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Results 301 - 350 of 3251
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Shabalkin I P - - 2012
Kinetics of DNA synthesis in mitotic cycle of mouse corneal epithelial cells after single γ-irradiation (4 Gy) at the end of S period was studied by the method of radioautography. Normally, S period of corneal epithelial cells consists of several stages separated by intervals without DNA synthesis. The estimated mean ...
Honig A - - 2012
D-116883 (Aeterna Zentaris GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany) is an orally effective drug that acts via inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway is involved in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) loss and other activating mutations frequently contribute to the activation of this pathway. We tested ...
Engel J B - - 2012
AEZS-115 (Aeterna Zentaris GmbH, Frankfurt/M, Germany) is an orally active peptidomimetic antagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In various tumors, an autocrine growth-promoting loop has been described for GnRH. The current study evaluates the antitumor activity and mechanism of action of AEZS-115 in models of ovarian and endometrial cancer. Human A2780, ...
Karagiannis Jim - - 2012
Eukaryotic cells ensure error-free progress through the cell cycle by monitoring (1) the completion of cell cycle events, (2) damage to critical cellular components, or (3) structural changes such as the attachment of kinetochores to the mitotic spindle. In the presence of damage, or in the face of a reduced ...
Apostolidis Pani A - - 2012
During endomitosis, megakaryocytes undergo several rounds of DNA synthesis without division leading to polyploidization. In primary megakaryocytes and in the megakaryocytic cell line CHRF, loss or knock-down of p53 enhances cell cycling and inhibits apoptosis, leading to increased polyploidization. To support the hypothesis that p53 suppresses megakaryocytic polyploidization, we show ...
Reardon Sarah N - - 2012
CDH1 is a cell-cell adhesion molecule expressed in the epithelium to coordinate key morphogenetic processes, establish cell polarity, and regulate epithelial differentiation and proliferation. To determine the role of CDH1 in the mouse uterus, Cdh1 was conditionally ablated by crossing Pgr-Cre and Cdh1-flox mice, and the phenotype was characterized. We ...
Gérard Claude - - 2012
The cell division cycle and the circadian clock represent two major cellular rhythms. These two periodic processes are coupled in multiple ways, given that several molecular components of the cell cycle network are controlled in a circadian manner. For example, in the network of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) that governs progression ...
Fujii Takeo - - 2012
Secondary xylem is composed of daughter cells produced by the vascular cambium in the stem. Cell proliferation of the secondary xylem is the result of long-range cell division in the vascular cambium. Most xylem cells have a thickened secondary cell wall, representing a large amount of biomass storage. Therefore, regulation ...
Mori Tsutomu - - 2012
As predicted by systems biology, a paradigm shift will emerge through the integration of information about different layers of cellular processes. The cell cycle network is at the heart of the cellular computing system, and orchestrates versatile cellular functions. The NIRF/UHRF2 ubiquitin ligase is an "intermodular hub" that occupies a ...
Dong Ling-Ling - - 2012
Aim:E-cadherin is unusually highly expressed in most ovarian cancers. This study was designed to investigate the roles of E-cadherin in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.Methods:Human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line SKOV-3 was examined. E-cadherin gene CDH1 in SKOV-3 cells was knocked down via RNA interference (RNAi), and the resultant ...
Meng Jin - - 2012
Many chemotherapeutic agents induce apoptosis via a p53-dependent pathway. However, up to 50% of human cancers have p53 mutation and loss of p53 function. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are emerging as a potentially important new class of anticancer agents. Here, we report that, Trichostatin A (TSA), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, could ...
Dong Lingling - - 2012
Metformin plays an important role in the inhibition of cancer cell growth and prolongs remission durations. It reverses progestin-resistance in endometrial cancer cells by downregulating glyoxalase I (GloI) expression. This study aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on endometrial cancer cell chemotherapeutic sensitivity and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. ...
Lacomme Marine - - 2012
Proneural NEUROG2 (neurogenin 2 [Ngn2]) is essential for neuronal commitment, cell cycle withdrawal, and neuronal differentiation. Although NEUROG2's influence on neuronal commitment and differentiation is beginning to be clarified, its role in cell cycle withdrawal remains unknown. We therefore set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which NEUROG2 induces ...
Zee Barry M - - 2012
The connections between various nuclear processes and specific histone posttranslational modifications are dependent to a large extent on the acquisition of those modifications after histone synthesis. The reestablishment of histone posttranslational modifications after S phase is especially critical for H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation, both of which are linked with epigenetic ...
Eskander Ramez N - - 2012
To examine the effects of flavokawain B (FKB), a novel kava chalcone, on the growth of uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) cells and investigated its utility in the treatment of uterine LMS. Uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-LMS-1), endometrial adenocarcinoma (ECC-1) and the non-malignant, human endometrium fibroblast-like (T-HESC) cell lines were cultured and treated with ...
Gao Li L Division of Cancer Prevention, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8175, - - 2012
NO-aspirin (NO-ASA), consisting of aspirin and a nitric oxide-releasing group, is safer than aspirin and effective in colon cancer prevention. Here, we examined the mechanism of action of NO-ASA by focusing primarily on its effects on the cell cycle. NO-ASA reduced the growth of several cell lines from colon, pancreas, ...
Mijiddorj Tselmeg - - 2012
The role of Neurokinin B (NKB) and Dynorphin A (Dyn) in the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis is an important area of recent investigation. These peptides are critical for the rhythmic release of GnRH, which subsequently stimulates the secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). ...
Kang Su Jin - - 2012
Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are known to evoke reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and consequent cell damage. The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) controls both the basal and inducible expression of multiple antioxidant genes. This study was aimed to investigate the role of NRF2 in nAg-induced renal epithelial cell damage. ...
Campos Andreza - - 2012
Objectives  This paper aims to evaluate the anti-tumour properties of elatol, a compound (sesquiterpene) isolated from algae Laurencia microcladia. Methods  In-vitro and in-vivo anti-tumour properties of elatol were investigated using: MTT assays to assess the cytotoxic effects; flow cytometry analysis to examine the cell cycle and apoptosis; Western blot analysis ...
Nechemia-Arbely Yael - - 2012
The centromere is the fundamental unit for insuring chromosome inheritance. This complex region has a distinct type of chromatin in which histone H3 is replaced by a structurally different homologue identified in humans as CENP-A. In metazoans, specific DNA sequences are neither required nor sufficient for centromere identity. Rather, an ...
Marei W F - - 2012
Hyaluronic acid (HA), an important component of the extracellular matrix, plays a crucial role for cumulus cell expansion. Genes and proteins involved in HA synthesis and its receptor CD44 are expressed in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) in different animal species and increase during maturation. Hyaluronidase enzymes (Hyal) degrade HA into ...
Jiang Qiao-Ying - - 2012
Ezrin is a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of membrane cytoskeletal linkage proteins. It is important for maintenance of cell shape, adhesion, migration and division. Overexpression of ezrin in some tumours is associated with increased cell migration that is mediated by the Rho/ROCK family of small GTPases. To investigate ...
Hong Yong Sang - - 2012
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers; however, the development of drugs to treat the condition has reached a plateau. Bortezomib (PS-341, Velcade®) is a proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma. A few trials of bortezomib, alone or in combination chemotherapy, ...
Selokar N L - - 2012
The present study was conducted primarily to optimize electrofusion conditions for efficient production of zona-free nuclear transfer embryos in buffalos (Bubalus bubalis). We found that 4V AC current for proper triplet alignment and single step fusion method, using a single DC pulse of 3.36 kV/cm for 4-μs duration, produced the ...
Thakur Vijay S - - 2012
Acetylation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 at the carboxy-terminal lysine (Lys) residues enhances its transcriptional activity associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), a family of evolutionarily conserved enzymes, counterbalance the acetylation of lysine residues on histone and non-histone proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that ...
Zhang Lei - - 2012
Xanthatin, a natural bioactive compound of sesquiterpene lactones, was isolated and purified from air-dried aerial part of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder. In the present study, we demonstrated the significant antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of xanthatin on human gastric carcinoma MKN-45 cells. MTS assay showed that xanthatin produced obvious cytotoxicity ...
Nimbkar-Joshi Shruti - - 2012
The present investigation reports embryo-induced modifications in the epithelial cells of the endometrium in a primate species. In vivo, epithelial cell response to the embryonic signals was assessed at the embryo attachment stage in the gestational uterus of bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) and in vitro response was investigated by treating ...
Chae Yang-Seok - - 2012
ΔNp63α is a p63 isoform that is predominantly expressed in the epidermal stem cells and in cancer. To find the regulatory pathways of ΔNp63α, we assessed whether ΔNp63α is acetylated and determined the functional implications of acetylation. First, the hinge region of p63 was shown to be acetylated by PCAF, ...
Lim Shuhui - - 2012
During neurogenesis, cell cycle regulators play a pivotal role in ensuring proper proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation of neural precursors. However, the precise role of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) in these processes is not well understood. We generated Cdk2 and Cdk4 double knockout (DKO) mice and found a striking ablation ...
Sumiyoshi Eisuke - - 2012
New findings reveal that, in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the centrosome provides signals that induce cell polarization, independently of its function as the microtubule-organizing center.
Logan Philip C - - 2012
Differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells is crucial for optimal endometrial receptivity. Data from our previous microarray study implied that expression of many cell cycle regulators are changed during decidualization and inhibition of DNA methylation in vitro. In this study, we hypothesized that both the classic progestin treatment ...
Slotkin Theodore A - - 2012
Mechanistically unrelated developmental neurotoxicants often produce neural cell loss culminating in similar functional and behavioral outcomes. We compared an organophosphate pesticide (diazinon), an organochlorine pesticide (dieldrin) and a metal (Ni(2+)) for effects on the genes regulating cell cycle and apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells, an in vitro model of neuronal ...
Fayrer-Hosken R R Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. - - 2012
The cellular effects of tall fescue grass-associated toxic ergot alkaloids on stallion sperm and colt testicular tissue were evaluated. This was a continuation of an initial experiment where the effects of toxic ergot alkaloids on the stallion spermiogram were investigated. The only spermiogram parameter in exposed stallions that was affected ...
Kretschmer Nadine N Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Karl-Franzens University , Graz 8010, - - 2012
Activity-guided fractionation of a petroleum ether-soluble extract of the roots of Onosma paniculata, which has been shown to affect the cell cycle and to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells, led to the isolation of several shikonin derivatives, namely, β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin (1), acetylshikonin (2), dimethylacrylshikonin (3), and a mixture of α-methylbutyrylshikonin and ...
Kang Nam-Hee - - 2012
Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), a phytoestrogen, exists in grape skin and red wine. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) appear to promote the development and progression of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of RES on the cell proliferation induced by various EDCs in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. Various ...
Sharbeen George - - 2012
Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation requires the enzyme AID, which converts cytosines (C) in Ig genes into uracils (U). This alone produces C:G to T:A transition mutations. Processing of U:G base pairs via U N-glycosylase 2 (UNG2) or MutSα generates further point mutations, predominantly at G:C or A:T base pairs, respectively, ...
Han Yuanyuan - - 2012
We previously reported the potential of a novel small molecule 3-amino-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)thieno[2.3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide (YL326) as an anticancer agent. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects and possible mechanisms of YL326 in vitro. We found that YL326 treatment significantly inhibited human hepatic carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro, and the HepG2 cell ...
Okamoto Mayumi - - 2012
C7α-substituted estradiols bind to estrogen receptors in cell nuclei, yet these derivatives remain little used in bioimaging. Here, we describe a fluorescent derivative of estradiol (E2) with a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) moiety attached to C7α, synthesized by olefin metathesis reaction of 7α-allylestradiol and 9-decenyl-BODIPY. In ovariectomized rats and non-ovariectomized mice, E2-BODIPY ...
Ríos-Luci Carla - - 2012
In this study, we describe the synthesis of a series of α- and β-lapachone containing hydroxyl or methoxyl groups on the benzene ring, by means of the selective acid promoted cyclization of the appropriate lapachol analog. The evaluation of the antiproliferative activity in human solid tumor cell lines provided 7-hydroxy-β-lapachone ...
Piovan Claudia - - 2012
An increasing body of evidence highlights an intriguing interaction between microRNAs and transcriptional factors involved in determining cell fate, including the well known "genome guardian" p53. Here we show that miR-205, oncosuppressive microRNA lost in breast cancer, is directly transactivated by oncosuppressor p53. Moreover, evaluating miR-205 expression in a panel ...
Kanesaki Yu - - 2012
The mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells are originated from bacterial endosymbioses, and they still replicate their own genome and divide in a similar manner as their ancestors did. It is thus likely that the organelle transcription is coordinated with its proliferation cycle. However, this possibility has not extensively been ...
Aureli Massimo M Department of Medical Chemistry, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Milan, 20090, Segrate, - - 2012
Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal disorder and is caused by an inherited autosomal recessive deficiency in β-glucocerebrosidase. This enzyme, like other glycohydrolases involved in glycosphingolipid (GSL) metabolism, is present in both plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular fractions. We analyzed the activities of CBE-sensitive β-glucosidase (GBA1) and AMP-DNM-sensitive ...
Satoh Akira - - 2012
The ability of adult vertebrates to repair tissue damage is widespread and impressive; however, the ability to regenerate structurally complex organs such as the limb is limited largely to the salamanders. The fact that most of the tissues of the limb can regenerate has led investigators to question and identify ...
Irizarry Rovira A R - - 2012
An enlarged right ovary was removed from a 14-year-old lesser galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus). Cytological preparations consisted of a heterogeneous population of neoplastic cells admixed with extracellular hyaline structures and cell-free nuclei. Microscopically, the ovary was replaced with gonadoblastoma and was composed of nests of germinal cells, including large oocyte-like ...
Kruszewski Marcin - - 2012
The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis has proven to be a versatile and sensitive method of measuring the induction and repair of DNA damage in individual cells. However, one of the drawbacks of the assay is the bias caused by changes in the ability of cells to repair ...
Frada Miguel J - - 2012
The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is characterized by a strongly differentiated haplodiplontic life cycle consisting of a diploid phase, generally bearing coccoliths (calcified) but that can be also non-calcified, and a non-calcified biflagellated haploid phase. Given most studies have focused on the bloom-producing calcified phase, there is little-to-no information about ...
Mak Isabella W Y - - 2012
Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCT) is an aggressive skeletal tumor characterized by local bone destruction, high recurrence rates and metastatic potential. Previous works in our lab, including functional assays, have shown that neutralization of PTHrP in the cell environment inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death in GCT stromal ...
Xiong Xiang Yuan - - 2012
Biotinylated Pluronic F127/poly(lactic acid) block copolymers (B-F127-PLA) were successfully synthesised previously by our group. In the present study, the release behaviors of paclitaxel-loaded B-F127-PLA nanoparticles and their targeting properties to human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. Paclitaxel (pac) loaded in B-F127-PLA nanoparticles shows an initial burst release in the first ...
Foskolou I P - - 2012
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor that originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system with less than 40% long-term survival in children diagnosed with high-risk disease. These clinical observations underscore the need for novel insights in the mechanisms of malignant transformation and progression. Accordingly, it was recently reported that ...
Hoellein Alexander - - 2012
Cks1 is an activator of the SCF(Skp2) ubiquitin ligase complex that targets the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) for degradation. The loss of Cks1 results in p27(Kip1) accumulation and decreased proliferation and inhibits tumorigenesis. We identify here a function of Cks1 in mammalian cell cycle regulation that is independent of p27(Kip1). ...
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