitro models to study effects of uranium exposure, and very little about the effects on other cell types is known. The aim of ...
Chen Y S - - 2010
Radiotherapy is a useful component of treatment strategies for esophageal cancer. The role of autophagy in response to ionizing radiation was investigated in human esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assay were used to evaluate the radiosensitivity of autophagy inhibitor (3-MA) on esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. The ...
Bauermeister Anja - - 2010
To test the effect of humidity on the radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans, air-dried cells were irradiated with germicidal 254 nm UV, and simulated environmental UV or γ-radiation and survival was compared to cells in suspension. It was observed that desiccated cells exhibited higher levels of resistance than cells in suspension ...
Sharif Razinah - - 2011
Zinc (Zn) is an essential cofactor required by numerous enzymes that are essential for cell metabolism and the maintenance of DNA integrity. We investigated the effect of Zn deficiency or excess on genomic instability events and determined the optimal concentration of two Zn compounds that minimize DNA-damage events. The effects ...
Barger Jennifer F - - 2010
We performed a high-throughput screen to identify compounds with a selective ability to induce apoptosis in Akt-expressing cells without disrupting Bcl-xL-dependent survival. Results showed that a screening strategy based on Alamar Blue underrepresented the viability of Bcl-xL-expressing cells relative to Akt-expressing cells, possibly due to metabolic differences between the two ...
Roberts A M - - 2010
An analysis of swimming patterns in the ciliate Paramecium shows that the ability to swim preferentially upwards (negative gravitaxis) is primarily the result of upwardly curving trajectories. The trajectory characteristics are consistent with those produced by mechanical orientation. Cell profile measurements from microscope images suggest that the characteristic front-rear body ...
Park Se Woong - - 2011
We have developed a facile method to position different dyes (N719 and N749) sequentially in a mesoporous TiO(2) layer through selective desorption and adsorption processes. From the selective removal of the only upper part of the first adsorbed dye, double-layered dye-sensitized solar cells have been successfully achieved without any damage ...
Villeneuve Valérie - - 2010
Comment on: Singh RK, et al. Cell Cycle 2010; 9:4236-44.
Ballarini F - - 2010
Cell death is a crucial endpoint in radiation-induced biological damage: on one side, cell death is a reference endpoint to characterise the action of radiation in biological targets; on the other side, any cancer therapy aims to kill tumour cells. Starting from Lea's target theory, many models have been proposed ...
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