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Results 401 - 450 of 1335
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Gu Junxia - - 2009
Elongator complex has been associated with hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II and is known to play critical roles in transcriptional elongation, as well as in tRNA modification and exocytosis. However, the specific mechanism of how human Elongator complex regulates cell growth and cell cycle remains unclear. To investigate the composition of ...
Di Talia Stefano - - 2009
In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 ...
Zmijewski M A MA Department of Molecular Enzymology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology of University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, - - 2009
Previously, using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes we have demonstrated that the activity of CRF1 receptor can be modulated by the process of alternative splicing. This phenomenon has been further investigated in the mouse corticotroph AtT-20 cell line. In the cells, transiently transfected with the plasmids coding human CRF1 isoforms, only ...
Ondracek Caitlin R - - 2009
The human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 have been used extensively to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication. Both cell lines support transcription of the 3.5-kb viral pregenomic RNA and subsequent viral DNA synthesis by reverse transcription. The effects of the coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator ...
Li Qiong - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND AIM: MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of their target genes. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of microRNA on biological behaviors of HepG2 cells and further analyze its characteristics. METHODS: We detected different expression profiles ...
Law Alice Y S - - 2010
Stanniocalcin-2 (STC2), the paralog of STC1, has been suggested as a novel target of oxidative stress response to protect cells from apoptosis. The expression of STC2 has been reported to be highly correlated with human cancer development. In this study, we reported that STC2 is a HIF-1 target gene and ...
Li Xiaodong - - 2010
Overexpression, genetic amplification and mutations of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) were found in a variety of human cancers. PAK4 regulated actin cytoskeleton reorganization by phosphorylating LIMK1 and promoted cancer cells migration. Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified a novel PAK4 binding protein, DGCR6L, which was associated with cancer cell metastasis. ...
Lin Hung-Chi - - 2009
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is a risk factor for many diseases, including tumor progression and neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that SAH may indirectly enhance the invasion of C6 glioma cells by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secreted from the murine microglia BV2 cells. We obtained conditioned medium ...
Chang Suhwan - - 2009
To date, inheritance of a mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene is the best-established indicator of an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Sequence analysis of these genes is being used to identify BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, though these efforts are hampered by the high frequency of variants of unknown clinical significance ...
Young Ryan M - - 2009
We sought to determine the contributions of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) to the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. We found that T-cell PTP (TC-PTP) was overexpressed in transformed B cells. We hypothesized that TC-PTP may be a tumor-promoting gene that is regulated by MYC overexpression in B cells. Knockdown of TC-PTP ...
Huang Jinyan - - 2009
The role of Yamanaka factors as the core regulators in the induction of pluripotency during somatic cell reprogramming has been discovered recently. Our previous study found that Yamanaka factors regulate a developmental signaling network in maintaining embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. Here, we established completely reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) ...
Liu Xinrong - - 2009
Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) was originally identified as a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated gene. This gene and its protein product LAPTM4B-35, are both overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, its specific role in cell transformation and malignancy has remained elusive. In the present study we investigated the ...
Shalgi Reut - - 2009
miRNAs function as a critical regulatory layer in development, differentiation, and the maintenance of cell fate. Depletion of miRNAs from embryonic stem cells impairs their differentiation capacity. Total elimination of miRNAs leads to premature senescence in normal cells and tissues through activation of the DNA-damage checkpoint, whereas ablation of miRNAs ...
Suman Pankaj - - 2009
Amongst the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion and proliferation. In the present study interleukin-11 (IL-11), another member of the IL-6 family, was investigated for its role in regulating invasion, migration and proliferation of JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. JEG-3 cells, like ...
Nagai K - - 2009
Cell-to-cell interactions between mast cells and activated T cells are increasingly recognized as a possible mechanism in the aetiology of allergic or non-allergic inflammatory disorders. To determine the anti-allergic effect of fisetin, we examined the ability of fisetin to suppress activation of the human mast cell line, HMC-1, induced by ...
Pardoll Drew - - 2009
While the role of endogenous T cells in antitumor immunity is being debated, little is known about whether and how T cells promote tumorigenesis. In this issue of Cancer Cell, DeNardo and colleagues demonstrate that IL-4-producing T cells enhance metastasis by programming macrophages to produce factors that enhance tumor invasion.
Nakato Gaku - - 2009
A minor population of M cells within the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of intestinal Peyer's patches (PPs) serves as a major portal for entry of exogenous antigens. Characterization of the mammalian M cells, including identification of M-cell surface molecules used for bacterial uptake, has been hampered by their relative rarity. In ...
Di Stilio Verónica S - - 2009
Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of pollination-related floral phenotypes in Thalictrum, a ranunculid with apetalous flowers. The variable presence of petaloid features in other floral organs correlates with distinct adaptations to insect vs. wind pollination. Conical cells are present in sepals or stamens of insect-pollinated species, and in stigmas. ...
Sohn Sung-Hwa - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Vitex rotundifolia has long been used in traditional medicine to treat asthma and other allergic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of V rotundifolia in cultured A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. METHODS: In the present study, A549 cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 4, and ...
Copetti Tamara - - 2009
We unveiled novel p65/RelA consensus sites in the promoter of the beclin 1 gene and demonstrate that p65/RelA positively modulates canonical autophagy in various human cell lines both under basal conditions and upon induction by ceramide. Interestingly, we find that T cell receptor-dependent activation of Jurkat cells triggers an increase ...
Zhou Xuyu X Diabetes Center and the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, - - 2009
Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are central to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. However, little is known about the stability of T(reg) cells in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that a substantial percentage of cells had transient or unstable expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. These 'exFoxp3' T cells ...
Mahindroo Neeraj N St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, - - 2009
We report novel inhibitors of Gli1-mediated transcription as potential anticancer agents. Focused chemical libraries were designed and assessed for inhibition of functional cell-based Gli1-mediated transcription and selective toxicity toward cancer cells. The SAR was revealed, and the selectivity of the lead compounds' inhibition of Gli1-mediated transcription over that of Gli2 ...
Hsiao Huey-Wen - - 2009
The molecular process underlying T cell anergy is incompletely understood. Deltex1 (DTX1) is a Notch target with unknown physiological function. Here we show that Dtx1 was a transcription target of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and participated in T cell anergy. DTX1 protein was upregulated during T cell ...
Gatto Dominique - - 2009
Humoral immunity depends on both rapid and long-term antibody production against invading pathogens. This is achieved by the generation of spatially distinct extrafollicular plasmablast and follicular germinal center (GC) B cell populations, but the signals that guide responding B cells to these alternative compartments have not been fully elucidated. Here, ...
Dien Bard Jennifer J Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G - - 2009
Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to both stimulate cell growth and promote survival in benign lymphoid cells and several types of hematopoietic neoplasms. It induces JAK3/STAT3 signaling, a biologically important cellular pathway activated in most cases of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-expressing anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(+)ALCL). Therefore, we hypothesize that ...
Akinci M A Murat MA Department of Ophthalmology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, - - 2009
To define the molecular signature of limbal SP cells and identify signaling pathways associated with the phenotype of these putative stem cells. Primary cultures of pig limbal epithelial cells stained with Hoechst 33342 were sorted by flow cytometry into SP and non-SP cells, and purified RNA was processed for microarray ...
Hiroi Miki - - 2009
Interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) has an antiproliferative effect on a variety of tumor cells. However, many tumor cells resist treatment with IFNs. Here, we show that IFNgamma fails to inhibit the growth of some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells that possess a fully functional IFNgamma/STAT1 (signal transducer and activator ...
Carr Heather S - - 2009
Net1 is a nuclear Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for the RhoA subfamily of small G proteins. Truncated forms of Net1 are transforming in NIH3T3 cells, and this activity requires cytoplasmic localization of Net1 as well as the presence of a COOH-terminal PDZ binding site. We have ...
Mu Rui-Ling - - 2009
MYB proteins play important roles in eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the R1R2R3-type MYB proteins function in cell cycle control. However, whether the R2R3-type MYB protein is also involved in the cell division process remains unknown. Here, we report that an R2R3-type transcription factor gene, AtMYB59, is involved in the regulation ...
Yoon Kyung-Ae - - 2009
Ets-related molecule (Erm) is a member of the Ets transcription factor family. Erm is known to be an important factor for the self-renewal of Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism of Erm regulation on SDF-1 in TM4 Sertoli cells. Erm and Sdf-1 ...
Feuerer Markus - - 2009
Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 play a key role in immune homeostasis. Rather than a monomorphic population strictly determined by Foxp3 as a 'master regulator', the emerging view is one of T(reg) cells as a population with many levels of complexity. Several ...
Gómez Elisa - - 2009
Transfer cells are highly modified plant cells specialized in the transport of solutes. They differentiate at many plant exchange surfaces, including phloem loading and unloading zones such as those present in the sink organs and seeds. In maize (Zea mays) seeds, transfer cells are located at the base of the ...
Schiavone Davide D Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin, - - 2009
STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is a transcription factor activated by cytokines, growth factors and oncogenes, whose activity is required for cell survival/proliferation of a wide variety of primary tumours and tumour cell lines. Prominent among its multiple effects on tumour cells is the stimulation of cell ...
- - 2009
Sites of hypermethylation and demethylation of nuclear foci affected epigenetically by drugs or the environment show places of transcription modulation, i.e. activation or deactivation. In consequence, these changes may lead to differentiation or dedifferentiation of a cell. Gertych et al. quantitate in their sophisticated work these foci (dots within the ...
Bielig H - - 2009
The WD40 repeat containing angio-associated migratory cell protein (AAMP) was identified as a new binding partner of the human nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing (NLR) family member Nod2 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Co-immunoprecipitations from human cells verified this interaction and revealed that an internal peptide of AAMP spanning ...
Xu Xiaoliang L - - 2009
Retinoblastomas result from the inactivation of the RB1 gene and the loss of Rb protein, yet the cell type in which Rb suppresses retinoblastoma and the circuitry that underlies the need for Rb are undefined. Here, we show that retinoblastoma cells express markers of postmitotic cone precursors but not markers ...
Oh Shin Hye - - 2009
Testis-derived germline stem (GS) cells can undergo re-programming to acquire multipotency when cultured under appropriate culture conditions. These multipotent GS (mGS) cells have been known to differ from GS cells in their DNA methylation pattern. In this study, we examined the DNA methylation status of the H19 imprinting control region ...
Stephan Octavian - - 2009
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells control their cell size at a point in late G(1) called Start. Here, we describe a negative role for the Sin3/Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex in the regulation of cell size at Start. Initiation of G(1)/S-specific transcription of CLN1, CLN2 and PCL1 in a sin3Delta strain occurs at ...
Cheung Hannah C - - 2009
Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is a multi-functional RNA-binding protein that is aberrantly overexpressed in glioma. PTBP1 and its brain-specific homologue polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2 (PTBP2) regulate neural precursor cell differentiation. However, the overlapping and non-overlapping target transcripts involved in this process are still unclear. To determine why PTBP1 and ...
Cruickshank Mark N - - 2009
Stringent developmental transcription requires multiple transcription factor (TF) binding sites, cell-specific expression of signaling molecules, TFs and co-regulators and appropriate chromatin structure. During B-lymphopoiesis, human Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is detected on immature and mature B cells but not on B cell precursors and plasma cells. We examined cell- and ...
Okaty Benjamin W BW Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453, - - 2009
Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons are important elements of neocortical circuitry that constitute the primary source of synaptic inhibition in adult cortex and impart temporal organization on ongoing cortical activity. The highly specialized intrinsic membrane and firing properties that allow cortical FS interneurons to perform these functions are attributable to equally specialized ...
Rajamohan Senthilkumar B - - 2009
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and SIRT1 deacetylase are two NAD-dependent enzymes which play major roles in the decision of a cell to live or to die in a stress situation. Because of the dependence of both enzymes on NAD, cross talk between them has been suggested. Here, we show that ...
Schmidlin Heike H Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The - - 2009
B lymphocytes provide the cellular basis of the humoral immune response. All stages of this process, from B-cell activation to formation of germinal centers and differentiation into memory B cells or plasma cells, are influenced by extrinsic signals and controlled by transcriptional regulation. Compared to naïve B cells, memory B ...
Brown Stephen T - - 2009
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2alpha has been implicated in the development of the catecholaminergic phenotype in cells of the sympathoadrenal (SA) lineage; however, the underlying mechanisms and HIF-2alpha targets remain unclear. Using an immortalized rat adrenomedullary chromaffin cell line (MAH cells) derived from a fetal SA ...
Sato Youichi - - 2009
The SRY gene (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) was isolated in 1990 and is known as the testis-determining factor on the Y chromosome. The SRY has been considered as a transcription factor since it contains an HMG box, which functions as a DNA-binding domain. However, a direct target for ...
Lluis Frederic - - 2009
In all cells of the body, differentiation from zygotes has been considered a unidirectional route. Recently, however, it has become clear that the reverse path is indeed possible, in the reprogramming of somatic nuclei, i.e., the de-differentiation of somatic cells into pluripotent stem-like cells. Breakthrough discoveries have shown that overexpression ...
Camp Amy H - - 2009
Spore formation by Bacillus subtilis takes place in a sporangium consisting of two chambers, the forespore and the mother cell, which are linked by pathways of intercellular communication. One pathway, which couples the activation of the forespore transcription factor sigma(G) to the action of sigma(E) in the mother cell, has ...
Beauregard Pascale B - - 2009
In fission yeast, the ER-residing molecular chaperone calnexin is normally essential for viability. However, a specific mutant of calnexin that is devoid of chaperone function (Deltahcd_Cnx1p) induces an epigenetic state that allows growth of Schizosaccharomyces pombe without calnexin. This calnexin-independent (Cin) state was previously shown to be mediated via a ...
Fujikura Ushio - - 2009
Co-ordination of cell proliferation and cell expansion is a key regulatory process in leaf-size determination, but its molecular details are unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in a positive regulator of cell proliferation often trigger excessive cell enlargement post-mitotically in leaves. This phenomenon, called compensation syndrome, is seen in the mutant ...
Mahaffey Christopher M CM Department of Natural Sciences, University of California at Merced, Merced, CA 95344, - - 2009
Multidrug-resistant proteins (MRPs) are members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily that facilitate detoxification by transporting toxic compounds, including chemotherapeutic drugs, out of cells. Chemotherapy, radiation, and other xenobiotic stresses have been shown to increase levels of select MRPs, although the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Additionally, MRP3 is suspected of ...
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