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Results 301 - 350 of 1335
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Ma Ling-di - - 2010
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor, is constitutively activated in various types of cancers. Previous investigations have demonstrated that this overexpression of STAT3 in human malignancies plays important roles in maintaining the characteristics of malignant tumors by having an effect on proliferation, differentiation, and/or immortalization. ...
Xie Zidian - - 2010
Stomata, which are epidermal pores surrounded by two guard cells, develop from a specialized stem cell lineage and function in shoot gas exchange. The Arabidopsis thaliana FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 genes encode closely related and atypical two-MYB-repeat proteins, which when mutated result in excess divisions and abnormal groups of ...
Shen Duan - - 2010
The rapidly expanding market for monoclonal antibody and Fc-fusion-protein therapeutics has increased interest in improving the productivity of mammalian cell lines, both to alleviate capacity limitations and control the cost of goods. In this study, we evaluated the responses of an industrial CHO cell line producing an Fc-fusion-protein to hyperosmotic ...
Bao Baolong - - 2010
Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones. In mammals, the expression of HCS depends on biotin, but the mechanism of regulation is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that microRNA (miR) plays a role in the regulation of the HCS gene. Human embryonic kidney ...
Gosmain Yvan - - 2010
The paired box homeodomain Pax6 is crucial for endocrine cell development and function and plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Indeed, mutations of Pax6 are associated with diabetic phenotype. Importantly, homozygous mutant mice for Pax6 are characterized by markedly decreased β and δ cells and absent α cells. To ...
Liang Gaoyang - - 2010
Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by enforced expression of defined transcription factors. The fact that cell fate change is accompanied by changes in epigenetic modifications prompted us to investigate whether chemicals known to modulate epigenetic regulators are capable of ...
Liu Xiang - - 2010
The aberrant activation of c-Src regulates multiple functions during tumor progression. This study was conducted to investigate the role of c-Src suppression in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in human breast carcinoma cells. c-Src suppression by PP2 (a Src-family kinase inhibitor) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) was carried out ...
Shan Qiang - - 2010
A sensitive cAMP response element (CRE) reporter system is essential for studying the cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element binding protein signal pathway. Here we have tested a few CRE promoters and found one with high sensitivity to external stimuli. Using this optimal CRE promoter and the enhanced green fluorescent protein ...
Li Ronghui - - 2010
Invasion into adjacent brain parenchyma is the key cause of recurrent human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the malignant progression of glioma remains undefined. Here, we found that IL-6 promotes the invasion of U87 MG human glioma cells but not in U343 cells. An advanced ...
Mezquita Belén - - 2010
Two types of VEGFR-1 receptors have been characterized: a full-length transmembrane receptor and a truncated extracellular soluble isoform (sVEGFR-1). We report here the characterization, in normal and cancer cells, of a new family of intracellular isoforms of VEGFR-1 resulting from alternative initiation of transcription in intronic sequences of the gene. ...
Wang Ying - - 2010
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells possess an enormous potential for applications in regenerative medicine. However, these cells have several inevitable hurdles limiting their clinical applications, such as transplant rejection and embryo destruction. A milestone recently achieved was the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by over-expressing combinations of defined ...
Cui Peng - - 2010
Hydroxyurea (HU), as a therapeutic medicine, has been extensively used clinically. To further survey molecular mechanisms of HU treatment, we analyzed global transcriptomic alteration of mouse ES cells in response to the treatment using high-throughput sequencing. We show that the global transcriptional activity is significantly suppressed as cells are exposed ...
Baan Bart - - 2010
Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that selective interactions between the Jun, Fos, and activating transcription factor (ATF) components of transcription factor activating protein 1 (AP-1) exhibit specific and critical functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. For instance, the ratio between c-Jun/c-Fos and c-Jun/ATF2 dimers in ...
Cermák Vladimír - - 2010
Metastatic spreading of cancer cells is a highly complex process directed primarily by the interplay between tumor microenvironment, cell surface receptors, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. To advance our understanding of metastatic cancer dissemination, we have developed a model system that is based on two v-src transformed chicken sarcoma cell lines-the ...
Okada Megumi - - 2010
HS (heparan sulfate) is synthesized by HS co-polymerases encoded by the EXT1 and EXT2 genes (exostosin 1 and 2), which are known as causative genes for hereditary multiple exostoses, a dominantly inherited genetic disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous tumours. It has been thought that the hetero-oligomeric EXT1-EXT2 complex is the ...
Salomonis Nathan N Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2010
Two major goals of regenerative medicine are to reproducibly transform adult somatic cells into a pluripotent state and to control their differentiation into specific cell fates. Progress toward these goals would be greatly helped by obtaining a complete picture of the RNA isoforms produced by these cells due to alternative ...
Chen Mengfei - - 2010
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into an embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent state by Oct-3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4. Sox2 as an essential reprogramming factor also contributes to the development of the eye and the retina. This study was conducted to determine whether induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells express retinal progenitor ...
Saito Kousuke - - 2010
Bcl3 is a member of the IkappaB family that regulates genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recent reports indicated that Bcl3 is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cells via Tax-mediated transactivation, and acts as a negative regulator of viral transcription. However, the role of Bcl3 in cellular signal transduction and ...
Ouyang Weiming - - 2010
CD4(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 have a pivotal role in maintaining immunological tolerance. Here we show that mice with T cell-specific deletion of both the Foxo1 and Foxo3 transcription factors (collectively called 'Foxo proteins' here) developed a fatal multifocal inflammatory disorder ...
Kuure Satu S Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, - - 2010
Signaling by the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell movements in the Wolffian duct that give rise to the first ureteric bud tip, initiating kidney development. Although the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are known to be required for mouse kidney development and to act downstream of Ret, their ...
Tang Fuchou F Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research, - - 2010
During the transition from the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocysts to pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro, a normal developmental program is replaced in cells that acquire a capacity for infinite self-renewal and pluripotency. We explored the underlying mechanism of this switch by using RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis ...
Chiu Richard - - 2010
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, but the mechanism of this inhibitory effect has not been investigated. We hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of PMMA particles involve impairment of osteoprogenitor viability and direct inhibition of transcription factors that regulate osteogenesis. We challenged MC3T3-E1 ...
Girgis Erian - - 2010
Studies have shown that thalidomide exerts modest activity as a single agent in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The present investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide is enhanced when properly combined with other chemotherapeutic agents. The human AML cell line KG-1a ...
Okita Keisuke - - 2010
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by introducing a combination of several transcription factors. The induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from a patient's somatic cells could be useful source of cells for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies. However, most human iPS cells are made by viral ...
Parton Angela A Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salisbury Cove, Maine 04672, - - 2010
Elasmobranchs are the most commonly used experimental models among the jawed, cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Previously we developed cell lines from embryos of two elasmobranchs, Squalus acanthias the spiny dogfish shark (SAE line), and Leucoraja erinacea the little skate (LEE-1 line). From these lines cDNA libraries were derived and expressed sequence ...
Liu Qinglin - - 2010
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth and survival factor in human glioblastoma cells and plays an important role in malignant progression. However, its role in glioblastoma invasion is still unknown. This study shows how IL-6 promotes cell invasion and migration in U251 and T98G glioblastoma cell lines. The underlying mechanism includes ...
Suk Kyoungho - - 2010
Cell migration is a central process that is essential for embryonic development, wound repair, inflammatory response, homeostasis and tumor metastasis. A method of genome-wide selection based on the gain-of-function has been devised to identify novel cell migration-promoting genes in cultured cells. After the introduction of the retroviral mouse brain cDNA ...
Patterson Kate I - - 2010
Dual specificity phosphatases are characterised by their ability to dephosphorylate both phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/threonine residues within the one substrate. The aim of this study was to characterise the phosphatase activity of the atypical dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP26 on MAP kinases, and to determine its expression, regulation and function in cancer ...
Tanase Jun-ichi - - 2011
Curved DNA structures with a left-handed superhelical conformation can activate eukaryotic transcription. However, their potency in transgene activation in embryonic stem (ES) cells has not been examined. T20 is an artificial curved DNA of 180 bp that serves as a transcriptional activator. We investigated the effect of T20 on transcription in ...
Sivertsson Louise - - 2010
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an important cause for disapproval, limitations of use, or withdrawal of drugs, and there is a high need for reproducible in vitro systems that can predict such toxicity. In this study, we show that confluent growth of the human hepatoma cell line Huh7 up to 5 weeks ...
Janes Kevin A KA Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2010
Cells in tissues can be morphologically indistinguishable yet show molecular expression patterns that are remarkably heterogeneous. Here we describe an approach to comprehensively identify co-regulated, heterogeneously expressed genes among cells that otherwise appear identical. The technique, called stochastic profiling, involves repeated, random selection of very small cell populations via laser-capture ...
Schröder Christine - - 2010
The transcription factor Fra-2 (Fos-related antigen-2) has been implicated in invasion of breast cancer cells, but there is only sparse information about its role in clinical tumours. In the present study, we analysed Fra-2 mRNA expression in a cohort of 167 patients, and found significant correlations between high Fra-2 expression ...
Yang Min - - 2010
Although B cells have been shown to possess a regulatory function, microenvironmental factors or cytokines involved in the induction of regulatory B cells remain largely uncharacterized. B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a member of TNF family cytokines, is a key regulator for B cell maturation and function. In this study, we ...
Liu Yongqing Y Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, - - 2010
PURPOSE. The Hippo signaling pathway imposes the cell contact inhibition that establishes organ size and tissue topology from Drosophila to mammals. This pathway regulates activity of the Yap and Taz transcription factors, which link epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to cell proliferation. Here, the authors provide evidence that Taz and its coactivator, ...
Fujino Takashi - - 2010
POU5F1 is a transcription factor essential for the self-renewal activity and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and germ cells. We have previously reported that POU5F1 is fused to EWSR1 in a case of undifferentiated sarcoma with chromosomal translocation t(6;22)(p21;q12). In addition, the EWS-POU5F1 chimeras have been recently identified in human ...
Browne Gareth - - 2010
Epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMT), the generation of motile mesenchymal cells from epithelial sheets, are differentiation programs which take place at several critical steps of embryonic development and in metastatic cancer. Recent data have shown that the transcription factors which are master regulators of EMT also regulate cell cycle progression, apoptosis ...
Suh Insoo - - 2010
Decitabine recovers expression of silenced genes on chromosome 11q13 and has antineoplastic effects in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells. NCI-H295R cells were treated with decitabine (0.1-1.0 microM) over 5 days. Cells were evaluated at 24-hour intervals for the effects of decitabine on ACC cell proliferation, cortisol secretion, and cell invasion. Expression ...
Boysen Jacob H - - 2010
Yeast cells contain two Bro1 domain proteins: Bro1, which is required for endosomal trafficking, and Rim20, which is required for the response to the external pH via the Rim101 pathway. Rim20 associates with endosomal structures under alkaline growth conditions, when it promotes activation of Rim101 through proteolytic cleavage. We report ...
Doss Michael Xavier - - 2010
Brachyury(+) mesodermal cell population with purity over 79% was obtained from differentiating brachyury embryonic stem cells (ESC) generated with brachyury promoter driven enhanced green fluorescent protein and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase. A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of brachyury(+) cells enriched with puromycin application from 6-day-old embryoid bodies (EBs), 6-day-old control EBs and undifferentiated ESCs ...
Wei Xing - - 2010
WD40 repeat proteins have a wide range of diverse biological functions including signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, RNA splicing, and transcription. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning up-regulated protein 2 (MIP2) is a novel member of the WD40 repeat proteins superfamily that contains five WD40 repeats. Little is known about its biological role, ...
Schwartz Jason R JR Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 533 Bolivar Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2010
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used in combination therapy for treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In T-cell (CEM-C7) and pre-B-cell (697) ALL cell lines, dexamethasone (Dex) treatment causes an auto-upregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA transcripts and protein. We hypothesized that there is a threshold level of GR transcripts/protein needed for cells ...
Nakazawa Nobushige - - 2010
Industrial yeasts, including a sake yeast Kyokai no. 7 (K7), are generally unable to sporulate. In K7 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, IME1 transcription was not induced under sporulation conditions, and K7 cells partially restored sporulation ability when transformed with a multicopy plasmid bearing IME1. However, the mechanisms of sporulation incompetence in ...
Hartl Markus - - 2010
The c-myc protooncogene encodes a transcription factor (Myc) with oncogenic potential. Myc and its dimerization partner Max are bHLH-Zip DNA binding proteins controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of c-myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have identified and extensively characterized ancestral forms of myc ...
Farra Rossella - - 2010
For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a leading cause of cancer death world-wide, there is no effective therapy especially for the advanced stage of the disease. Thus, we started the investigations about a novel anti HCC approach based on the depletion of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) in HCC cell ...
Stanton Brynne C - - 2010
Cell type specification is a fundamental process that all cells must carry out to ensure appropriate behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. In fungi, cell identity is critical for defining "sexes" known as mating types and is controlled by components of mating type (MAT) loci. MAT-encoded genes function to define ...
Perl Andras A Division of Rheumatology, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. - - 2010
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by the dysfunction of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, the release of pro-inflammatory nuclear materials from necrotic cells, and the formation of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and immune complexes of ANA with DNA, RNA, and nuclear proteins. Activation of the mammalian target of ...
Liao Chen-Hsin - - 2010
The thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)) regulates growth, development, and differentiation processes in animals. These activities are mediated by the nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). Microarray analyses were performed previously to study the mechanism of regulation triggered by T(3) treatment in hepatoma cell lines. The results showed that spondin 2 was ...
Hu Xiao-Tong - - 2010
Using inverse polymerase chain reaction, we identified CD44, located on chromosome 11p13, as a novel translocation partner of IGH in 9 of 114 cases of gastric, nongastric extranodal, follicular, and nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Notably, these translocations involving IGHSmu were detected in follicular lymphomas and exclusively in germinal ...
Deng Qing - - 2010
The E2F family member of transcription factors includes the atypical member E2F8, which has been little studied in cancer. We report that E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where it was evidenced to contribute to oncogenesis and progression. Ectopic overexpression of E2F8 promoted cell proliferation, colony formation, ...
St?hlberg Anders - - 2010
Even in an apparently homogeneous population of cells there are considerable differences between individual cells. A response to a stimulus of a cell population or tissue may be consistent and gradual while the single-cell response might be binary and apparently irregular. The origin of this variability may be preprogrammed or ...
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