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Bento João Francisco - - 2013
Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ...
Tang Jean Y - - 2012
Dysregulated hedgehog signaling is the pivotal molecular abnormality underlying basal-cell carcinomas. Vismodegib is a new orally administered hedgehog-pathway inhibitor that produces objective responses in locally advanced and metastatic basal-cell carcinomas. We tested the anti-basal-cell carcinoma efficacy of vismodegib in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with the basal-cell nevus ...
Wen Xuesong - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is directly associated with the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Targeting HPV infection has become the priority in treatment and prevention. Some treatment strategies have shown a limited therapeutic potential in suppressing and reversing the oncogenic effects of HPVs, but are compromised by the toxicity, ...
Hasebe Rie - - 2012
Roles of complement factors in prion infection of the central nervous system remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the strain-dependent reactivity of complement factors in prion infections of Neuro2a (N2a) cells and mouse brains. N2a cells persistently infected with either Chandler or 22L scrapie strains were cultured in the ...
Ajamian Lara - - 2011
HAART treatment has greatly improved life expectancy of HIV-1-infected individuals. Unfortunately, latency still remains the major barrier towards HIV-1 eradication. Efforts to identify viral and host cell proteins involved in latency remain important research areas to win this war against HIV-1. Here, we review the contributions of several factors in ...
Schulze Andreas - - 2012
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is characterized by a high species specificity and a distinct liver tropism. Within the liver, HBV replication occurs in differentiated and polarized hepatocytes. Accordingly, the in vitro HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) and the human hepatoma cell line, HepaRG, is restricted to differentiated, ...
Fujishima Masahiro - - 2011
Paramecium species are extremely valuable organisms to enable experiments for the reestablishment of endosymbiosis. This is investigated in two different systems, the first with Paramecium caudatum and the endonuclear symbiotic bacterium Holospora species. Although most endosymbiotic bacteria cannot grow outside the host cell as a result of their reduced genome ...
Piccardo Pedro - - 2011
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents have contaminated human tissue-derived medical products, human blood components, and animal vaccines. The objective of this study was to determine the potential susceptibility to infection of 5 cell lines used or proposed for manufacture of biological products, as well as other lines. Cell lines were ...
Maeda Fernando Yukio - - 2011
Protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma can infect virtually all mammalian species. Within this genus, Trypanosoma dionisii from bats and Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas' disease, belonging to the subgenus Schizotrypanum, can invade mammalian cells. The mechanisms of cell invasion by T. dionisii are poorly understood. To address that question, ...
Lee Keunsook K KK School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United - - 2012
Candida albicans cells with increased cell wall chitin have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C. albicans cells with elevated chitin levels have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vivo. BALB/c mice were infected with C. albicans cells with normal chitin levels and compared ...
Ballweber Lamar - - 2011
Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been lacking. Here, we show that LCs migrate from HIV-1-exposed vaginal epithelia and pass infectious virus to CD4+ T cells without being productively infected ...
Zhang Li Jun - - 2011
This study investigated the inhibitory effects of berberine on Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae infection-induced HEp-2 cell invasion and explored the possible mechanisms involved in this process. C. pneumoniae infection resulted in a significant increase in HEp-2 cell invasion when compared with the control cells (P<0.01) in a Matrigel invasion assay. This ...
Kamau Edwin - - 2011
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause disease in the developing fetus and in immunocompromised humans. Infections can last for the life of the individual, and to date there are no drugs that eliminate the chronic cyst stages that are characteristic of this parasite. In an effort ...
Gong Jian - - 2011
Rhesus monkey TRIM5α (TRIM5α(rh)), a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, was identified as the main restriction factor responsible for resistance of old world monkey cells to HIV-1 infection. However, the precise mechanism of HIV-1 infection inhibition by TRIM5α remains elusive and appears to be related to some cellular ...
Hanssen Eric - - 2012
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria, undergoes both asexual cycling and sexual differentiation inside erythrocytes. As the intraerythrocytic parasite develops it increases in size and alters the permeability of the host cell plasma membrane. An intriguing question is: how is the integrity of the host erythrocyte maintained ...
Na Hee Sam - - 2011
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has many beneficial biological activities. However, there are relatively few reports of the effects of curcumin on pathogen infections. This study examined the effect of curcumin on a Vibrio vulnificus infection. The cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus to ...
Estes Kathleen A KA Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of - - 2011
The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a ...
Duan Fang - - 2011
Introduction:  This study sought to inhibit HSV-1 replication using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to targeting infected-cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4) genes to mediate transcription of early and late viral genes in HSV-1 lytic (productive) infection in retina epithelial cells (RPE). Methods:  After pre- or post-infecting with HSV-1, siRNAs were transfected into ...
Kaniuk Natalia A - - 2011
The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium establishes a replicative niche, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), in host cells. Here we demonstrate that these bacteria exploit the function of Arl8B, an Arf family GTPase, during infection. Following infection, Arl8B localized to SCVs and to tubulated endosomes that extended along microtubules ...
Rosso Marie-Noëlle - - 2011
Root-knot nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells are part of the permanent feeding site required for nematode development into the adult stage. To ...
Myoung Jinjong - - 2011
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) displays strong lymphotropism in vivo, but paradoxically, established B cell lines have largely been refractory to infection by soluble KSHV virions. Here we show that this block can be overcome by exposure to cell-associated virus. Doxycycline-inducible recombinant KSHV.219 (rKSHV.219)-harboring SLK (iSLK.219) cells were employed as KSHV ...
Baumgartner Martin - - 2011
The propagation of apicomplexan parasites through transmitting vectors is dependent on effective dissemination of parasites inside the mammalian host. Intracellular Toxoplasma and Theileria parasites face the challenge that their spread inside the host depends in part on the motile capacities of their host cells. In response, these parasites influence the ...
Weinkauf Craig - - 2011
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, infects a variety of mammalian cells in a process that includes multiple cycles of intracellular division and differentiation starting with host receptor recognition by a parasite ligand(s). Earlier work in our laboratory showed that the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) receptor TrkC is activated by T. ...
Mostowy Serge S Institut Pasteur, Unité des Interactions Bactéries-Cellules, Paris, France. - - 2011
Many pathogens have evolved a variety of mechanisms to exploit the host-cell actin cytoskeleton during infection, either to enter into cells or to move within cells. These events have been investigated and documented in detail. Yet, a complete picture of the molecules and mechanisms regulating entry and intracellular movement remains ...
Ishida Kasumi - - 2012
We have previously demonstrated that the steroid receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU486) causes growth inhibition of Chlamydophila pneumoniae by binding to and subsequently destroying the bacteria during their normal developmental cycle in epithelial HEp-2 cells. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of treatment with RU486 against persistent C. pneumoniae ...
Wang Jin J Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2011
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial infection of the human reproductive tract globally; however, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of the organism to its natural target cells, human endocervical epithelial cells, are not clearly understood. To secure its intracellular niche, C. trachomatis must modulate the host cellular machinery by ...
Hagbom Marie - - 2011
Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced ...
Passiatore Giovanni - - 2011
Inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id-1) is a member of helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of proteins that regulate gene transcription through their inhibitory binding to basic-HLH transcription factors. Similarly to other members of this family, Id-1 is involved in the repression of cell differentiation and activation of cell growth. The dual function of ...
Wood L W - - 2011
The oncolytic effects of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) are limited, possibly because of premature death of infected cells by apoptosis, which limits the amount of progeny virus that is produced. It has been proposed that inhibition of apoptosis in infected tumor cells would allow increased viral persistence, replication and therapeutic ...
Christensen Jenna - - 2011
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a highly species-specific herpesvirus that targets sensory ganglionic neurons. This species specificity has limited the study of many aspects of VZV pathogenesis, including neuronal infection. We report development of a highly efficient neuroblastoma cell model to study productive VZV infection of neuronal cells. We show that ...
Liskova Jana - - 2011
In most cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) infection is considered to cause a lytic cell death, an equivalent of necrosis. However, upon infection of the epithelial cell lines HeLa G and BSC-40 with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR), we have previously observed an increased activation of and activity attributable to caspases, ...
Singh Sunita K S - - 2011
This review discusses the recent evidence that intrinsic glomerular cells including podocytes, parietal epithelial cells and progenitor cells within Bowman's capsule contribute to cellular crescents. Using a variety of newer molecular markers and lineage tracing experiments, investigators have clearly demonstrated that glomerular cells play a key role in the development ...
Shannon-Lowe Claire - - 2011
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) exhibits a distinct tropism for both B cells and epithelial cells. The virus persists as a latent infection of memory B cells in healthy individuals, but a role for infection of normal epithelial is also likely. Infection of B cells is initiated by the interaction of ...
Morito Akiko - - 2011
PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of 21 polysaccharides and 12 polyhydric alcohols on inhibition of dryness in oral mucosal epithelial cells in vitro. All the tested compounds are currently used in oral products. METHODS: Human gingival epithelial Ca9-22 cells were incubated in 96-well plates ...
Gaillard Dany - - 2011
Wnt/β-catenin signaling initiates taste papilla development in mouse embryos, however, its involvement in taste cell turnover in adult mice has not been explored. Here we used the BATGAL reporter mouse model, which carries an engineered allele in which the LacZ gene is expressed in the presence of activated β-catenin, to ...
Forbes Michael S - - 2011
Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), employed extensively as a model of progressive renal interstitial fibrosis, results in rapid parenchymal deterioration. Atubular glomeruli are formed in many renal disorders, but their identification has been limited by labor-intensive available techniques. The formation of atubular glomeruli was therefore investigated in adult male mice subjected ...
Tang Dao-quan DQ Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, 221004, - - 2011
The protective effect of rutin on the glomerulosclerosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rat mesangial cells was investigated. The cultured mesangial cells were divided into eight groups: normal, solvent control, high glucose, low dose of rutin, moderate dose of rutin, high dose of rutin, captopril and Ginkgo biloba extract. The ...
Hu S Sean - - 2011
To meet challenges arising from increasing rates of noncoverage in US landline-based telephone samples due to cell-phone-only households, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) expanded a traditional landline-based random digit dialing survey to a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers. In 2008, a survey of adults with ...
de Oliveira Gabriel M - - 2011
Chagas disease is typically associated with cardiac involvement. During the acute phase of murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, severe acute myocarditis can develop. Prior to cardiac alteration, however, infected mice present with renal inflammatory infiltration causing acute kidney injury due to an ischemia/reperfusion lesion. Thus, the present study was undertaken ...
Asahina Kinji K Southern California Research Center for ALPD and Cirrhosis and Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. - - 2011
The septum transversum mesenchyme (STM) signals to induce hepatogenesis from the foregut endoderm. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are sinusoidal pericytes assumed to originate from the STM and participate in mesenchymal-epithelial interaction in embryonic and adult livers. However, the developmental origin of HSCs remains elusive due to the lack of markers ...
Sakamaki Yuichi - - 2011
SM22α (transgelin) has been focused upon as a player in the process of phenotypic changes of types of cells. The SM22α expression in the rat anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis model and differences from an established phenotypic marker for the myofibroblast, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), were investigated. The rat kidney ...
Ibáñez F - - 2011
Nod factors are among the best-studied molecules implicated in the signal exchange that leads to legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The role of these molecules in symbiosis development has been primarily studied in legumes invaded through infection threads. In these plants, Nod factors generate several responses required for nodulation, including the induction of ...
Hage-Sleiman Rouba - - 2011
Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC) is essential for the proper folding of α- and β-tubulins into microtubule polymerizable heterodimers. Because microtubules are considered major targets in the treatment of breast cancer, we investigated the influence of TBCC silencing on tubulin pools, microtubule dynamics, and cell cycle distribution of breast cancer ...
Kajiyama Hiroshi - - 2011
Podocytes are glomerular visceral epithelial cells, which function as molecular sieve with foot process (FT) and slit diaphragm (SD) spanning FT, not to allow high molecular weight protein to be filtrated through glomerular capillary loop. Pathological proteinuria is caused by discoordinated tertiary podocyte structure such as disappearance of FT and/or ...
Romagnani Paola - - 2011
Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested ...
Waqar Salman - - 2011
This article reviews the ophthalmic manifestations of giant cell arteritis. An overview of giant cell arteritis as a disease spectrum is presented with special emphasis on the ophthalmic involvement.
Porcellini Antonio - - 2011
This chapter describes the protocol for the preparation of recombinant adenoviruses and infection of target cells to transiently express G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or other proteins of interest. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped viruses containing a linear double-stranded DNA genome. Their life cycle does not normally involve integration into the host genome, ...
Herrera Guillermo A - - 2011
This book covers much on mechanisms involved in glomerular damage which may lead to irreversible changes and loss of nephron function. The fact that these mechanisms have been elucidated is very important for the design of therapeutic options aiming at controlling and ameliorating tissue damage, thus delaying and, in some ...
Tarle S A - - 2011
Recently, extracted teeth have been identified as a viable source of stem cells for tissue regenerative approaches. Current expansion of these cells requires incorporation of animal sera; yet, a fundamental issue underlying cell cultivation methods for cell therapy regards concerns in using animal sera. In this study, we investigated the ...
Lara Humberto H - - 2011
Bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) is derived from immune leukocytes obtained from bovine spleen. DLE has demonstrated to reduce transcription of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and inactivate the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Therefore, we decided to clarify the mode of antiviral action ...
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