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Wang Hao H Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, - - 2014
Cyanobacteria-derived toxin microcystin-LR (MCLR) has been widely investigated in its effects on normal cells, there is little information concerning its effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line treated with MCLR was used to investigate the change of PP2A, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation levels ...
Grasselli E E DISTAV, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy; INBB, Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
Tetrabromobisphenol A (2,2-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl propane-TBBPA) is the most produced brominated flame retardant, detected in the environment and in biological samples. TBBPA shares structural similarities with thyroid hormones (THs), and it has been shown to interfere with different aspects of TH physiology, this raising concern on its possible effects as an endocrine ...
Llabjani Valon V Centre for Biophotonics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK; Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Understanding how organisms respond to trace elements is important because some are essential for normal bodily homeostasis, but can additionally be toxic at high concentrations. The inflection point for many of these elements is unknown and requires sensitive techniques capable of detecting subtle cellular changes as well as cytotoxic alterations. ...
Mikulic Paulina P School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study aimed to determine the contrasting ecotoxicity effects of zinc on growth and photosynthesis in a neutrophilic (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and an extremophilic (Cyanidium caldarium) alga. Experiments were carried out to see if cells acclimated to zinc would respond differently to cells that were unexposed to zinc. The study also ...
Chen Jing-Xiao JX School of Pharmaceutical Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China; Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR - - 2014
A novel micelle based on heparosan and deoxycholic acid (DOCA) conjugate (HD) as drug carrier was reported here. As the surface was negatively charged, this micelle could resist serum adsorption, showing favorable stability. Moreover, fluorescence observation confirmed that it was able to deliver model hydrophobic drug doxorubicin (DOX) into HeLa ...
Dobrzyński Maciej M http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0208-7758 Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland - - 2014
We show theoretically and experimentally a mechanism behind the emergence of wide or bimodal protein distributions in biochemical networks with nonlinear input-output characteristics (the dose-response curve) and variability in protein abundance. Large cell-to-cell variation in the nonlinear dose-response characteristics can be beneficial to facilitate two distinct groups of response levels ...
Chavali Pavithra L PL Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, - - 2014
The centrosome, a key microtubule organizing centre, is composed of centrioles, embedded in a protein-rich matrix. Centrosomes control the internal spatial organization of somatic cells, and as such contribute to cell division, cell polarity and migration. Upon exiting the cell cycle, most cell types in the human body convert their ...
Agircan Fikret G FG Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, DKFZ-ZMBH Allianz, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, - - 2014
The centrosome is the main microtubule (MT)-organizing centre of animal cells. It consists of two centrioles and a multi-layered proteinaceous structure that surrounds the centrioles, the so-called pericentriolar material. Centrosomes promote de novo assembly of MTs and thus play important roles in Golgi organization, cell polarity, cell motility and the ...
Fırat-Karalar Elif Nur EN Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, - - 2014
Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of ...
Sluder Greenfield G Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA - - 2014
This review discusses some of the history of the fundamental, but not fully solved problem of how the centrosome duplicates from one to only two as the cell prepares for mitosis. We start with some of the early descriptions of the centrosome and the remarkably prescient but then controversial inferences ...
Ishihara Keisuke K Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA - - 2014
The large cells in early vertebrate development face an extreme physical challenge in organizing their cytoplasm. For example, amphibian embryos have to divide cytoplasm that spans hundreds of micrometres every 30 min according to a precise geometry, a remarkable accomplishment given the extreme difference between molecular and cellular scales in ...
Azimzadeh Juliette J CNRS/Université Paris-Diderot, Institut Jacques Monod, 15 rue Hélène Brion, 75209 Paris cedex 13, France - - 2014
The centrosome is the main organizer of the microtubule cytoskeleton in animals, higher fungi and several other eukaryotic lineages. Centrosomes are usually located at the centre of cell in tight association with the nuclear envelope and duplicate at each cell cycle. Despite a great structural diversity between the different types ...
Zheng Shuyao S Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Florida College of Medicine, University of Florida, 1275 Center Dr, Room J597, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0275, - - 2014
Clinical onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to result from a combination of overt beta cell loss and beta cell dysfunction. However, our understanding of how beta cell metabolic abnormalities arise during the pathogenesis of disease remains incomplete. Despite extensive research on the autoimmune nature of T1D, questions ...
Oróstica María L ML Laboratorio de Inmunología de la ReproducciónFacultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago, ChileCentro para el Desarrollo en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología-CEDENNASantiago, ChileInstituto de Investigaciones Materno-InfantilUniversidad de Chile, Santiago, ChileLaboratorio de Inmunología de la ReproducciónFacultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Alameda 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago, ChileCentro para el Desarrollo en Nanociencia y Nanotecnología-CEDENNASantiago, ChileInstituto de Investigaciones Materno-InfantilUniversidad de Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
In the rat oviduct, estradiol (E2) accelerates egg transport by a nongenomic action that requires previous conversion of E2 to methoxyestrogens via catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT) and activation of estrogen receptor (ER) with subsequent production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP3). However, the role of the different oviductal cellular phenotypes on this ...
Freund Guillaume G Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, UMR 7242, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, Illkirch, - - 2014
Intrabodies, when expressed in cells after genetic fusion to fluorescent proteins, are powerful tools to study endogenous protein dynamics inside cells. However, it remains challenging to determine the conditions for specific imaging and precise labelling of the target antigen with such intracellularly expressed antibody fragments. Here, we show that single-chain ...
Tatematsu Tsutomu T Department of Oncology, Immunology and Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, - - 2014
Advances in the molecular segmentation of lung cancer has raised the possibility that neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK) 1 fusions and NTRK1-3 expression may be promising molecular targets for future therapeutic interventions. We investigated the antitumor effects of a selective pan-NTRK inhibitor, AZD7451, by evaluating its antiproliferative effects on the ...
Dai Bingling B School of Pharmacy, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. - - 2014
Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker has been reported to have anticoagulation, antithrombotic, liver protective and antitumor effects. In the present study, the inhibitory effects on proliferation of A549 human non‑small cell lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Firstly, three solvents, 70% ethanol, distilled water and 95% ethanol, were used ...
Zhang Xianqing X Department of Blood Transfusion, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti‑tumor effect of apogossypolone (ApoG2) on human LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Cell autophagy and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry and using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, ...
Lin Chuang-Yu CY Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Stem Cell and Translational Cancer Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, - - 2014
Chitosan is a choice material for scaffolds in regenerative medicine. One of the applications is to bridge the damaged peripheral nerves. Previous studies showed that combination of chitosan conduits and cultured Schwann cells could increase the opportunity for re-connection of broken nerves. It has also been known that Schwann cells ...
Ganji Yasaman Y Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
Gold nanotubes/nanowires (GNT/NW) were synthesized by using the template-assisted electrodeposition technique and mixed with castor oil-polyethylene glycol based polyurethane (PU) to fabricate porous composite scaffolds for biomedical application. 100 and 50ppm of GNT/NW were used to synthesize composites. The composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical ...
Baker Richard M RM Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA Syracuse Biomaterials Institute, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, - - 2014
Understanding single and collective cell motility in model environments is foundational to many current research efforts in biology and bioengineering. To elucidate subtle differences in cell behaviour despite cell-to-cell variability, we introduce an algorithm for tracking large numbers of cells for long time periods and present a set of physics-based ...
Abouchar Laurent L Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, - - 2014
Developmental processes in multicellular organisms occur in fluctuating environments and are prone to noise, yet they produce complex patterns with astonishing reproducibility. We measure the left-right and inter-individual precision of bilaterally symmetric fly wings across the natural range of genetic and environmental conditions and find that wing vein patterns are ...
Jadali Zohre Z Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. - - 2014
A central role for T cells and their cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been proposed; however, there are controversies over the details of this issue. The goal of this study is to summarise currently available data on the importance of T cells in psoriasis pathogenesis.A systematic review of ...
Jin Jin J Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, P.R. - - 2014
Murine P19 embryonal carcinoma cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into cardiomyocytes when treated with dimethyl sulfoxide. This experimental model provides an invaluable tool to study different aspects of cardiac differentiation, such as the function of cardiac‑specific transcription factors and signaling pathways, and the regulation of contractile protein expression. ...
Feng Jihong J Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, P.R. - - 2014
Although human peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) has been implicated in tumor progression (e.g., invasion and metastasis), little is known regarding its role in the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) process during tumorigenesis. The present study offers the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that the antioxidant enzyme PRDX2 has an important ...
Luo Jinghua J Department of Radiotherapy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) on the radiosensitivity and differentiation of HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Cell proliferation was assessed in the HeLa cervical cancer cell line by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Radiosensitivity was determined by a colony‑forming assay. Flow cytometry ...
Dal-Pra Sophie S Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center & Duke Cardiovascular Research Center, GSRBII, Room 4022, 210 Research Drive, Durham, NC, 27710, - - 2014
Reconstitution of cardiac muscle as well as blood vessels to provide sufficient oxygenation and nutrients to the myocardium is an important component of any therapeutic approach for cardiac repair after injury. Recent reports of reprogramming somatic cells directly to cells of another lineage raised the possibility of using cell reprogramming ...
Han Yu Y 1Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology 2Department of Chest Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China *these authors contributed equally to this - - 2014
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory roles in cancer biology, and functional lncRNAs can be used for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. One lncRNA that has attracted significant attention is urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1), which ...
Ohgami Robert S RS From Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA. - - 2014
To characterize the clinicopathologic features of cases of large B-cell lymphomas, poor in B cells and densely rich in programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)+ reactive T cells, which can mimic T-cell lymphomas. A single-institute retrospective review of cases between 2010 and 2013 was performed. Of 178 cases of large B-cell lymphomas, ...
Zhu Bao-Song BS Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the adenoviral-mediated autophagy gene, damage-regulated autophagy regulator (DRAM), on the proliferation and autophagy of SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells in vitro. The recombinant adenovirus, AdMax-pDC315-DRAM-EGFP, working as a virus vector of DRAM was constructed and infected into the SGC7901 ...
Zhu Yalin Y Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of propranolol and isoproterenol on the growth curve of infantile hemangioma endothelial cells (IHECs) in vitro and determine the functions of the β-adrenergic receptor in the pathogenesis of infantile hemangioma. IHECs were divided into three groups: The control group, ...
Zhang Jing J Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical College of Yan'an University, Yan'an, Shaanxi 716000, P.R. - - 2014
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the inhibition of miR-145 on cyclin-dependent protein kinase 6 (CDK6) and the proliferation of human cervical carcinoma cells. The miR-145 sequence was synthesized and cloned into pcDNA™6.2-GW to construct the recombinant plasmid pcDNA6.2-GW-miR-145. HeLa cells were divided into the micro (mi)R-145, ...
Shao Hongmin H Department of Oncology, Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. - - 2014
Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide compound extracted from the medicinal plant, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. The aim of the present study was to determine whether triptolide inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to further investigate the associated molecular mechanisms. The effects of triptolide on the cell viability of ...
Choi Eun Jeong EJ Plant Resources Research Institute, Duksung Women's University, Seoul 132-714, Republic of - - 2014
The present study investigated the effect of the phytochemical genistein on the proliferation and differentiation of MCF-7 and 3T3-L1 cells via the regulation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression and the induction of apoptosis. When MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were treated with 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM genistein for ...
Ma Li L Department of Medical Oncology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300050, P.R. - - 2014
AG1478 is a specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The effect of AG1478 on the A549/DDP (cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma) cell line is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AG1478 on the A549/DDP cell line and its sensitive parental A549 ...
Yang Yang Y Department of Neurology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110032, P.R. - - 2014
Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a ...
Jin Gang G Department of Medical Imaging, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, P.R. China ; The No. 211 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086, P.R. - - 2014
Protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) is a novel gene that was initially isolated and identified from the bone marrow cells of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia. Previous findings have suggested that POGLUT1 promotes the proliferation of U937 human tissue lymphoma cells. Furthermore, POGLUT1 has been identified in other tissues, including ...
Li Yun Y Department of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital and Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing 100853, P.R. China ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, The 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100091, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of microRNA (miRNA or miR) in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miRNA-microarray analysis was used to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs between various metastatic levels of NSCLC cells. The microarray results were verified by ...
Zhang Dejun D Department of Interventional Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221002, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether radiation induces the mammalian target of rapamycin (Rap) (mTOR) signaling pathway in esophageal carcinoma Eca109 cells, and whether mTOR inhibition by rapamycin increases Eca109 cell radiosensitivity. Changes in the levels of mTOR signaling pathway and DNA damage-repair proteins in Eca109 ...
Zhang Qiu-Yue QY Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, P.R. China ; Pediatrics Intensive Care Units, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, P.R. - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate water transport dysfunction in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII), which were exposed to hyperoxia, and to investigate the mechanism of pulmonary edema resulting from hyperoxic lung injury. The lung cells of newborn rats were isolated for primary cell culture and ...
Wang Wei W Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. - - 2014
This study aimed to investigate the lethal effect of the combination of bluetongue virus (BTV) and radiation on RM-1 murine prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Various cell lines were infected with BTV and the cytotoxicity was tested by a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release bioassay. Additionally, the RM-1 ...
Chen Zhangxing Z Department of Gastroenterology, The 174th Hospital of the PLA, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361003, - - 2014
The role of LIM domain-containing protein 1 (LIMD1) in the multidrug resistance of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has not yet been established. The aim of the current study was to investigate the chemosensitivity of CRC multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells following the silencing of LIMD1. The MDR phenotypic Colo205 and HCT-8 cell lines ...
Peng Zhengjun Z Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Affiliated Stomatological Hospital, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology Guangzhou, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong, - - 2014
During tooth development, the special structure of dental follicle and dental papilla enables dental papilla cells (DPCs) and dental follicle cells (DFCs) to make contact with each other. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), sex determining region Y box-2 (SOX-2), and cellular homologue of avian myelocytomatosis virus oncogene (MYC) (OSM) are associated ...
Svajdler Marián M *Department of Pathology, Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Košice, Slovakia; †Clinic of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Košice, Slovakia; ‡Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Košice, Slovakia; and §Šikl's Department of Pathology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, and Bioptical Laboratory, Pilsen, Czech - - 2014
: The authors report a case of cutaneous angiosarcoma, composed predominantly of cytologically bland foamy cells, mimicking cutaneous xanthoma, dermal clear cell mesenchymal neoplasm, or clear cell dermatofibroma. The tumor occurred on the forehead and scalp of an 86-year-old white man with no history of radiation exposure. The tumor cells ...
Osipovich Anna B AB Center for Stem Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2014
Insulinoma associated 1 (Insm1) plays an important role in regulating the development of cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems, olfactory epithelium and endocrine pancreas. To better define the role of Insm1 in pancreatic endocrine cell development we generated mice with an Insm1(GFPCre) reporter allele and used them to ...
Firulli Beth A BA Riley Heart Research Center, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Departments of Anatomy and Medical, Biochemistry, and Molecular Genetics, Indiana Medical School, 1044 W. Walnut Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5225, - - 2014
In this study we examine the consequences of altering Hand1 phosphoregulation in the developing neural crest cells (NCCs) of mice. Whereas Hand1 deletion in NCCs reveals a nonessential role for Hand1 in craniofacial development and embryonic survival, altering Hand1 phosphoregulation, and consequently Hand1 dimerization affinities, in NCCs results in severe ...
Colopy Sara A SA Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, - - 2014
Homeostatic maintenance and repair of the bladder urothelium has been attributed to proliferation of keratin 5-expressing basal cells (K5-BC) with subsequent differentiation into superficial cells. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the intermediate cell layer harbors a population of progenitor cells. We use label-retaining cell (LRC) methodology in conjunction with a ...
Xu Xia X National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, - - 2014
There is a need to preserve cell-seeded scaffolds or cell-matrix constructs for tissue-engineering and other applications. Cryopreservation is likely to be the most practical method. The aim of this study was to investigate how cryopreservation affects cells attached to different substrates and how they respond differently from those in suspension. ...
Dastagir Khaled K 1 Department of Plastic, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical , 30659 Hannover, Germany - - 2014
Abstract Various diseases, injuries, and congenital abnormalities may result in degeneration and loss of organs and tissues. Recently, tissue engineering has offered new treatment options for these common, severe, and costly problems in human health care. Its application is often based on the usage of differentiated stem cells. However, despite ...
Yang X-N XN Orthopedic Department, Xuzhou No. 1 Hospital, Xuzhou, China. - - 2014
To investigate the effect of targeted antiosteosarcoma methotrexate-bisphosphonate conjugate on growth inhibition and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. MG-63 cells were treated with various concentrations of methotrexate-bisphosphonate conjugate and apoptosis was monitored via an MTT assay, cell morphology, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry analysis. The survival rate of MG-63 ...
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