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Results 501 - 550 of 2622
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Kawasaki Tadahiro - - 2009
We have developed an improved, windowed type environmental-cell (E-cell) transmission electron microscope (TEM) for in situ observation of gas-solid interactions, such as catalytic reactions at atmospheric pressure. Our E-cell TEM includes a compact E-cell specimen holder with mechanical stability, resulting in smoother introduction of the desired gases compared with previous ...
Kim Joo Han - - 2009
STUDY DESIGN: We demonstrated the differentiation of notochordal cells by direct observation using a live automated cell imaging system. We also hypothesized that notochordal cells have characteristics of chondrocyte-like cells. OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics of notochordal cells by matrix protein expression and their differentiation using a live automated cell imager. ...
Ishida Yoshihito - - 2009
Type I collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in the human body and is essential for tissue formation. Mutations in collagen cause severe abnormalities in bone formation, including osteogenesis imperfecta. Although the mutant collagens are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are toxic to the cell, little ...
Soliman Sherif - - 2010
A novel (scalable) electrospinning process was developed to fabricate bio-inspired multiscale three-dimensional scaffolds endowed with a controlled multimodal distribution of fiber diameters and geared towards soft tissue engineering. The resulting materials finely mingle nano- and microscale fibers together, rather than simply juxtaposing them, as is commonly found in the literature. ...
Aitken Karen J - - 2009
Bladder regeneration is a long-sought goal that could provide alternatives to cystoplasty using non-urological tissues. Regeneration might be achieved in different ways, such as seeding matrices with stem cells or conventional cells, or repopulation of the matrix by the body's own reservoir of cells. Consideration of how the extracellular matrix ...
Green James V - - 2009
The enrichment or isolation of selected cell types from heterogeneous suspensions is required in the area of tissue engineering. State of the art techniques utilized for this separation include preplating and sieve-based approaches that have limited ranges of purity and variable yield. Here, we present a deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) ...
Khalil Saif - - 2009
Advanced solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques have been an interest for constructing tissue engineered polymeric scaffolds because of its repeatability and capability of high accuracy in fabrication resolution at the scaffold macro- and microscales. Among many important scaffold applications, hydrogel scaffolds have been utilized in tissue engineering as a technique ...
Hewitt Kyle J - - 2009
The use of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells for tissue engineering may provide advantages over traditional sources of progenitor cells because of their ability to give rise to multiple cell types and their unlimited expansion potential. We derived cell populations with properties of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells in two-dimensional ...
Angele Peter - - 2009
Composite scaffolds of homogeneously mixed esterified hyaluronan (HY) and gelatin (G) were manufactured with variable component compositions (HY100%; HY95%/G5%; HY70%/G30%). The goals of this study were to analyze the produced composite scaffolds using physical and chemical methods, for example, scanning electron microscopy, IR-spectroscopy, water contact angle, protein assay, and tensile ...
Ranzato Elia - - 2009
The interaction of cancer cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in metastasization. Here we identified the molecules of the ECM expressed by sarcomatous malignant mesothelioma, and their effect on adhesion and spreading. In addition, by analyzing the relationship between translation and attachment to matrix, we found that mesothelioma cells ...
Sato K - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation, migration and death of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells after tooth replantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maxillary first molars were extracted from 4-week-old male (n = 28) Sprague-Dawley rats and immediately replanted, after which, proliferation, migration and death of PDL cells ...
Zhang Xiaoke - - 2009
Natural polysaccharides such as amylose (AMY), alginate sodium (ALG), and chitosan (CHI) have been noncovalently wrapped onto single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to give a series of SWCNT scaffolds, termed as AMY-SWCNT, ALG-SWCNT, CHI-SWCNT, and CHI/ALG-SWCNT scaffolds. Compared to purified SWCNTs and oxidized SWCNTs, the polysaccharide-wrapped SWCNTs can well mimic nanofibrous ...
Kubow Kristopher E KE Department of Materials, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, HCI F 443 ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, - - 2009
Elevated levels of tissue crosslinking are associated with numerous diseases (cancer stroma, organ fibrosis), and also eliminate the otherwise remarkable clinical successes of tissue-derived scaffolds, instead eliciting a foreign body reaction. Nevertheless, it is not well understood how the initial physical and biochemical properties of cellular microenvironments, stem cell niches, ...
Bilgin Cemal Cagatay - - 2009
Pathological examination of a biopsy is the most reliable and widely used technique to diagnose bone cancer. However, it suffers from both inter- and intra- observer subjectivity. Techniques for automated tissue modeling and classification can reduce this subjectivity and increases the accuracy of bone cancer diagnosis. This paper presents a ...
Chang Weizhong - - 2010
Null mutations in cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1/LEPRE1) cause types VII and VIII OI, respectively, two novel recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with severe to lethal bone dysplasia and overmodification of the type I collagen helical region. CRTAP and P3H1 form a complex with cyclophilin B ...
Huang Sha - - 2010
The objective of regenerative medicine is to provide cells with a local environment of artificial extracellular matrix where they can proliferate and differentiate efficiently and therefore, induce the repair of defective tissues according to the natural healing potential of patients. For this purpose, naturally derived materials are being widely used ...
Park Min Sung - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of crosstalk between the type II collagen and TGF-beta1 signaling pathways in chondrocytic cells. Articular chondrocytes, isolated from porcine knee cartilage, and the SW1353 cell line were cultured on either type II collagen-coated or -uncoated plates in the presence or ...
Krishnan Venkatesh - - 2010
Murine calvariae pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1), grown in a novel bioreactor, proliferate into a mineralizing 3D osteoblastic tissue that undergoes progressive phenotypic maturation into osteocyte-like cells. Initially, the cells are closely packed (high cell/matrix ratio), but transform into a more mature phenotype (low cell/matrix ratio) after about 5 mo, a process that ...
Zhang Feng - - 2010
Hyaline articular cartilage degeneration is a common clinical syndrome globally, whereas cell-based therapy has proved to be a good solution to such problems. Given that transforming growth factor (TGF-beta3) is helpful in maintaining chondrocytic phenotype or stimulating chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, vectors containing TGF-beta3 expression cassette can be delivered ...
Lowery Joseph L - - 2010
Nonwoven fiber mats of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were generated by electrospinning. Differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and gravimetric measurement confirm the removal of PEO after immersion in water, as well as an increase in the PCL crystallinity. The reorganization of PCL resulted in ...
Akman Abdullah C - - 2010
The purpose of this study is to investigate the convenience of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6)-loaded chitosan scaffolds with preosteoblastic cells for bone tissue engineering. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded into three different groups: chitosan scaffolds, BMP-6-loaded chitosan scaffolds, and chitosan scaffolds with free BMP-6 in culture medium. Tissue-engineered constructs were characterized ...
En-Nosse Maryam - - 2009
Acetylcholine (ACh) is detected in a variety of non-neuronal cells where it acts as a para/autocrine signaling molecule controlling basic cell functions such as proliferation, differentation, and maintenance of cell-cell contacts. ACh-synthesizing enzymes include choline acetyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT). ACh is released through vesicular exocytosis or directly from the ...
Chung C A - - 2010
Mathematic models help interpret experimental results and accelerate tissue engineering developments. We develop in this paper a hybrid cellular automata model that combines the differential nutrient transport equation to investigate the nutrient limited cell construct development for cartilage tissue engineering. Individual cell behaviors of migration, contact inhibition and cell collision, ...
Konishi Eiichi - - 2010
Chondroblastoma, which is histologically composed of mononuclear cell proliferation and lobules of immature cartilage, and chondromyxoid fibroma, which is composed of myxoid lobules with spindle or stellate cells and a cellular fibrous rim with spindle cells, are both rare tumors. Based on histogenetic investigation including immunohistochemistry, matrix biochemistry, and electron ...
Hinz Boris - - 2010
Tissues lose mechanical integrity when our body is injured. To rapidly restore mechanical stability a multitude of cell types can jump into action by acquiring a reparative phenotype-the myofibroblast. Here, I review the known biomechanics of myofibroblast differentiation and action and speculate on underlying mechanisms. Hallmarks of the myofibroblast are ...
Nie Jing - - 2009
Adipogenesis, a key step in the pathogenesis of obesity, involves extensive ECM remodeling, changes in cell-ECM interactions, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Matricellular proteins regulate cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. Evidence in vivo and in vitro indicates that the prototypic matricellular protein, SPARC, inhibits adipogenesis and promotes osteoblastogenesis. Herein we discuss mechanisms underlying ...
Evans Michael C - - 2009
The fibroblast-populated collagen lattice is an attractive model tissue for in vitro studies of cell behavior and as the basis for bioartificial tissues. In spite of its simplicity-containing only collagen and cells-the system is surprisingly difficult to describe mechanically because of the ability of the cells to remodel the matrix, ...
Karoubi Golnaz - - 2009
Inadequate extracellular matrix cues and subsequent apoptotic cell death are among crucial factors currently limiting cell viability and organ retention in cell-based therapeutic strategies for vascular regeneration. Here we describe the use of a single-cell hydrogel capsule to provide enhanced cell survival of adherent cells in transient suspension culture. Human ...
Ozturk Nihan - - 2009
In this study a tissue engineering scaffold was constructed from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) to study the influence of strain on cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of surface chemistry and topography on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was also investigated. Micropatterned pNIPAM films (channels with 10 microm groove width, 2 microm ...
Bramfeldt Hanna - - 2009
In this article, tissue-engineering scaffolds were fabricated from P(epsilon-CL-co-D,L-LA)-PEG-P(epsilon-CL-co-D,L-LA) copolymers using co-continuous blends with polystyrene as the porogen phase. By means of static annealing and following extraction of the porogen phase, pore sizes (channel widths) in the range of 15-350 microm were obtained. Smooth muscle cells were seeded in three-dimensional ...
Leong Meng Fatt - - 2009
One of the obstacles limiting the application of electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering is the nanoscale pores that inhibit cell infiltration. In this article, we describe a technique that uses ice crystals as templates to fabricate cryogenic electrospun scaffolds (CES) with large three-dimensional and interconnected pores using poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA). Manipulating ...
Lee Ho - - 2010
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve or control pain in interventional spine procedures. Bupivacaine has been shown to be toxic to articular cartilage, which has similarities to intervertebral disc (IVD) cartilage, raising concern over a potentially negative effect of bupivacaine on the disc. PURPOSE: To ...
Oliveira Joaquim M - - 2009
In this work, a new methodology is reported for developing hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds using an organic sacrifice template. The novelty of work consists of possibility of obtaining porous and highly interconnected scaffolds mimicking the sacrificial component. Our purpose consisted of evaluating the physicochemical properties of the HA scaffolds by means ...
Rutges J - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Regardless of recent progress in the elucidation of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the basic molecular characteristics that define a healthy human IVD are largely unknown. Although work in different animal species revealed distinct molecules that might be used as characteristic markers for IVD or specifically nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, ...
Eto Hitomi - - 2009
Adipose tissue is an easily accessible tissue for use as a soft-tissue filler and source of adult multipotent cells, called adipose-derived stem/stromal/progenitor cells. However, many aspects of its anatomy remain unclear because of the fragile structure of adipocytes and adipose tissue. Aspirated (n = 15) or intact (n = 9) ...
Gjorevski Nikolce - - 2009
Normal tissue development and function are regulated by the interplay between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides biochemical and mechanical contextual information that is conveyed from the cell membrane through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus to direct cell phenotype. Cells, in turn, remodel the ECM and ...
Black Lauren D LD - - 2009
A high-potential therapy for repairing the heart post-myocardial infarction is the implantation of tissue-engineered myocardium. While several groups have developed constructs that mimic the aligned structure of the native myocardium, to date no one has investigated the particular functional benefits conferred by alignment. In this study we created myocardial constructs ...
Villanueva Idalis - - 2009
The ability to encapsulate cells over a range of cell densities is important toward mimicking cell densities of native tissues and rationally designing strategies where cell source and/or cell numbers are clinically limited. Our preliminary findings demonstrate that survival of freshly isolated adult bovine chondrocytes dramatically decreases when photoencapsulated in ...
Ye Liang - - 2010
Nano biocomposite scaffolds of non-stoichiometric apatite (ns-AP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared by a prototyping controlled process (PCP). The results show that the composite scaffolds with 40 wt% ns-AP contained open and well interconnected pores with a size of 400-500 mum, and exhibited a maximum porosity of 76%. The ns-AP ...
Kloxin April M - - 2010
Microenvironment elasticity influences critical cell functions such as differentiation, cytoskeletal organization, and process extension. Unfortunately, few materials allow elasticity modulation in real time to probe its direct effect on these dynamic cellular processes. Here, a new approach is presented for the photochemical modulation of elasticity within the cell's microenvironment at ...
Mussig Eva - - 2010
A soft micropillar extracellular environment of distinct biomechanics is established by fabricating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) interfaces with pillar distances of 5, 7, 9 and 11 microm and elasticity moduli of 0.6, 1.0 and 3.5 Mega Pascal. To allow for cell adhesion, the biomimetic concept of pillar head fibronectin (FN) biofunctionalisation is ...
Alcaide M - - 2010
Ordered mesoporous 85SiO(2)-10CaO-5P(2)O(5) bioactive glass (MBG85) is an excellent candidate as a graft for bone tissue regeneration, owing to its excellent textured properties, structural characteristics and crystalline apatite rate formation. To assess MBG85 biocompatibility, different parameters have been evaluated (cell morphology, size/complexity, proliferation, viability, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species content, ...
Ahrens Molly J - - 2009
Proteins that are localized to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchors have been proposed to regulate cell signaling and cell adhesion events involved in tissue patterning. Conditional deletion of Piga, which encodes the catalytic subunit of an essential enzyme in the gpi-biosynthetic pathway, in the lateral plate mesoderm results ...
Liu Ying - - 2009
We used the electrospinning technique to produce fibrous scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Using a rotating drum, we aligned the fibers and formed multilayered structures where both the fiber spacing and pore size could be varied. We then plated adult human dermal fibroblasts and studied the effect of fiber diameter ...
Liu Y - - 2009
In this study, rat periosteal cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) were examined when cultured on octacalcium phosphate (OCP) crystals to determine the effects of crystal morphology on their adhesion, spreading, and growth. Three type of OCP crystals with different morphology were prepared by different precipitation methods. OCPI was ...
Davis George E - - 2010
This review addresses new concepts related to the importance of how cells within the cardiovascular system respond to matricryptic sites generated from the extracellular matrix (ECM) following tissue injury. A model is presented whereby matricryptic sites exposed from the ECM result in activation of multiple cell surface receptors including integrins, ...
Clouet Johann - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to improve our knowledge of intervertebral disc (IVD) cell biology by comparing the phenotype of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) cells with that of articular chondrocytes (ACs). METHODS: Rabbit cells from NP and AF were isolated and their phenotype was compared with ...
Matisz Chelsea E - - 2010
Evidence for the presumed linkage between the enigmatic rodlet cells of fish and exposure to helminths is anecdotal and indirect. We evaluated the proliferation and development of rodlet cells in the optic lobes of fathead minnows exposed to cercariae of Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus. Mean rodlet cell densities (ca. 10/mm(2)) in the ...
Benton Julie A - - 2009
Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) maintain functional heart valve structure and display transient fibroblast and myofibroblast properties. Most cell characterization studies have been performed on plastic dishes; while insightful, these systems are limited. Thus, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system is proposed in this communication as a ...
Kretlow James D - - 2009
Engineering complex tissues requires a precisely formulated combination of cells, spatiotemporally released bioactive factors, and a specialized scaffold support system. Injectable materials, particularly those delivered in aqueous solution, are considered ideal delivery vehicles for cells and bioactive factors and can also be delivered through minimally invasive methods and fill complex ...
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