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Results 251 - 300 of 1335
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Mugabe C - - 2011
In this study we report the development and in vitro characterization of paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX) loaded into hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs). Several HPGs derivatized with hydrophobic groups (C(8/10) alkyl chains) (HPG-C(8/10)-OH) and/or methoxy polyethylene glycol (MePEG) chains (HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG) were synthesized. PTX or DTX were loaded into these ...
Jutras Stephanie - - 2010
The standard chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients is currently a combination of taxane and platinum. However, most EOC patients still suffer relapses, and there is an immediate need for the development of novel and more effective therapeutic modalities against this deadly disease. Recently, the nonpeptide bradykinin (BK) antagonist ...
de Oliveira Diêgo Madureira - - 2011
Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with ...
Mulder Jeanne E - - 2011
Amiodarone (AM) is a potent antidysrhythmic agent that can cause potentially life-threatening pulmonary fibrosis, and N-desethylamiodarone (DEA), an AM metabolite, may contribute to AM toxicity. Apoptotic cell death in nontransformed human peripheral lung epithelial 1A (HPL1A) cells was assessed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (ann-V) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP ...
Verma Amit - - 2010
Calreticulin (CRT), an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein demonstrates transacetylase activity in presence of 7, 8 diacetoxy-4-methyl coumarin (DAMC) in vitro. To investigate the possible role of CRT and DAMC mediated protein acetylation in cells, we investigated the effects of DAMC in tumor cells with different levels of CRT. DAMC was ...
Passiatore Giovanni - - 2010
Inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id-1) is a member of helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of proteins that regulate gene transcription through their inhibitory binding to basic-HLH transcription factors. Similarly to other members of this family, Id-1 is involved in the repression of cell differentiation, and activation of cell growth. The dual function of ...
Okumura Shiro - - 2010
Parasporin-4 (PS4) is a cytotoxic protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1470. It exhibits specific cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines, CACO-2, Sawano, and MOLT-4 cells, in particular. When cells were administrated with PS4, cell swelling and nuclear shrinkage were induced, and, the ballooned cells burst within 24h. PSI-BLAST search ...
Park Kwang-Il - - 2011
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a widely used medicinal herb in several Asian countries including Korea. The various medicinal properties attributed to Scutellaria baicalensis include anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of Scutellaria baicalensis water extract (SBWE) on A549 non-small-cell-lung cancer cells and the A549 ...
Møller Charlotte - - 2010
The accumulation and cytotoxicity of a 10 μmol L(-1) equimolar human serum albumin-cisplatin adduct (HSA-Pt) was investigated in suspension Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettré Ascites Cells (Lettré). HSA-Pt did not induce apoptosis nor was it taken up by the cells to any significant amount within 24 ...
DeKoter Rodney P - - 2010
Splenic B-2 cells can be divided into two major subsets: follicular (FO) and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. FO and MZ B cells are generated from immature transitional B cells. Few transcription factors have been identified that regulate FO B cell differentiation. The highly related proteins PU.1, Spi-B, and Spi-C ...
Tang Sai-Wen - - 2011
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was recently identified as one clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)-associated gene by analyzing full-length complementary DNA-enriched libraries of ccRCC tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of NNMT in cellular invasion. A strong NNMT expression is accompanied with a high invasive ...
Iwai Soichi - - 2010
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a critical role in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. To clarify the role of cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the cDNA of a mutant form of β-catenin that lacks the entire region with the glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β)-specific phosphorylation site was ...
Liu Pentao - - 2010
T-cell development primarily occurs in the thymus and involves in the interactions of many important transcription factors. Until recently, no single transcription factor has been identified to be essential for T-cell lineage commitment or maintenance of T-cell identity. Recent studies have now identified the zinc finger transcription factor Bcl11b to ...
Zein Sima - - 2010
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) ameliorates the clinical severity of sickle cell disease; therefore continued research to identify efficacious HbF-inducing agents is desirable. In this study, we investigated KU812 leukemia cells that express the fetal γ-globin and adult β-globin genes, as a system for screening and discovery of novel HbF inducers. KU812 ...
Regulska Magdalena - - 2010
Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are a class of chemicals used extensively in the manufacture of a wide range of domestic and industrial products, which may result in human exposure and toxicity. Hematologic and reproductive toxicity of EGEs are well known whereas their action on neuronal cell viability has not been ...
Tachibana Yoichi - - 2010
A novel water-soluble MRI contrast agent for in vivo living cell tracking was developed. Unlike the conventional in vivo cell tracking system based on superparamagnetic iron oxide beads, the newly developed contrast agent is eliminated from the body when the contrast agent exits the cells upon cell death, which makes ...
Wang Sisi - - 2010
To determine if the drug doses and administration schedules of carboplatin and gemcitabine combination affect antitumor effects. The inhibition of cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Median effect analysis was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity activity of carboplatin and gemcitabine combination. Cell cycle changes were analyzed by flow cytometry. ...
Musa Musiliyu A - - 2010
Coumarins belong to an important group of useful drugs with diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of new coumarin-based benzopyranone derivatives containing diethylaminoethoxy (5), dimethylaminoethoxy (6), morpholinoethoxy (7), piperidinylethoxy (8) and pyrrolidinylethoxyl (9) amino side chain against human carcinoma (A549) and normal (LL47) lung cell ...
Picanço-Castro Virgínia - - 2011
Reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency promises to boost cellular therapy. Most instances of direct reprogramming have been achieved by forced expression of defined exogenous factors using multiple viral vectors. The most used 4 transcription factors, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), Kruppel-like factor 4 ...
Gurusamy K S - - 2011
Trace elements are involved in many key pathways involving cell cycle control. The influence of zinc and zinc chelator (TPEN) on transcription levels of the main zinc transporters (ZnT1 and ZIP1) in the HT-29 colorectal cell line has not been reported. Proliferation of HT-29 cells was measured using the methylene ...
Kim Eun Young - - 2010
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a new alternative for the development of patient-specific stem cells, and the aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist between the cellular and molecular profiles of iPS cells, generated using lentiviral vectors, compared to ES cells. The lentiviral infection efficiency differed ...
Collison Lauren W LW Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, - - 2010
Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) have a critical role in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance. Here we show that treatment of naive human or mouse T cells with IL-35 induced a regulatory population, which we call 'iT(R)35 cells', that mediated suppression via IL-35 but not via the inhibitory cytokines IL-10 ...
Muto Akihiko - - 2010
Two transcription factors, Pax5 and Blimp-1, form a gene regulatory network (GRN) with a double-negative loop, which defines either B-cell (Pax5 high) or plasma cell (Blimp-1 high) status as a binary switch. However, it is unclear how this B-cell GRN registers class switch DNA recombination (CSR), an event that takes ...
Bhatia Suman - - 2011
Huge data accumulated in last few years have shown that differential expression of candidate miRNAs in normal versus transformed cell provides important insights into the pathogenesis of cancer including leukemias. In our previous report, we have revealed that miR-196b was significantly down-regulated in both EB-3 cells as well as B-cell ...
Gilbert-Sirieix Marie - - 2010
RET/PTC1 rearrangement is the most common genetic alteration identified to date in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and represents an interesting target for small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategies because it is present only in the tumor cells and not in the normal cells. Our aims were (i) to target the RET/PTC1 ...
Meissner Alexander - - 2010
Epigenetic modifications constitute a complex regulatory layer on top of the genome sequence. Pluripotent and differentiated cells provide a powerful system for investigating how the epigenetic code influences cellular fate. High-throughput sequencing of these cell types has yielded DNA methylation maps at single-nucleotide resolution and many genome-wide chromatin maps. In ...
Kumagai Tadahiro - - 2010
Human β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (β-1,4-GalT) V was shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of N-glycans, O-glycans and lactosylceramide (Lac-Cer) by in vitro studies. To determine its substrate specificity, enzymatic activity and its products were analyzed using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells from β-1,4-GalT V (B4galt5)-mutant mice. Analysis of expression levels of ...
Chai Yunrong Y Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2010
Bacillus subtilis forms long chains of cells during growth and biofilm formation. Cell separation is mediated by autolysins, whose genes are under the negative control of a heteromeric complex composed of the proteins SinR and SlrR. Formation of the SinR-SlrR complex is governed by a self-reinforcing, double-negative feedback loop in ...
Sherman Mara H MH Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2010
During an immune response, B cells undergo rapid proliferation and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent remodeling of immunoglobulin (IG) genes within germinal centers (GCs) to generate memory B and plasma cells. Unfortunately, the genotoxic stress associated with the GC reaction also promotes most B cell malignancies. Here, we report that exogenous ...
Ohashi-Ito Kyoko - - 2010
In vascular development, uncommitted cells differentiate into different xylem cells through vascular stem cells, such as procambial cells, during vein formation as well as embryogenesis. Cascades of transcriptional regulation of genes play crucial roles in the progress of vascular development. Auxin, cytokinin, and brassinosteroids also function in procambial cell determination, ...
Liu Haiying - - 2011
Oct4 is a transcription factor that is required for pluripotency during early embryogenesis and the maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cell and pluripotent cell identity. miR-302, a cluster of eight microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed specifically in ES cells and pluripotent cells, is crucial for normal pluripotent cell self-renewal and ...
Petermann Franziska F Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neurology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, Munich, - - 2010
Mice that lack interleukin-23 (IL-23) are resistant to T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Although IL-23 is a maturation factor for T helper 17 (Th17) cells, a subset of γδ T cells expresses the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) constitutively. Using IL-23R reporter mice, we showed that γδ T cells were the first cells to respond to IL-23 during ...
Neumann Ingo - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Retinoids can induce differentiation of neuroblastoma (NB) cells and are in clinical use for the treatment of patients with NB. Despite improvements of standard treatment during the last years, many patients with NB still relapse and new treatment options for these patients are required. PROCEDURE: We analyzed NB cells ...
Panjehpour Mojtaba - - 2010
Cadmium chloride is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. However, it can also be anti-carcinogenic under certain conditions. Copper, an essential trace element, has the ability to generate reactive oxygen species and induce cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to determine the growth inhibitory effects of cadmium and copper on ...
Funabashi Hisakage - - 2010
In this report, the effects of two DNA nuclear targeting sequence (DTS) candidates on the gene expression efficiency in ES cells were investigated. Reporter plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter/enhancer sequence (SV40-DTS), a DTS for various types of cells but not being reported yet for ES cells, and ...
Hawiger Daniel - - 2010
Induced regulatory T cells (iT(reg) cells) can be generated by peripheral dendritic cells (DCs) that mediate T cell unresponsiveness to rechallenge with antigen. The molecular factors required for the function of such iT(reg) cells remain unknown. We report a critical role for the transcription cofactor homeodomain-only protein (Hop; also known ...
Lohse Matthew B MB Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, - - 2010
The human pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a well-defined switch between two distinct cell types, named 'white' and 'opaque'. White and opaque cells differ in metabolic preferences, mating behaviours, cellular morphologies and host interactions. Each cell type is stable through many generations; switching between them is rare, stochastic and occurs without ...
Fry Jessica L JL Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2010
Tumor cell migration is mediated by cell-autonomous signaling mechanisms as well as paracrine and autocrine factors secreted by activated stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Like other members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family, the integrin-binding metalloproteinase ADAM9 modulates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as ectodomain shedding ...
Velichutina Irina I Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, - - 2010
EZH2 is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 Polycomb complex and mediates transcriptional repression through its histone methyltransferase activity. EZH2 is up-regulated in normal germinal center (GC) B cells and is implicated in lymphomagenesis. To explore the transcriptional programs controlled by EZH2, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip) in GC cells ...
Ahn Jin Seop - - 2010
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent, self-renewing cells derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. During normal development, hESCs differentiate into 3 germ layers. Cellular lineages differentiated from hESCs express a set of genes that are exclusive to these specialized cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that endothelial cells ...
Morschhäuser Joachim - - 2010
The yeast Candida albicans is part of the microflora in most healthy people, but can become a pathogen when host defenses are compromised. The phenotypic plasticity of C. albicans, which includes switching between different morphologies, contributes to its ability to colonize and infect virtually all body locations. A particularly fascinating ...
Apetoh Lionel L Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2010
Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells ) that produce interleukin 10 (IL-10) are instrumental in the prevention of tissue inflammation, autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease. The transcription factor c-Maf is essential for the induction of IL-10 by Tr1 cells, but the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of these ...
Tomioka Ikuo - - 2010
Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human ...
Jeon Hyejin - - 2010
Phagocytosis is a critical host defense mechanism that clears invading pathogens, apoptotic cells, and cell debris; it is an essential process for normal development, tissue remodeling, immune response, and inflammation. Here, a functional selection strategy was used to isolate novel phagocytosis-promoting genes. After the retroviral transfer of mouse brain cDNA ...
Xu Bingfang - - 2010
A fully developed, functional epididymis is important for male fertility. In particular, it is apparent that without the most proximal region, the initial segment (IS), infertility results. Therefore, it is important to understand the development and regulation of this crucial epididymal region. We have previously shown that many functions of ...
Chubb Jonathan R JR Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom. - - 2010
With a developing appreciation of how noisy gene expression can be, and difficulties in deciphering conventional gene expression data into cell control mechanisms, it has become clear that single cell techniques for measuring transcription are necessary to illuminate basic cell regulation strategies. The resultant use of in situ hybridisation and ...
Rinne Andreas A Rush University Medical Center, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, 1750 W. Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, - - 2010
Ca(2+)-sensitive NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) transcription factors are implicated in many pathophysiological processes in different cell types. The precise control of activation varies with NFAT isoform and cell type. Here we present feasibility of an in vivo assay (NFAT-RFP) that reports transcriptional activity of NFAT via expression of ...
Young-Robbins Shirley S - - 2010
The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 forms a periodic pattern of nitrogen-fixing heterocysts when grown in the absence of combined nitrogen. PatA is necessary for proper patterning of heterocysts along filaments. In this study, apparent transcriptional start points (tsps) were identified at nucleotides -305, -614, and -645 relative ...
Zhang Yujing - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate target gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Here, we report that secreted miRNAs can serve as signaling molecules mediating intercellular communication. In human blood cells and cultured THP-1 cells, miR-150 was selectively packaged into microvesicles (MVs) and actively secreted. THP-1-derived ...
Mattauch Sandra - - 2010
Liprin-α1 to liprin-α4 constitute a family of cytoplasmic proteins, which have been found in various multiprotein complexes. For liprin-α1 roles in synapse formation and cell spreading were described but other liprin family members are not well characterized. We show here that liprin-α4 is upregulated in human clear cell renal cell ...
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